Steve Sachs

Environmental Developments

Kenny Stancil, " UN Report Shows Only 'Urgent System-Wide Transformation' Can Prevent Climate Disaster: 'We had our chance to make incremental changes, but that time is over," said the UNEP director. "Only a root-and-branch transformation of our economies and societies can save us,'" Common Dreams, October 27, 2022,, reported, " Policymakers routinely acknowledge the need to slash greenhouse gas pollution to avert the planetary emergency's worst consequences, but their current plans for doing so are 'woefully inadequate' and 'only an urgent system-wide transformation can avoid an accelerating climate disaster,' the United Nations warned Thursday.In its Emissions Gap Report 2022: The Closing Window (, the U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) reiterated how the world is 'falling far short;' of the goals outlined in the 2015 Paris agreement. According to UNEP's annual analysis of the difference between the current trajectory of planet-heating emissions and where they should be to avoid the deadliest impacts of the climate crisis, there is 'no credible pathway to 1.5°C in place," and this lack of progress necessitates a "rapid transformation of societies.' We have to stop filling our atmosphere with greenhouse gases, and stop doing it fast' The 13th edition of the report, released ahead of the upcoming COP27 climate summit in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, finds that business as usual puts the world on track for a cataclysmic 2.8°C of heating by the end of the century.If emissions reduction targets for 2030 are met, UNEP notes, people would still suffer on a planet that is 2.4 to 2.6°C hotter than the preindustrial average. If countries fulfill their long-term pledges to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050, global warming might be limited to 1.8°C, though UNEP says the sluggish pace of action so far means that such a scenario is "not currently credible."Temperature rise of 1°C to date has already unleashed catastrophic extreme weather across the globe, including in Nigeria, Pakistan, and many other places this year."The reports keep coming and the message keeps getting more urgent: rich nations must supercharge action to cut emissions this decade," Mary Church, head of campaigns at Friends of the Earth Scotland, said in a statement. "Governments say they are committed to limiting warming to 1.5°C but those words are totally meaningless without the action to deliver on it. This latest analysis should put a rocket under politicians at home and around the world."Despite the glaring insufficiency of existing plans and investments, only about two dozen governments have followed through on an agreement to strengthen near-term Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) since last year's COP26 meeting in Glasgow, Scotland. These new pledges, UNEP notes, would shave less than 1% off projected 2030 global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To keep the 1.5°C goal within reach, global GHG pollution must be cut by 45% by 2030 compared with 2010 levels, and "emissions must continue to decline rapidly after 2030 to avoid exhausting the remaining atmospheric carbon budget," says UNEP. However, emissions are expected to climb by more than 10% over the 2010 baseline by the end of the decade barring fundamental changes, the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change warned Wednesday in a similarly stark assessment.According to UNEP, current NDCs, if met, would result in only a slight improvement over the status quo, reducing planet-wrecking pollution by 5% to 10% compared with what existing policies would deliver. "This report tells us in cold scientific terms what nature has been telling us, all year, through deadly floods, storms, and raging fires: we have to stop filling our atmosphere with greenhouse gases, and stop doing it fast," UNEP executive director Inger Andersen said in a statement.UNEP's report comes one day after the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) warned that atmospheric concentrations of the three main greenhouse gases heating up the planet" carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide all hit record highs in 2021.
     "We need to transform our industrial, energy, and transport systems and whole way of life," said WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas. "The needed changes are economically affordable and technically possible. Time is running out. "Anderson echoed her U.N. colleague on Thursday, saying: "We had our chance to make incremental changes, but that time is over. Only a root-and-branch transformation of our economies and societies can save us from accelerating climate disaster." Antonio Guterres, @antonioguterres "As the latest *@UNEP Emissions Gap report makes clear, we are headed for economy-destroying levels of global heating. 
     We need *#ClimateAction on all fronts &emdash;; and we need it now. 
     We must close the emissions gap before catastrophe closes in on us all. "Solutions to transform societies exist, but the time for collective, multilateral action is now," UNEP stresses. "Transforming the electricity supply, industry, transport, and buildings sectors, and the food and financial systems would help put the world on a path to success." "Every fraction of a degree matters: to vulnerable communities, to species and ecosystems, and to every one of us. "To achieve "unprecedented" levels of GHG reductions, UNEP recommends "avoiding lock-in of new fossil fuel-intensive infrastructure," echoing a study published this week which found "large consensus" across all published research that new oil and gas fields are "incompatible" with limiting global warming to 1.5°C.The International Energy Agency which reached the same conclusion last year predicted for the first time in its annual World Energy Outlook, also published on Thursday, that global demand for every kind of fossil fuel will "peak or plateau" in the near future, prompting activists to reiterate their calls for a swift and just transition to renewable energy sources. UNEP also calls for the widespread adoption of "zero-carbon industrial processes," "zero-emissions transportation infrastructure," and "zero-carbon building stock. "In addition, " food systems, which account for one-third of all emissions, can be reformed to deliver rapid and lasting cuts," says UNEP, which recommends reduced meat and dairy consumption, more sustainable production practices, and decarbonization of the food supply chain.Finally, " the financial system must overcome internal and external constraints to become a critical enabler of transformation across all sectors," UNEP argues.According to the organization: A global transformation to a low-carbon economy is expected to require investments of at least $4-6 trillion a year. This is a relatively small (1.5-2%) share of total financial assets managed, but significant (20-28%) in terms of additional annual resources needed. Delivering such funding will require a transformation of the financial system and its structures and processes, engaging governments, central banks, commercial banks, institutional investors, and other financial actors. "It is a tall, and some would say impossible, order to reform the global economy and almost halve greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, but we must try," said Andersen. "Every fraction of a degree matters: to vulnerable communities, to species and ecosystems, and to every one of us." "Even if we don't meet our 2030 goals, we must strive to get as close as possible to 1.5°C," she added. "This means setting up the foundations of a net-zero future: one that will allow us to bring down temperature overshoots and deliver many other social and environmental benefits, like clean air, green jobs, and universal energy access."       
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     Brad Plumer and Raymond Zhong, "Draft Report Offers Starkest View Yet of U.S. Climate Threats: "The things Americans value most are at risk," says a draft of the National Climate Assessment, a major federal scientific report slated for release next year," The New York Times, November 9, 2022,, reported that the draft of the National Climate Assessment,. ( found, " 'The things Americans value most are at risk,' says the draft report, which could still undergo changes as it goes through the review process." More intense extreme events and long-term climate changes make it harder to maintain safe homes and healthy families, reliable public services, a sustainable economy, thriving ecosystems and strong communities.'As greenhouse gas emissions rise and the planet heats up, the authors write, the United States could face major disruptions to farms and fisheries that drive up food prices, while millions of Americans could be displaced by disasters such as severe wildfires in California, sea-level rise in Florida or frequent flooding in Texas."
     Reports from COP27:    
     Brad Plumer, Lisa Friedman, Max Bearak and Jenny Gross, "In a First, Rich Countries Agree to Pay for Climate Damages in Poor Nations: After 30 years of deadlock, a new U.N. climate agreement aims to pay developing countries for loss and damage caused by global warming. But huge questions remain about how it would work," The New York Times, November 19, 2022,, reported, " Negotiators from nearly 200 countries concluded two weeks of talks early Sunday in which their main achievement was agreeing to establish a fund that would help poor, vulnerable countries cope with climate disasters made worse by the pollution spewed by wealthy nations that is dangerously heating the planet .
    The decision regarding payments for climate damage marked a breakthrough on one of the most contentious issues at United Nations climate negotiations. For more than three decades, developing nations have pressed for loss and damage money, asking rich, industrialized countries to provide compensation for the costs of destructive storms, heat waves and droughts fueled by global warming."
     Kenny Stancil, "'Another Terrible Failure': COP27 Ends With No Action to Cut Off Climate-Wrecking Fossil Fuels: "If all fossil fuels are not rapidly phased out, no amount of money will be able to cover the cost of the resulting loss and damage," said one climate justice advocate," Common Dreams, November 21, 2022,, reported, " Despite mountains of iron-clad evidence that extracting and burning more coal, oil, and gas will exacerbate deadly planetary heating, negotiators at the United Nations COP27 climate conference failed yet again to directly confront the fossil fuel industry whose insatiable quest for profits is putting the future of humanity in jeopardy .   
    ` In a critical year, this COP made no progress towards the just and equitable phase-out of fossil fuels needed to avoid the worst impacts of climate change," Oil Change International executive director Elizabeth Bast said Sunday in a statement. "Despite important progress on the establishment of a loss and damage fund, the final outcome reiterated unambitious language on fossil fuels that will lead to catastrophic consequences."
    In what climate justice advocates called a major breakthrough, the United States on Saturday dropped its opposition to the establishment of a loss and damage fund that aims to compensate low-income nations for the devastating effects of global warming. Through no fault of their own, the world's poorest people are most vulnerable to the deadly impacts of increasingly frequent and intense extreme weather caused primarily by wealthy polluters. A committee of 24 countries has one year to hammer out details, including which governments will contribute to the fund and which will benefit from it.      
    However, "COP27's key steps toward a loss and damage fund are deeply marred by the lack of progress on fossil fuels," said Collin Rees, U.S. campaign manager for Oil Change International. "Despite unprecedented discussion of equitably phasing out oil, gas, and coal, the end result was yet another COP without formal recognition that Big Oil is driving the climate crisis and harming communities."
    "The failure of leaders at COP27 to commit to an unqualified phase-out of oil, gas, and coal not only pushes 1.5°C further out of reach, it also undermines progress on loss and damage," Nikki Reisch, director of climate and energy at the Center for International Environmental Law, wrote on social media. "The plain truth is that more fossil fuels equals more loss and damage. Remedy requires cessation of the harm."  
     "In settling for a copy-paste of the Glasgow Pact's incomplete and loophole-ridden language on a 'phasedown of unabated coal power' and 'phase-out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies,'" Reisch continued, " governments at COP27 took a giant step backward. "This critical assessment was shared by many observers." If all fossil fuels are not rapidly phased out, no amount of money will be able to cover the cost of the resulting loss and damage," said Yeb Sa??executive director of Greenpeace Southeast Asia. "When your bathtub is overflowing you turn off the taps, you don't wait awhile and then go out and buy a bigger mop. "Ahead of the COP27 summit, the U.N. found that Earth is currently on track to be up to 2.9°Chotter than the preindustrial average by century's end. Existing emissions reductions targets and policies are so weak, the body warned, that there is "no credible path to 1.5°C in place, and only "urgent system-wide transformation" can prevent the world from crossing dangerous tipping points that will lead to the most cataclysmic outcomes.Temperature rise of roughly 1.2°C to date has already unleashed chaos around the world, including calamitous flooding in Nigeria and Pakistan, along with several other disasters in various placesthis year.    
    Despite the worsening nature of the fossil fuel-driven climate emergency, hundreds of corporations are planning to expand dirty energy production in the coming years, including several proposed drilling projects and pipelinesin Africa. To make matters worse, delegates at COP27 where more than 630 fossil fuel industry representatives made their presence felt refused to endorse a complete phase-out of coal, oil, and gas
     "I don't in any way want to diss the great success by poorer nations in achieving a loss and damage agreement," environmental journalist George Monbiot tweeted Sunday, though he predicted that "rich nations will break their promises to pay," as they have when it comes to providing $100 billion each year to fund climate action in the Global South. "There was no progress on stopping climate breakdown. COP27 is another terrible failure.
    "Whenever an agreement is reached at one of these meetings, people celebrate, largely with relief at having got to the end,"" Monbiot added. "It's only afterwards that we begin to ask, 'What exactly has been achieved?' If it's is anything other than decisive action, the answer is not much."

     David Tong, global industry campaign manager at Oil Change International, said that "some people turned up to negotiate for their futures, but oil and gas lobbyists turned up to negotiate for their wallets."" "The reality is that the only way to safely limit warming to 1.5°C is to equitably phase out oil, gas, and coal," said Tong. "Instead, we are at risk of a major surge of new oil and gas production.  "Tong noted that " new fields and shale wells approved from 2022-2025 could result in 70 gigatonnes of additional climate pollution and every single tonne of that would take us further beyond 1.5°C because burning just the oil and gas in already existing fields would exhaust our carbon budget for a 50% chance at 1.5°C.

     "Although this COP failed to call for an equitable phase-out of oil, gas, and coal," Tong continued, " momentum is growing. A remarkable group of countries across numerous negotiating blocs spoke up together, urging the phase-out of fossil fuels." Notwithstanding the anti-extraction struggles being waged by communities and climate justice campaigners the world over, Seve Paeniu, minister of finance for the Pacific island nation of Tuvalu, denounced his fellow policymakers for omitting language that explicitly demands a fossil fuel phase-out. Tuvalu called for a Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty at COP27, becoming the second country to do so, after Vanuatu at the U.N. General Assembly in September.    
    "We have finally responded to the call of hundreds of millions of people across the world to help them address loss and damage. So this is a defining COP in that respect," said Paeniu. "However, it is regrettable that we haven't achieved an equal success in our attempt to achieve the 1.5°C target. It is regrettable that we haven't got strong language included in the cover decision before us on phasing out fossil fuel." "It is regrettable that we haven't got text on peaking emissions before 2025," Paeniu continued. "It is regrettable that we haven't managed to get stronger mention of methane reduction."

    "In Glasgow, we saw a phase-down of coal," Zeina Khalil Hajj, head of global campaigning and organizing at, said in a statement. "At COP27 in Sharm El-Sheikh, we needed to see an equitable and just phase-out of all fossil fuels." "A text that does not stop fossil fuel expansion, that does not provide progress from the already weak Glasgow Pact makes a mockery of the millions of people living with the impacts of climate change," Hajj continued. "The agreement on loss and damage is a major breakthrough, but without action to phase out the expansion of the fossil fuels that will cause further loss and damage, COP27 has failed to make the progress needed. And we are building a fund for our own destruction."

     Bast, for her part, said that "even with this disappointing outcome, we're seeing growing momentum from individual governments making meaningful commitments to phase out fossil fuels through initiatives like the text-decoration: Beyond Oil and Gas Alliance and the Statement on International Public Support for the Clean Energy Transition."
     "Most importantly, COP27 has showcased the growing power of the climate justice movement," said Bast. "Throughout these two weeks, civil society voices have demanded a phase-out of fossil fuels and called for rich countries to pay up for climate debt." "Every day, we are seeing the power of communities resisting harmful oil, gas, and coal projects," she added. "We are seeing massive growth in the breadth and depth of the movement. With this people power, we will force an equitable end to fossil fuels and a just transition to clean energy. "'Our work is licensed under Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)."
     "Extreme Heat Will Change Us: Half the world could soon face dangerous heat. We measured the daily toll it is already taking," The New York Times, November 24, 2022,, reported that in a normal day in Basra, Iraq, already terribly heated by global warming induced climate change, the temperature reaches 138 degrees F. "At these extreme temperatures, normal life is impossible. Ordinary activities can turn dangerous. Work slows. Tempers flare. Power grids fail. Hospitals fill up.  
    Yet what Abbas was experiencing wasn't a heatwave. It was just an average August day in Basra, a city on the leading edge of climate change &emdash;; and a glimpse of the future for much of the planet as human carbon emissions warp the climate. By 2050, nearly half the world may live in areas that have dangerous levels of heat for at least a month, including Miami, Lagos and Shanghai, according to projections by researchers at Harvard University and the University of Washington." Just how hot it gets depends on how much is done how quickly to limit global warming.
     Henry Fountain, "Arctic Warming Is Happening Faster Than Described, Analysis Shows: The warming at the top of the globe, a sign of climate change, is happening much faster than previously described compared with the global average, scientists said Thursday" The New York Times, August 11, 2022,, reported, " The rapid warming of the Arctic, a definitive sign of climate change, is occurring even faster than previously described, researchers in Finland said Thursday. Over the past four decades the region has been heating up four times faster than the global average, not the two to three times that has commonly been reported. And some parts of the region, notably the Barents Sea north of Norway and Russia, are warming up to seven times faster, they said."      Raymond Zhong, "The Arctic Is Becoming Wetter and Stormier, Scientists Warn: In their annual assessment of the region and its climate, researchers highlighted new signs of a huge transformation underway," The New York Times, December 13, 2022,, reported, " A s humans warm the planet, the once reliably frigid and frozen Arctic is becoming wetter and stormier, with shifts in its climate and seasons that are forcing local communities, wildlife and ecosystems to adapt , scientists said Tuesday in an annual assessment ( of the region. Even though 2022 was only the Arctic's sixth warmest year on record, researchers saw plenty of new signs this year of how the region is changing."
    Among the changes: The most extensive melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet for early fallin 40 years was brought on by a September heat wave; Warming in August brought the first rain ever known to fall on the ice sheet summit. The Greenland icecap is melting faster than previously thought, new research shows, Elena Shao, "New Research Forecasts More Dire Sea Level Rise as Greenland's Ice Melts: The study reached a more drastic conclusion than earlier assessments in part because it used a different method to gauge ice loss," The New York Times, August 31, 2022,, reported, " The melting of the Greenland ice sheet could eventually raise global sea levels by at least 10 inches even if humans immediately stop burning the fossil fuels that are warming the planet to dangerous levels, according to a new study published [in Nature Climate Change:] on Monday."  
    " The 10-inch increase forecast in the new study, which does not give a timeline, could be much higher if temperatures continue to rise, as they almost certainly will, said Jason Box, a glaciologist at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland who was the paper's lead author."
     Jake Johnson, "Rapidly Retreating Doomsday Glacier Clinging 'By Its Fingernails': Study 'Just a small kick to Thwaites could lead to a big response,' warned the lead author of an alarming new analysis," Common Dreams, September 6, 2022,, reported, " New research unveiled Monday suggests that the West Antarctic Thwaites Glacier an enormous ice mass with the potential to trigger catastrophic sea level rise could retreat far more quickly in the coming years than scientists previously anticipated as fossil fuel-driven planetary warming continues to accelerate
      'We should expect to see big changes over small timescales in the future even from one year to the next.'     
    Dubbed the "Doomsday Glacier," Thwaites has been the subject of scientific concern for decades given its immensity it is roughly the size of the U.S. state of Florida and, if melting continues at the current pace, it could raise global sea levels by 11 feet or more.  But a new study published in Nature Geoscience offers a first-of-its-kind look at the body's transformation over time, finding that 'sustained pulses of rapid retreat have occurred at Thwaites Glacier in the past two centuries.'     
    'Over a duration of 5.5 months, Thwaites' grounding zone retreated at a rate of 2.1 km per year twice the rate observed by satellite at the fastest retreating part of the grounding zone between 2011 and 2019,' the analysis notes. 'Similar rapid retreat pulses are likely to occur in the near future when the grounding zone migrates back off stabilizing high points on the sea floor.' Robert Larter, a marine geophysicist with the British Antarctic Survey, said Monday that the research shows Thwaites 'is really holding on today by its fingernails, and we should expect to see big changes over small timescales in the future, even from one year to the next, once the glacier retreats beyond a shallow ridge in its bed.'

     'To explore past changes to the glacier and help chart out its possible future, a team of scientists led by Alastair Graham of the University of South Florida's College of Marine Science traveled to West Antarctica to observe the sea floor in front of Thwaites using a sensor-equipped autonomous submarine.           'Over two extended survey missions, we targeted submarine troughs previously hypothesized as conduits for warm water access to the glacier grounding line,' Graham and study co-authors Lauren Simkins and Anna WŒhlin wrote in a summary of their expedition. 'At both sites, the sea-floor also comprised of sills that likely served as former stabilizing points for the grounding zone of Thwaites. '     
    'For Thwaites, the importance of our results lies in two take-home messages. The first is that Thwaites has undergone significantly faster rates of retreat in the past than it is experiencing right now,' they continued. 'This finding raises the potential upper 'speed limit' on our expectations for Thwaites behavior in the near future.'"
Kenny Stancil, "'Not a Single Global Indicator Is on Track' to Reverse Deforestation by 2030: Analysis: There is no way to limit global warming to 1.5°C unless the world stops felling trees to make space for cattle ranching, monocropping, and other harmful practices, experts warn," Common Dreams, October 25, 2022,, reportd, " Although halting and reversing deforestation by 2030 is key to averting the worst consequences of the climate and biodiversity crises, the world is off course to achieve these critical targets and urgent international action is needed, an analysis warned Monday.  
     'Funding for forests will need to increase by up to 200 times to meet 2030 goals.'  
     During the United Nations' COP26 climate summit last November, 145 nations signed the Glasgow Leaders' Declaration 'to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation' by the end of the decade.       One year later, 'not a single global indicator is on track to meet these 2030 goals of stopping forest loss and degradation and restoring 350 million hectares of forest landscape,' according to the annual Forest Declaration Assessment.        'To be on course to halt deforestation completely by 2030, a 10% annual reduction is needed,' the report notes. 'However, deforestation rates around the world declined only modestly, in 2021, by 6.3% compared to the 2018-20 baseline. In the humid tropics, loss of irreplaceable primary forest decreased by only 3.1%.'
     'Tropical Asia is the only region currently on track to halt deforestation by 2030,'" thanks to the 'exceptional progress' made by Indonesia and Malaysia, which reduced clear-cutting by 25% in 2021, states the report. 'While deforestation rates in tropical Latin America and Africa decreased in 2021 relative to the 2018-20 baseline, those reductions are still insufficient to meet the 2030 goal.'
     Globally, 26,000 square miles of forest &emdash;; an area roughly equivalent to the Republic of Ireland &emdash;; were destroyed in 2021. This deforestation decimated biodiverse ecosystems and released 3.8 billion tons of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, about as much as the European Union.  
    Experts have long warned that it will be virtually impossible to maintain a habitable planet unless the world stops felling trees to make space for cattle ranching, monocropping, and other harmful practices.    
    Even though 'notable progress in afforestation and reforestation efforts over the last two decades have resulted in new forest new forest areas the size of Peru, with net gains of forest cover in 36 countries... overall losses exceeded gains over the same period, resulting in a net loss of 100 million hectares globally," according to the report. 
     Furthermore, 'forest cover gains, through reforestation and afforestation activities, do not compensate for forest loss in terms of carbon storage, biodiversity, or ecosystem services," the report explains. "Therefore, highest priority efforts should be directed towards safeguarding primary forests from losses in the first place.' Fran Price, global forest practice lead at World Wildlife Fund, one the groups involved in the report, called the Forest Declaration Assessment 'another warning signal that efforts to halt deforestation are not enough and we're not on track to achieve our 2030 goals.'     
     'There is no pathway to meeting the 1.5°C target set out in the Paris agreement or reversing biodiversity loss without halting deforestation and conversion,' said Price. 'It's time for bold leadership and for daring solutions to reverse this alarming trend.'
      Key findings from the report's section on sustainable production and development include: We are not on track to achieve the private sector goal to eliminate deforestation from agricultural supply chains by 2025, and corporate action in the extractives sector also remains limited; 
     REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) programs have not yet yielded a reduction in deforestation, and only a handful of countries have received payments for forest emission reductions;In most countries, governments have yet to make the bold sectoral reforms needed to protect forests;      There are very few examples of government-led poverty reduction programs that both prioritize forest impacts and are implemented at scale; and200 land and environmental defenders were killed in 2021, and the mining and extractives sector is consistently ranked as one of the deadliest for defenders.  
     'To ensure that 2025 and 2030 do not pass as 2020 did&emdash;;with limited progress toward global forest goals&emdash;;governments, companies, and civil society must collaborate to accelerate forest action,' states the report.
    The authors recommend that governments adopt and enforce much stronger regulations to prevent deforestation and human rights abuses while also calling on corporations to 'increase the scope and stringency' of efforts to remove deforestation from their supply chains and reduce the negative forest impacts of extraction. According to the section on forest finance, 'It will cost up to $460 billion per year to protect, restore, and enhance forests on a global scale. Currently, domestic and international mitigation finance for forests averages $2.3 billion per year&emdash;;less than 1% of the necessary total.'
      'Funding for forests will need to increase by up to 200 times to meet 2030 goals,' notes the report. 'Finance pledges made in 2021 demonstrate a substantial increase in ambition to meet 2030 forest goals. If they are fully delivered, they would quadruple annual finance for forests from 2021-25 to $9.5 billion. Yet, funding would still need to increase by up to 50 times to meet investment needs.'     'It's time for bold leadership and for daring solutions to reverse this alarming trend.'      'IPs [Indigenous peoples] and LCs [local communities], who are the most effective stewards and guardians of their forest territories, receive far less funding than their estimated finance needs for securing tenure rights and preserving forest ecosystems,' the report finds. ' Only 1.4% of total public climate finance in 2019-20 was targeted toward IPs and LC's needs, and only 3% of the financial need for transformational tenure reform is being met annually.'     Moreover, 'most financial institutions still fail to have any deforestation safeguards for their investments,' the assessment points out. 'Almost two-thirds of the 150 major financial players most exposed to deforestation do not yet have a single deforestation policy covering their forest-risk investments, leaving $2.6 trillion in investments in high deforestation-risk commodities without appropriate safeguards.'  
     Spending $460 billion per year on global forest protection and restoration&emdash;;substantially less than the United States' annual military budget "is an investment that we cannot afford not to make," the authors emphasize. 'Achieving the 2030 forest goals is essential for ensuring a livable world in line with the Paris agreement.'    To that end, the report implores 'governments, companies, and financial institutions to utilize all tools at hand to substantially increase their investments in forests, while also shifting finance away from harmful activities.'      A final section on forest governance argues that more robust policy and legal frameworks are required to curb deforestation, land degradation, and human rights violations.  
     Tools such as 'moratoria, strengthened enforcement capacity, smart conservation policies, and improved transparency and accountability are effective in protecting forests&emdash;;as evidenced by remarkable reductions in deforestation in various periods since 2004 when these tools have been employed in Indonesia, Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire, Gabon, Guyana, and Brazil,' the report notes.     However, the report points out, 'some of these achievements have been reversed&emdash;;notably in Brazil&emdash;;or are at risk of being reversed as countries phase out or roll back policy gains through recent or proposed amendments.'
     Since assuming office in 2019, far-right Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro has accelerated the destruction of the Amazon rainforest, endangering the future of human beings and other species. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, his popular leftist opponent who was president from 2003 to 2010 when Brazil made progress toward halting deforestation, currently has a six percentage point lead in the polls ahead of Sunday's runoff election.  
      'The Brazilian elections are not just about the future of Brazil, the result will have an impact on all of humanity,' Paul Morozzo, senior food and forests campaigner at Greenpeace U.K., said earlier this month. 'If we lose the Amazon, we lose the fight against the climate crisis.'     While the report is focused on forest ecosystems, the authors stress that 'globally, terrestrial and coastal ecosystems including savannas, grasslands, scrublands, and wetlands are all under threat of conversion and degradation.'  
    'Countering this threat for all ecosystems is essential to meeting global climate and biodiversity goals' and 'will require a drastic reduction in the conversion and degradation of all natural ecosystems and a very large increase in restoration and reforestation activities, which must be pursued through equitable and inclusive measures,' they continue.The report adds that 'nothing less than a radical transformation of development pathways, finance flows, and governance effectiveness and enforcement will be required to shift the world's forest trajectory to attain the 2030 goals.'"  
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     A study finds that with the global warming of climate change there is likely to be a very large increase of viral diseases between species of mammals worldwide, but especially from Southeast Asian bats (Carl Zimmer, "Climate Change Will Quicken Viral Spillover, Study Finds," The New York Times, May 3, 2022).
     Richard Arlin Walker, "Chilkat Indian Village Says Alaska Mine Poses Risk To Watershed," ICT, November 17, 2022,, reported, " The Chilkat Indian Village of Klukwan is challenging a state permit approving construction of a gold and metals mine that would tunnel under the Saksaia Glacier on 6,100-foot Flower Mountain near the headwaters of the Chilkat River watershed. Chilkat Indian Village officials say the project's proposed system to treat water runoff from the mine in southeast Alaska is insufficient to protect glacier-fed streams that flow into the Chilkat River and other salmon-bearing rivers and streams."
     " Element Africa: Mines take their toll on nature and communities," Mongabay, October 20, 2022, Reported, "Civil society groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo are demanding the revocation of the license for a Chinese-owned gold miner operating inside a wildlife reserve that's also home to nomadic Indigenous groups. Up to 90% of mines in South Africa aren't publishing their social commitments to the communities in which they operate, in violation of the law, activists say. A major Nigerian conglomerate that was granted a major concession for industrial developments in 2012 has still not compensated displaced residents, it was revealed after the company announced it's abandoning the project. Element Africa is Mongabay's bi-weekly bulletin rounding up brief stories from the commodities industry in Africa. "Groups demand end to Chinese gold mine operating inside DRC reserve  Civil society groups have condemned what they say is illegal gold mining in Okapi Wildlife Reserve in the Democratic Republic of Congo. For several years, a Chinese-owned company, Kimia Mining, has been operating a concession inside the reserve, irregularly granted by the DRC government. The groups are calling for the immediate revocation of the concession to protect the reserve.At a press conference on Oct. 18, they accused Kimia of depleting forest cover, polluting rivers, and compromising forest habitat in the reserve. The reserve, on UNESCO's List of World Heritage in Danger, covers some 13,700 square kilometres (5,300 square miles) of the Ituri rainforest and is home to 470 bird and mammal species, including the endangered okapi (Okapia johnstoni) that gives the park its name, similarly threatened chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), and critically endangered forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis).It is also home to Indigenous Efe and Mbuti nomads, who depend on rivers originating in the reserve, said Gabriel Nenungo, coordinator of geologists in Ituri province."
Max Bearak, "Climate Pledges Are Falling Short, and a Chaotic Future Looks More Like Reality: With an annual summit next month, the United Nations assessed progress on countries' past emissions commitments. Severe disruption would be hard to avoid on the current trajectory," The New York Times, October 26, 2022,, repored, " Countries around the world are failing to live up to their commitments to fight climate change, pointing Earth toward a future marked by more intense flooding, wildfires, drought, heat waves and species extinction, according to a report issued Wednesday by the United Nations.  
     Just 26 of 193 countries that agreed last year to step up their climate actions have followed through with more ambitious plans
. The world's top two polluters, China and the United States, have taken some action but have not pledged more this year, and climate negotiations between the two have been frozen for months. Without drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, the report said, the planet is on track to warm by an average of 2.1 to 2.9 degrees Celsius, compared with preindustrial levels, by 2100."

      Brad Plumer, " Carbon Dioxide Emissions Increased in 2022 as Crises Roiled Energy Markets: Global emissions from fossil fuels are likely to reach record highs this year, new data shows, putting nations further off track from stopping global warming," The New York Times, November 10, 2022,, reported, " Global fossil fuel emissions will most likely reach record highs in 2022 and do not yet show signs of declining, researchers said Thursday, a trend that puts countries further away from their goal of stopping global warming.This year, nations are projected to emit roughly 36.6 billion tons of planet-warming carbon dioxide by burning coal, natural gas and oil for energy, according to new data from the Global Carbon Project. That's 1 percent more than the world emitted in 2021 and slightly more than the previous record in 2019, which came before the coronavirus pandemic caused a temporary drop in global energy use and emissions."
     "China Is Burning More Coal, a Growing Climate Challenge: The country's emissions of greenhouse gases rose last year at the fastest pace in a decade. Beijing is looking for alternatives." The New York Times, November 3, 2022, reported, " China is poised to take advantage of the global urgency to tackle climate change. It is the world's dominant manufacturer and user of solar panels and wind turbines. It leads the world in producing energy from hydroelectric dams and is building more nuclear power plants than any other country.      China also burns more coal than the rest of the world combined and has accelerated mining and the construction of coal-fired power plants, driving up the country's emissions of energy-related greenhouse gases nearly 6 percent last year, the fastest pace in a decade. And China's addiction to coal is likely to endure for years, even decades."
     As COP27 Is beginning with assisting poorer nations in fighting climate change, a major issue there is increasing funding quite significantly so that they can both reduce carbon emissions and  adopt to changing conditions. Alexander Winning  and Olivia Kumwenda-mtambo, " South Africa says it needs $84 billion for energy transition in next five years," Reuters,  November 4, 2022,, reported, "   SummaryWestern nations pledged $8.5 bln last yearRamaphosa says much more money neededPresident wants larger grant componentInvestment plan presented on eve of COP27 South Africa needs about 1.5 trillion rand ($84 billion) over the next five years for its plans to cut carbon emissions, harness economic opportunities from the energy transition and support affected communities, its president said on Friday.At the COP26 climate summit last year wealthy nations including the United States, Britain, France and Germany, and the European Union committed $8.5 billion to help Africa's most industrialised nation cut its emissions and accelerate a shift away from coal, which it relies on for the bulk of its electricity generation."

      Jessica Corbett, "New Study Warns Swaths of Amazon Have Already Passed Key 'Tipping Point': 'The tipping point is not a future scenario but rather a stage already present in some areas of the region,' note researchers," Common Dreams, September 5, 2022,, reported, " Indigenous leaders and scientists on Monday revealed research showing that the destruction of the Amazon rainforest is so advanced that some swaths may have hit a key tipping point and never recover .
    While experts have long warned of human activity causing portions of the massive, biodiverse rainforest to shift to savannah, the new findings were unveiled on the Global Day of Action for the Amazon and the launch of the 5th Amazon Summit of Indigenous Peoples: Solutions for a Living Amazon in Lima, Peru.     The study&emdash;;a project of the Amazonian Network of Georeferenced Socio-environmental Information (RAISG) and Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon Basin (COICA)&emdash;;covers all nine countries home to parts of the Amazon: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela.  
     Researchers behind the study, entitled Amazonia Against the Clock , looked at forest coverage data from 1985 to 2020&emdash;;examining density, carbon dioxide storage, and rain patterns.'The rainforest's abilities to store carbon and regulate precipitation are indicators of its capacity to surviveÉ and studying them can also reveal the effects of forest fires beneath the canopy, which satellite images can miss,' New Scientist reported, summarizing Marlene Quintanilla of RAISG.      'The ecological response of the forest is changing and its resilience is being lost,"       Quintanilla said. 'We are at a point of no return.'The analysis found that while 33% of the rainforest is in great shape and 41% has been so minimally degraded that it can restore itself, 20% is beyond saving and the remaining 6% requires human intervention to be restored
     'The tipping point is not a future scenario but rather a stage already present in some areas of the region,' the study states, according to The Guardian. 'Brazil and Bolivia concentrate 90% of all combined deforestation and degradation. As a result, savannization is already taking place in both countries.' The newspaper noted that the report indicates only French Guiana and Suriname have at least half their forests still intact.  
    The researchers also found that 86% of deforestation has occurred outside national or Indigenous reserves, and nearly half of the Amazon is not protected by such designations.In response to the crisis in the rainforest&emdash;;driven by agribusiness, dams, logging, mining, oil extraction, and other destructive activities&emdash;; Indigenous groups, led by COICA, have launched the initiative "Amazonia for Life: Protect 80% by 2025."  A joint declaration&emdash;;open for signatures from 'Indigenous communities, scientists, governments, cities, financial institutions, and anyone ready to take action for the planet'&emdash;;calls for a global pact and outlines 13 requirements for reaching the protection goal ( 
      'It's difficult but doable,' Ecuadorian scientist Alicia Guzmán, who coordinated the new report, said of the 80% target. 'It is all dependent on the involvement of the Indigenous communities and people who live in the forest. That and the debt.'
     The report says that governments of the nine Amazon nations, international financial institutions, and private equity firms 'have a unique opportunity before them to forgive existing debt in exchange for commitments to end industrial extraction and promote protections in key priority areas, Indigenous territories, and protected areas.'    Highlighting the study's findings that lands under Indigenous control across the Amazon are in better condition, Guzmán also emphasized the importance of empowering them as stewards.
      'Having Indigenous people in the decision-making process means we count on the knowledge of those who know most about the forest," she told The Guardian. "And they need budgets.'
      The study and summit follow a weekend reminder of the dangers faced by protectors of the Amazon, particularly Indigenous people. The nonprofit Indigenist Missionary Council announced that two members of a Brazilian Indigenous group that combats illegal deforestation were killed.     'Forest guard Janildo Oliveira Guajajara was killed with multiple gunshots from behind, while another Guajajara man who was shot in the Saturday morning attack survived and is in a health unit,' The Associated Press reported, citing the group. 'In a separate municipality of Maranhao, Jael Carlos Miranda Guajajara was run over by an unspecified vehicle the same morning, and members of his group suspect it was a targeted killing.' 
    Those deaths follow the killings of Brazilian Indigenous expert Bruno Pereira and British journalist Dom Phillips in the rainforest in Brazil earlier this year.
     While critics of far-right Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro say that in addition to promoting activities causing deforestation in the Amazon, he has incited violence against the rainforest's defenders, the incumbent could soon be out of power.  In October, Bolsonaro is set to face off against former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who is currently ahead in the polls. If elected, Lula has vowed to reverse many Bolsonaro policies and make protecting the Amazon a top priority.  Our work is licensed under Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)."
      Josh Gabbatiss, "Explainer: How can climate finance be increased from "billions to trillions'?," CarbonBrief, November 4, 2022,, commented, "It is clear that existing climate finance is nowhere near what is required. To phase out fossil fuels and protect their citizens from worsening climate disasters, developing countries will need trillions rather than billions of dollars.  Rich countries are under pressure to pitch in more money, but the jump from billions to trillions will likely require more than they are willing to provide from their public coffers. Nations such as the US want to lean more on the private sector to fund this global transition. Others want to see a complete overhaul of the global financial system so that funds can be more effectively channeled into climate action.In this article, Carbon Brief explores some of the options on the table for raising levels of climate finance and more broadly ensuring that the flows of money around the world are consistent with global climate goals. What is climate finance? How much climate finance is needed? Boosting private investment Reforming international financial institutions Special drawing rights Expanding the pool of contributors Dealing with debt"     The full article with further links is at:
    The 2022 findings of the Living Planet Index that samples 5320 species of wild vertebrates in close to 32,000 selected populations found a 32 percent reduction in the number of wild vertebrates in the world-wide sample from 1970 to 2018. The decline is quite worrying, but since the study is only of one sizable sample of only vertebrates, the overall extent of the loss of wildlife is not clear (Catrin Einhorn, "A 69% Drop ij Wildlife? It's Not What You Think," The New York Times, October 13, 2022).
      " Global Witness reported that in 2021 54 environmentalists and land protectors were murdered in Mexico, more than in any other country (Oscar Lopez, "Mexico Ranked Deadliest Country for Green Activists," The New York Times, September 30, 2022). Over all more than 200 environmental and land protectors were killed world wide that year ("Global: 200 Rights Defenders Murdered in 2021," Cultural Survival Quarterly, December, 2022).
  Adam Liptak, Live Updates: Supreme Court Decision Strips Federal Government of Crucial Tool to Control Pollution: Republicans cheered the ruling, with Senator Mitch McConnell saying it limited the power of 'unelected, unaccountable bureaucrats.' Speaker Nancy Pelosi said the court's conservative majority had decided to 'let our planet burn,'" The New York Times, June 30, 2022,, reported, " The Supreme Court [in West Virginia v. Environmental Protection Agency] on Thursday limited the Environmental Protection Agency's ability to regulate carbon emissions from power plants, dealing a blow to the Biden administration's efforts to address climate change. 
    The vote was 6 to 3, with the court's three liberal justices in dissent, saying that the majority had stripped the E.P.A. of 'the power to respond to the most pressing environmental challenge of our time.'     Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr., writing for the majority, said Congress had not clearly given the agency sweeping authority to regulate the energy industry" saying, "Capping carbon dioxide emissions at a level that will force a nationwide transition away from the use of coal to generate electricity may be a sensible "solution to the crisis of the day,...'  a decision of such magnitude and consequence rests with Congress itself, or an agency acting pursuant to a clear delegation from that representative body."      Elena Shao , "Biodiversity Crisis Affects Billions Who Rely on Wild Species, Researchers Say: The latest global assessment of the decline in plant and animal life found some bright spots but recommended significant changes to hunting and other practices to address the risks," The New York Times, July 8, 2022,, reported, " Billions of people worldwide rely on some 50,000 wild species for food, energy, medicine and income, according to a sweeping new scientific report that concluded humans must make dramatic changes to hunting and other practices to address an accelerating biodiversity crisis.  
     The report, prepared for the United Nations over four years by 85 experts from 33 countries, is the most comprehensive look yet at the pathways for using wild species sustainably, or in ways that do not lead to the long-term decline of those resources and ensures their availability for future generations. It draws upon thousands of scientific studies and other references, including a body of Indigenous and local knowledge. Indigenous and poor communities are among the most immediately affected by overuse of wild species, the report said."
      Emily Cochrane, Jim Tankersley and Lisa Friedman, "Manchin, in Reversal, Agrees to Quick Action on Climate and Tax Plan: The West Virginia Democrat, a holdout on his party's domestic agenda, said the package would reduce inflation, a concern he had cited in rejecting it just weeks ago," The New York Times, July 27, 2022,, reported, " Senator Joe Manchin III of West Virginia, a key centrist Democrat, announced on Wednesday that he had agreed to include hundreds of billions of dollars for climate and energy programs and tax increases in a package to subsidize health care and lower the cost of prescription drugs, less than two weeks after abruptly upending hopes for such an agreement this summer.  The package would set aside $369 billion for climate and energy proposals, the most ambitious climate action ever taken by Congress, and raise an estimated $451 billion in new tax revenue over a decade, while cutting federal spending on prescription drugs by $288 billion , according to a summary circulated Wednesday evening.. ("      In order to get his agreement, Senator Manchin had placed in the bill several measures helpful to the fossil fuel industry and harmful to the environment. Brad Plumer and Lisa Friedman, "Democrats Got a Climate Bill. Joe Manchin Got Drilling, and More: Along the way to the $369 billion package, the West Virginia senator secured an array of concessions for his state and for the fossil fuel industry," The New York Times, July 30, 2022,, reported, "That senator, Joe Manchin III, Democrat of West Virginia, managed to win several major concessions for the fossil fuel industry in the $369 billion climate and energy package, which was made public on Wednesday by Senate Democrats. Mr. Manchin's vote is critical in the evenly divided chamber because no Republicans support the bill.       The measure requires the federal government to auction off more public lands and waters for oil drilling. It expands tax credits for carbon capture technology that could allow coal or gas-burning power plants to keep operating with lower emissions. Mr. Manchin also secured a promise from Democratic leaders to vote on a separate measure to speed up the process of issuing permits for energy infrastructure, potentially smoothing the way for projects like a natural gas pipeline in West Virginia."            "Climate Change: Landmark US bill clears Senate Hurdel,", August 2008 E-mail, reported, " After months of negotiations, the U.S. Senate finally reached an agreement yesterday to approve a climate and energy bill worth $369 billion dollars.       This is a day to mark a generational-scale investment in the energy transition, a step towards momentum, and crucially, a step that enables the United States to join its global allies in taking national climate action.  
    Stephen, over the past decade we have focused our efforts on movement building &emdash;; and this milestone shows that movement building creates political opportunities like this landmark piece of climate legislation. 
    I'll say more about the fight ahead below, but for now, I want to underscore that this bill is an important step forward, and in the long work of movement building, steps forward are desperately needed."    "... there are some real victories in this bill: lengthening the tax credits for green energy projects from two to ten years to ensure steady growth in the wind and solar industry; providing incentives for consumers to buy electric vehicles; and installing heat pumps to make green energy use more widespread.  
     However, there are also too many giveaways to the fossil fuel industry, and specifically to Sen. Joe Manchin &emdash;; including guaranteeing the Mountain Valley Pipeline goes through; mandating oil leasing on public lands in the Gulf and Alaska; and allowing for millions of acres of land and offshore oil and gas leases.      What the world needs now is an unequivocal commitment by those in power to shut down the fossil fuel industry. The world is watching the steps the U.S. will take around climate change &emdash;; especially leading up to the UN's climate change conference, COP 27, this coming fall. 
    We must do everything possible to support the frontline communities who contribute the least to this crisis, but are already suffering the most from it. We can't afford to water down any further action &emdash;; not for Joe Manchin, not for the fossil fuel industry, not for anyone." 
      Most leading economists have previously underestimated the speed of climate change and have not understood all the ways it may have damaging impacts. Recent Biden administration policies stressing tax credits for moving to green energy are indicative of many economists realizing the actual speed and breadth of climate change ( Lydia DePillis, "Pace of Climate Change Sends Economists Back to Drawing Board: They underestimated the impact of global warming, and their preferred policy solution floundered in the United States," The New York Times, August 25, 2022,  Eric Lipton, "With Federal Aid on the Table, Utilities Shift to Embrace Climate Goals:As billions in government subsidies were at stake, the electric utility industry shed its opposition to clean-air regulation and put its lobbying muscle behind passing President Biden's climate bill," The New York Times , November 29, 2022,, reported, "Just two years ago, DTE Energy, a Michigan-based electric utility, was still enmeshed in a court fight with federal regulators over emissions from a coal-burning power plant on the western shore of Lake Erie that ranks as one of the nation's largest sources of climate-changing air pollution. But in September, Gerard M. Anderson, who led DTE for the last decade, was on the South Lawn of the White House alongside hundreds of other supporters of President Biden, giving a standing ovation to the president for his success in pushing a climate change package through Congress &emdash;; a law that will help accelerate the closure of the very same coal-burning behemoth, known as DTE Monroe, that his company had been fighting to protect.Mr. Anderson's position reflects a fundamental shift among major electric utilities nationwide as they deploy their considerable clout in Washington: After years of taking steps like backing dark-money groups to sue the government to block tighter air pollution rules, DTE and a growing number of other utilities have joined forces to speed the transition away from fossil fuels.Their new stance is driven less by evolving ideology than the changing economics of renewable energy, fueled in part by the sheer amount of money the federal government is putting on the table to encourage utilities to move more quickly to cleaner and more sustainable sources of energy like solar and wind."
     The Indigenous Environmental Network stated, "Indigenous Environmental Network Denounces the Lack of Progress for Indigenous Peoples and Climate Justice at COP27, November 29, 2022,, " The The UNFCCC Conference of the Parties concluded its 27th session in the early hours of Sunday, November 20, 2022 with the adoption of the Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Plan. Despite the extended COP, Parties failed to take adequate steps and action to address climate change. The most glaring omission in the Plan is a failure of the Parties to cut fossil fuel emissions at the source and there were only vague references towards achieving the Paris Agreement temperature goal of 1.5 degrees Celsius.
     False solutions such as REDD+, carbon markets, carbon offsets, climate-smart agriculture, climate geoengineering technologies, and nature-based solutions were focal points at COP27. Additionally, climate finance, adaptation and mitigation as well as loss and damage were at the forefront of negotiations at this year's session
.       In the final days of the COP, various changes were made in the final documents that will have a direct impact on Indigenous Peoples and frontline communities. Under mitigation, Parties are called upon to "accelerate the development, deployment, and dissemination of technologies,' which opens the door to streamline harmful, false solutions like climate geoengineering technology. Moreover, the mitigation text also calls for "accelerating efforts towards the phase down of unabated coal and phase-out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies.' Ultimately, this text does not call for the necessary climate action to phase out fossil fuels with any set dates for action, letting big polluters yet again off the hook, enabling them to continue to pollute and to not be held accountable for their immense contributions to the climate crisis.
       While there was an acknowledgement of the rights of Indigenous Peoples as well as a recognition of the important role Indigenous Peoples have in addressing and responding to climate change in the preamble of the Sharm El Sheikh Implementation Plan (, there is no other reference to Indigenous Peoples, Traditional [Indigenous] Knowledge, Indigenous Peoples' rights or human rights in any other text, and instead replaced with references like "social and environmental safeguards.'       In terms of loss and damage, small islands and developing countries pushed for the large, developed countries to pay up for their contributions to climate change. While the text calls for Parties to provide "targeted support to the poorest and most vulnerable in line with national circumstances and recognizing the needs for support towards a just transition', there is no reference to Indigenous Peoples, and therefore the gap widens Indigenous Peoples receiving direct financial resources for loss and damage. Although the architecture for loss and damage was agreed in Sharm El-Sheik, the details on implementation will be passed along to the next COP. IEN continues to be concerned on how the finance for loss and damage will be used to create more wealth for countries in the Global North through multilateral development banks and other financial mechanisms.
      Furthermore , the Parties took steps backwards in Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, as the implementation process was fast-tracked without meaningful and democratic dialogue that centered around false solutions and no reference to Indigenous Peoples or our Traditional Indigenous Knowledge. Article 6 relies far too heavily on the assumption that by educating and training citizens of the Parties on the ways and means of local and global efforts to mitigate the sources of climate change it will enable them to make contributions toward reductions of the impacts, wherein reality the Parties engagement is voluntary and they do not actively reduce emissions at source. In reference to Article 6 and carbon markets, IEN Climate Justice Program Coordinator, Tamra Gilbertson shares, "When carbon pricing is attempted to be placed inside of democratic system to create compliance-based tracking and trading platforms, the whole system collapsed under the weight of attempted tracking, monitoring and accounting because carbon pricing systems are inherently flawed and cannot function within a system that would actually attempt to track and account for real emission's "units'./
    Tom BK Goldtooth, IEN Executive Director also shares his thoughts on the lack of progress made at COP27, "The bottom line at COP27 should have been for rich countries such as the U.S. to commit to a full unqualified phase-out of all fossil fuels, namely oil, gas and coal. This was not done. The door was kept wide open prolonging subsidies for and reliance on fossil fuels and new fossil fuel exploration. There was some headway on the establishment of a loss and damage fund, but only in principle and it could take years before real funding is made available for Indigenous Peoples and non-Indigenous communities in developing countries. There was no COP27 progress in mitigation and adaptation. We did see the UN, the World Bank, other multilateral development banks, and the private sector pushing the financialization of climate change that has nothing to do with addressing the root cause of climate change, allowing polluters to keep on polluting. This coming year IEN will be part of a global movement of grassroots and civil society taking back our power by planning our own regional and global Peoples' climate action summits.'     While the COP attempted to galvanize Parties to pay up to those impacted by climate change through loss and damage, however after much resistance, the Parties remained unmoved to intervene on addressing the source of climate change which includes stopping big polluters and keeping fossil fuels in the ground.  
     The UNFCCC COP process yet again, fails to take necessary climate action to address the climate crisis and false solutions noted in the final text will continue to devastate Indigenous and frontline communities. To learn more about the false solutions at COP27, review IEN's three-part Climate Justice Program Series and critical analyses on Climate Finance (, Climate-Smart Agriculture (, and Nature-Based Solutions ("

     Polina Shulbaeva (Selkup, CS Consultant), "Indigenous Delegates Face Obstacles to Participation at UNFCCC Bonn Climate Change Conference," Cultural Survival, July 13, 2022,, reported, " After a three-year pause due to the Covid-19 pandemic, on June 6-16, 2022, the 56-session of Subsidiary Body of Implementation(SBI) and Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice(SBSTA) were held at the World Convention Center in Bonn, Germany. These are two permanent subsidiary bodies to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) established by the Conference of Parties ( COP). The Subsidiary Bodies meet twice a year and work together on cross-cutting issues. The SBI's work is at the heart of all implementation issues under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Paris Agreement, including transparency, finance, mitigation, adaptation, technology, and capacity building. The SBIis the body that considers the biennial work programs for the secretariat, which provide the strategic direction on how the secretariat can best serve the Parties and the UNFCCC process towards greater ambition of climate change action and support that is fully commensurate with the objectives of the convention, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Paris Agreement. The SBSTA plays an important role as the link between the scientific information provided by expert sources such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC) and the policy-oriented needs of the COP. Key areas of work for the SBSTA include the impact, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change, promoting the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies.        As part of the ongoing meetings, Indigenous Peoples actively participated in various dialogues, negotiations, and discussions on the issues that are most important to them on the road from UNFCCC COP26 to COP27. For the first time, Cultural Survival was involved in the work of the Subsidiary Bodies In the Bonn Climate Conference, including participation in the Indigenous Caucus activities, Indigenous Working Groups on Loss and Damage, and Article 6, including working on draft statements and side events.        Throughout the Bonn Conference, Indigenous Peoples repeatedly noted the importance and necessity of climate finance mechanisms being managed by Indigenous Peoples. The actions of Indigenous Peoples, such as their programs and projects to preserve forests, and the traditional management of their lands, territories, and waters, help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so they are already participating in climate programs. This is why Indigenous Peoples must have direct access to financial support for their traditional programs, and introduce new ones, such as installing renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy on their territories. Indigenous Peoples are the most affected by the effects of climate change, and since climate finance is precisely aimed at supporting climate change mitigation and adaptation and loss beyond possible adaptation, Indigenous Peoples do not need intermediaries, but rather direct funding mechanisms directed at their organizations, communities, projects, and foundations led by Indigenous Peoples themselves.       Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim (Mbororo), Co-Chair of the International Indigenous Peoples Forum on Climate Change, shared, 'One of the key issues for this meeting is how we can have Indigenous Peoples' rights and Indigenous Peoples' knowledge and value respected into all the negotiation types. Also, negotiation on Article 6, where they are discussing the carbon market and how they can have more mitigation...these issues cannot be discussed without having Indigenous people at the table and without having Indigenous Peoples' knowledge. The other one is about l oss and damage; there are a lot of disasters, from drought to floods, that are [affecting] the lives of Indigenous Peoples. We are losing our culture, our identity, and our way of living. Our Peoples, therefore, need to have the [remuneration] for those kinds of damages, and for preventing it in the future. Of course, we are talking about finance. How can we have the real cash; how can we get direct access funding for Indigenous Peoples, for the solutions that they can implement on the ground for the Paris Agreement objective?'   
     Helen Magata (Kadaclan) from Tebtebba Foundation, said, 'We came here to Bonn because we are hoping that the voices of Indigenous Peoples are heard not only in the intersectional meetings, but also towards UNFCCC COP27. I'm working on climate finance and we want Indigenous Peoples' priorities to be included there. First, there is no multilaterally agreed [upon] operational definition of what climate finance constitutes. For Indigenous Peoples, it is important that we are engaged in a process that is ensuring that our voices, our rights, and perspectives are included in the definitions of what climate finance means. Second, when we talk about climate finance, we know that there's an increasing flow of climate finance to developing countries for climate actions. But there are no reports whatsoever that would show how much of this climate finance flow is being accessed."
       The Parties must understand that is just not about economic losses, but there need to be more discussions organized about non-economic losses. Indigenous Peoples emphasize that it is impossible to quantify things that might not be quantifiable, such cultural loss, impacts on identity, and Traditional Knowledge of Indigenous Peoples, which are being eroded and affected because of climate change. Some climate actions and initiatives are even evicting Indigenous Peoples, violating Indigenous Peoples, and causing further damages and marginalization of Indigenous Peoples on their territories. Therefore, when we talk about loss and damage and climate finance, we need to look at all possible negative effects on Indigenous Peoples, including nonmaterial, cultural, and spiritual, among others.  
     The Green Climate Fund approves projects and programs on Indigenous Peoples' lands and territories, but with little or no participation from them. This is why the IIPFCC considers it important to try to include direct access to funding for Indigenous Peoples, their communities, and organizations on the financial agenda, thus completely removing intermediaries and parasitic organizations that take most of the funds allocated for Indigenous Peoples. ' When we talk about finance, it should be made available not only to Indigenous Peoples in developing countries, but also to Indigenous Peoples in developed countries. Because this is recognizing that Indigenous Peoples, wherever they are, are contributing much to climate actions and initiatives, noted Oumarou Ibrahim. Gunn-Britt Retter (Saami) from the Arctic and Environmental Unit of the Saami Council said, 'In the global Indigenous Peoples' solidarity [movement], we should all also seek finance mechanisms to support our joint fight to address the climate change issues.' Eileen Mairena Cunningham (Miskita), Advocacy Officer on Climate Finance and Territorial Governance at the Centre for the Autonomy and Development of Indigenous Peoples, said, 'We do not want there to be intermediary organizations. In addition, we want to determine what specific needs of our lands and territories and resources are needed to combat climate change, to carry out adaptation and climate change mitigation activities. Another important point is the issue of incorporating a rights-based approach into all these actions on climate change and, above all, including the issue of the security of our land tenure in these processes. Without the security of tenure, we will not have the right to carry out activities and activities on our territory.'  
     The IIPFCC noted that Indigenous Peoples and their human rights, including minimum standards codified in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, need to be recognized in all of the negotiation processes. Indigenous Peoples should be at the table to address the double impacts of climate change and engage in the UNFCCC to ensure that  measures at adaptation, resilience, response, and mitigation are looked at in a holistic manner.
    Retter said, 'The Arctic is changing three times faster than the global average. We are already facing and experiencing severe climate change to the extent that in the future, if we don't reduce fossil fuels and greenhouse gasses, rapid climate change will continue. We will not recognize the Arctic anymore if all ice and snow is gone. From now until the UNFCCC COP27 [in Egypt in November 2022], we need to address Indigenous Peoples' rights. What we are experiencing now in the false measures that States have set in place like 'green' energy are placed on our traditional lands. We see immense natural destruction with wind turbines and also huge mines which are in scale much larger than we ever have seen before, all in the name of the "green' transition.'     Indigenous delegates from all regions noted in Bonn that there were many obstacles in accessing the official discussions and negotiations. There were instances where Indigenous Peoples were not allowed to enter the rooms of negotiation and learn about text proposals. Therefore, IIPFCC issued a call to ensure that Indigenous people can participate in all the halls where negotiations are happening or ongoing, if the Parties want to see Indigenous Peoples as a part of the solution, and not as victims of climate action.       There are many obstacles leading up to UNFCCC COP27. In addition to unfinished negotiations on many points, there is a lack of equal rights for the participation of Indigenous Peoples, the right to be heard, the right to make decisions about the status of their lands, territories, and resources, and the right to resolve financial issues directly and without intermediaries. Indigenous Peoples, as well as other activists and delegates from low income countries, are concerned about inclusiveness and access to participation at COP27, as Egypt is raising the prices of hotels and all services almost five-fold. The COP27 climate talks are due to take place in the seaside resort of Sharm el-Sheikh from November 7-18. Many activists had high hopes for participation, as this resort was famous for its more than affordable prices. But during the Bonn Conference, it was confirmed that the minimum rate for one night in a five-star hotel room in Sharm el-Sheik during COP27 will exceed the rates paid on any other COP. The Ministry of Tourism had set a list of minimum prices that hotels should charge for rooms in Sharm el-Sheik during the UN !limate !onference.      Once again, the participation of Indigenous Peoples is under threat, and at a crucial time, when outstanding issues left over from COP26, including Financial Mechanisms and Loss and Damage, will be resolved at COP27 in Egypt. 'Indigenous Peoples, especially African Indigenous Peoples, are looking forward to welcoming all the worldwide Indigenous communities and Indigenous representatives to work together, asking for our Rights-Based approach, asking for the respect and recognition of our knowledge as a solution in an equal way to science. And we will be also asking how we can move [forward] from Egypt with concrete solutions to our people. I don't want to go back and tell my people that your rights are in a bracket. I want to tell them that your rights are recognized and we have to move to implement them,' said Oumarou Ibrahim.'
    According to new scientific research, t he oil industry practice in the U.S. of burning off methane, producing less atmosphere heating gas is less effective in breaking down the highly warming methane than previously thought because the flaring is often stopped while methane is still escaping (Henry Fountain, "Methane Might Damage Climate More than Thought, Study Finds," The New York Times, September 30, 2022 ).
       Climate change is making likely a huge megastorm that in a month's time could drop an average of 16 inches of rain across California in a series continuing extra heavy storms. In a year, historically California has gotten anywhere from 9.4 to 41.66 inches of rain. That much precipitation in a short period would cause terrible flooding (Raymond Zhong "The Coming California Megastorm," The New York Times, August 12, 2022,
     Julie Turkewitz, "A Girl Loses Her Mother in the Jungle, and a Migrant Dream Dies: The pandemic, climate change and growing conflict are forcing a seismic shift in global migration. In few places is that more clear than a perilous crossing called the Darién Gap." The New York Times, November 10, 2022,, reported, " Almost three years after a deadly pandemic began ravaging the world, a devastating combination of pandemic fallout, climate change, growing conflict and rising inflation exacerbated by the war in Ukraine is creating a seismic shift in global migration, sending millions of people from their homes. The United Nations says there are now at least 103 million forcibly displaced people around the world, a record number that is only expected to grow."

     Christopher Flavelle, Rick Rojas, Jim Tankersley and Jack Healy, "Mississippi Crisis Highlights Climate Threat to Drinking Water Nationwide: Aging infrastructure and underinvestment have left many cities' water systems in tatters. Now flooding and other climate shocks are pushing them to failure," The New York Times, September 1, 2022,, reported, "Flash floods, wildfires and hurricanes are easy to recognize as ravages of a fast-changing climate. But now, climate change has also emerged as a growing threat to clean, safe drinking water across the country.    The deluge that knocked out a fraying water plant in Jackson, Miss., this week, depriving more than 150,000 people of drinking water, offered the latest example of how quickly America's aging treatment plants and decades-old pipes can crumple under the shocks of a warming world."

     Global warming is making some jobs dangerous and unhealthy. For example, UPS drivers need to spend time, sometimes a minute or more, inside their trucks locate to bring out the packages to be delivered at each stop. With hotter weather, the inside of the unairconditioned trucks become excessively hot, potentially causing heat stroke ( Livia Albeck-Ripka, "UPS Drivers Say "Brutal' Heat Is Endangering Their Lives," The New York Times, August 20, 2022, ).
      Extreme heat was experienced around the world in July 2022, as heat waves plagued part of the U.S., Europe, India and China ( All things Considered, NPR News, July 18, 2022). In Britain: Kate Holton and Sachin Ravikumar, "Britain boils in record temperature of 40C," Reuters, July 19, 2022,, reported, " Britain recorded its highest ever temperature of 40C (104F) on Tuesday as a heatwave gripping Europe intensified, scorching fields, damaging runways and forcing train tracks to buckle under the pressure."
     Christopher Flavelle, "New Measure of Climate's Toll: Disasters Are Now Common Across U.S.: A new report found that 90 percent of all counties nationwide have suffered a major disaster since 2011,"   The New York Times, November 16, 2022,, reported, " From 2011 to the end of last year, 90 percent of U.S. counties have experienced a flood, hurricane, wildfire or other calamity serious enough to receive a federal disaster declaration, according to the report (, and more than 700 counties suffered five or more such disasters. During that same period , 29 states had, on average, at least one federally declared disaster a year somewhere within their borders. Five states have experienced at least 20 disasters since 2011."
      Hurricane Ian hit the Gulf coast of southwest Florida, September 28, 2022, as one of the most powerful storms to hit the state, at just below level 5. It left a wide trail of destruction across Florida, moving into the Atlantic and then north as a weaker storm causing damage and flooding in South Carolina, before moving further north dumping large quantities of rain. At least 100 people were killed, with known the death toll still rising on October 6 . Some communities of costal islands and along the gulf coast were totally destroyed, over 1 million people lost power, many for considerable time. Many lower income people were left homeless. At a time when climate change is bringing rising oceans and more and stronger storms people should be moving away from increasingly high hazard areas. But in the last few years, NPR News reported that lobbying by developers has brought relaxation of regulations allowing more people to move in such places. Some are calling for building in those increasingly dangerous places with stronger buildings. That may help resist wind and rain, but many such places will be under water all too soon. Florida agriculture was badly damaged with large losses of cows, chickens, vegetables and oranges. Estimates are that recovery and rebuilding will cost between $48 and $64 billion. Meanwhile, in Florida's hot wet climate, mold is becoming an increasing problem in flooded houses (From The New York Times: Patrick Mazzei, Lauren Sweeney, Nicholas Bogel-Borroughs and Frances Robels, "Huricane Slams Florida, Deluges Southwest Coast," September 29, 2022; Patrick Mazzei, Nicholas Bogel-Borroughs, and Jack Healey, "A Staggering Path of Ruin Across Floridam" September 30, 2022; Winston Choi-Shangrin, "Anpther Costly Disaster After a Hurricane: Mold," October 4, 2022; NPR News, October 2, 2022; NPR All Things Considered, October 3 and 6, 2022).
Jesse McKinley, Judson Jones and Michael D. Regan,"More Than 5 Feet of Snow in Buffalo Area, and More Is Expected: A storm lasting through the weekend is underway on the eastern coasts of Lakes Erie and Ontario, with snowfall rates reaching over three inches per hour," The New York Times , November 18, 2022,, reported, "With Thanksgiving still days away, an unpredictable, late-fall snowstorm blew through Western New York on Friday, unleashing whipping wind and bands of snow as hundreds of thousands of residents hunkered down.     Heavy, wet snow that began on Thursday night crashed across a series of towns adjacent to Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, including Orchard Park, where more than 66 inches had been recorded by Friday night. Snowfall rates of two to three inches an hour challenged even the hardiest of snow plows ."
      Derrick Bryson Taylor and April Rubin, "Northwest Georgia Hit by Severe Storms and Flash Flooding, The New York Times, Sept. 5, 2022,, reported, "A flood watch was lifted Monday night for parts of Georgia that were inundated with a foot of rain a day earlier, as storm damage was still being assessed.       Gov. Brian Kemp of Georgia declared a state of emergency in two counties on Sunday after a string of heavy thunderstorms flooded roadways, knocked down trees and submerged homes. A flood watch expired at 8 p.m. Monday, the National Weather Service office in Atlanta said."       Tricia Fulks Kelley, Rick Rojas and Campbell Robertson, "'We "We Keep Getting Hit': Flooded Kentucky Grows Weary After Another Natural Disaster: A series of catastrophes has struck communities that were already struggling, raising fears that rebuilding will be arduous and require substantial outside help," The New York Times , July 31, 2022,, reported that immedeately following the most rain and the most extreme flooding that Eastern Kentucky had ever experienced, causing emense loss, "Firefighters and National Guard crews have swarmed into eastern Kentucky after days of deadly flooding, rescuing by the hundreds people who found themselves trapped in the perilous water."      "Officials said on Saturday that at least 25 people had been killed in the floods (that figure was updated to 26 on Sunday morning), but it could take weeks for the full magnitude of the human toll and physical devastation to become clear." 
      Rick Rojas and Campbell Robertson, "In Kentucky, More Rain Complicates Recovery as Death Toll Rises," The New York Times, August 1, 2022,, reported, " One round of rainstorms after another blew through eastern Kentucky on Monday, deepening the misery of an already desperate region. Floodwaters again swallowed the roads that had recently reopened to allow emergency workers to scour the remote hills and valleys for survivors; creeks once again swelled into the streets of small towns where people had just begun the gloomy work of emptying houses of their waterlogged contents.    Gov. Andy Beshear of Kentucky confirmed on Monday that the death toll from last week's floods border:none windowtext 1.0pt; padding:0in;had risen to 37, but warned that countless people were still missing."
       Julie Bosman, Julie Bosman, "Persistent Rains Pummel Chicago, Submerging Roads and Swamping Basements," The New York Times, September 11, 2022, reported, " Torrential, unrelenting rains swept through Chicago on Sunday, flooding basements and alleys, closing grocery stores and restaurants, and leaving cars floating under viaducts on streets impassable with deep water.      The extreme weather took the city by surprise, particularly the North Side of Chicago. Close to five inches of rain had fallen by late afternoon, according to Kevin Doom, a meteorologist for the National Weather Service."
     Amanda Holpuch, "3 Downpours in 8 Days: How Extreme Rain Soaked the Midwest: Back-to-back deluges swamped Kentucky, Missouri and Illinois. These types of storms are expected to be more frequent and more intense as the planet warms, climate experts say," The New York Times, August 5, 2022,, repoerted, " Three separate downpours across three states over a span of eight days this summer swept away homes, destroyed crops and left at least 39 people dead.  The intense rainfall, in Missouri, Kentucky and Illinois, broke century-old records and destroyed swaths of communities, prompting warnings from climate experts, who said the intensity and frequency of heavy rain was likely to increase as Earth continued to warm."

      A long hot streak with record high temperatures hit the lower U.S. Midwest in mid-July, while a town in Southwest Virginia received well over a month of rain in a few hours, completely flooding the town and knocking houses off their foundations. There were no fatalities (The Weather Channel, July 15, 2022).
     The heat was continuing to be extreme crossing the U.S. as July unfolded. Moving from the west and Midwest, Ali Watkins, "Heat Waves Sweep the Northeast Over Sweltering Weekend," New York Times, July 24, 2022,, reported, " Scorching temperatures swept the Northeast on Sunday in the region's first prolonged heat wave of the summer, with a record-breaking five straight days of triple-digit temperatures in Newark and blistering heat in Boston; Providence, R.I.; and Manchester, N.H.      Other parts of the country also sweltered, with Oklahoma enduring temperatures that have topped 100 degrees in nine of the past 11 days."
      Rick Rojas, "As Drought Drops Water Level in the Mississippi, Shipwrecks Surface and Worries Rise" The river known for its vast reach and powerful currents has withered to levels not seen in decades, choking shipping lanes and endangering drinking water supplies," The New York Times, November 3, 2022,, reported that because of the Midwest drought, " On the Lower Mississippi &emdash;; the portion that flows south from Cairo, Ill. &emdash;; the water level in some places has fallen below records set more than 30 years ago. The conditions have hamstrung one of the nation's busiest and most vital waterways and jeopardized drinking water systems. And experts have cautioned that the substantial rainfall needed to improve the situation could be weeks away, if not longer."    In November 2022, a strong chain of tornadoes left a chain of damage, with at least one dead an ten injured, across Texas Oklahoma and Arkansas (Amanda Holpuch and Eliza Fawcett, "Tornadoes in 3 States Leave Trails of Damage The New York Times, November 7, 2022).

     Zach Rosenthal   and Annabelle Timsit, "Dallas area hit by 1-in-1,000-year flood; cars float in water-filled roads," Washington Post, August 22, 2022,, reported, "Flash floods struck the Dallas-Fort Worth area overnight into Monday, with flooded roads requiring rescue efforts as images showed abandoned cars floating down inundated streets. In some areas, the rainfall totals would be considered a 1-in-1,000-year flood ."
  The largest wildfire in New Mexico known history, which burned a large area in the north and somewhat eastern portion of the state, beginning barely east of Las Vegas, was followed, in July 2024, by flash flooding, claiming two lives (Mike Ives. Flash Flooding in New Mexico Follows Fires, Claiming2 Lives," The New York Times, July 24, 2022).
     The Navajo Nation suffered severe road damage, with many culverts being washed out and roads becoming impassible from the heaviest monsoon rains anyone had ever seen or heard of, in early July 2022, as climate change brings increasingly fierce thunderstorms which only partially and temporarily relieve the climate change related drought. Navajo Nation and BIA crews quickly worked to make the thousands of miles of dirt roads passible again, but it will take months to rebuild the destroyed culverts ( All Things Considered, NPR News, July 7, 2022).

     The drought that has been ravaging the Navajo Nation ware[ported, in October 2022, to be negatively impacting fish in the lake at Many Farms, while causing desertification with the growth of sand dunes (Donovan Quintero, "Climate change, drought may be impacting aquatic species, wildlife," Navajo Times, October 6, 2022).
      Deon J. Hampton, "The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, which has operated the farm and ranching enterprise for four decades, received only 10% of its water allocation last year," NBC News, Sept. 11, 2022,, reported, " The 7,700-acre Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Farm & Ranch Enterprise [in Colorado] has produced alfalfa and corn for four decades, irrigated by snow melt flowing from the surrounding San Juan Mountains.
     But higher temperatures and less runoff feeding into the nearby McPhee Reservoir have led to a slowdown in production over the past two years, costing the farm from $4 million to $6 million last year. The losses combined with the pandemic forced the company to lay off more than half its workforce of 50."
     Eduardo Medina, "McKinney Fire Becomes California's Largest of 2022," The New York Times, July 31, 2022,, reported, " A fast-growing wildfire fueled by strong winds from thunderstorms and high temperatures in Northern California has grown to 55,000 acres, becoming the state's largest wildfire so far this year and forcing evacuations in rural neighborhoods
     The blaze, named the McKinney fire, began burning through dry timber on Friday in the Klamath National Forest in Siskiyou County, Calif., near the Oregon state line, the authorities said. On Monday, the Siskiyou County Sheriff's Office said two people had been found dead over the weekend in a vehicle in a driveway, west of the Klamath River, the first fatalities that have been associated with the fire."  
     Over 3000 people had been evacuated and more thant 100 structures destroyed, including homes and a grocery store in a small community west of Yreka.      As of September, wildfire were still a serious problem in California. Mandy Feder-Sawyer, Shawn Hubler and Ava Sasani, "California wildfire burns at least 50 structures and forces thousands to flee," The New York Times, September 2, 2022,, reported, "A wind-whipped fire that erupted near a defunct lumber mill in Northern California on Friday and became a fast-moving inferno has destroyed at least 50 structures, including homes, and prompted the evacuation of thousands of people in rural Siskiyou County , fire authorities said on Saturday. The blaze, named the Mill fire, tore through Weed, Calif., a working class town of about 2,900 that sits roughly 50 miles from the Oregon border, and damaged nearby communities such as Lake Shastina, with a population of about 2,400; Carrick, home to about 140 people; and Edgewood, which contains about 70."       Shawn Hubler, Kellen Browning, Ivan Penn and Jill Cowan, "California Narrowly Averts an Electricity Crisis Amid Scorching Heat," The New York Times, September 6, 2022,, reported, " Wildfires raged at both ends of California. Gavin Newsom, the state's governor, warned of 'unprecedented' heat. The power grid teetered on the brink of outages into the evening.     But as California endured its sixth day under a ferocious heat dome, the nation's most populous state narrowly managed to avert rolling blackouts, even as temperature and energy use records shattered on Tuesday and power grid officials begged homeowners to turn down their air conditioning."

     Mike Ives, "Mosquito Fire Becomes California's Largest of Year," The New York Times, September 15, 2022, reported that at 63,000 acres and expanding, " The Mosquito fire, which has been tearing through the Sierra Nevada foothills since last week, became California's largest blaze of the year on Wednesday. 
    The fire formed on Sept. 6 and has been moving east through dry, hilly terrain northeast of Sacramento, the state capital. It made an unexpected surge on Tuesday, damaging or destroying some buildings."

    In July 2022, a rapidly growing fire near Yosemite, in California, had destroyed 10 structures and threatened an additional 2000, as of July 23 (Isabella Grullon Paz, "'Explosive' California Threatens 2000 buildings," The New York Times, July 24, 2022).
     The Cedar Creek fire and another at Milo McIver State Park, in Oregon, caused thousands of people to evacuate and cut electric power, in September 2022 (Ava Sasani, "Wildfires Cause Evacuations and Power Cuts in Oregon," The New York Times, September 11, 2022).
      Mira Rojanasakul, "Wildfire Smoke Is Erasing Progress on Clean Air," The New York Times, September 22, 2022,, reported, " Smoke from wildfires has worsened over the past decade, potentially reversing decades of improvements in Western air quality made under the Clean Air Act, according to research published Thursday from Stanford University.
    The new analysis reveals a picture of daily exposure to wildfire smoke in better geographic detail than ever before. Researchers found a 27-fold increase over the past decade in the number of people experiencing an "extreme smoke day," which is defined as air quality deemed unhealthy for all age groups. In 2020 alone, nearly 25 million people across the contiguous United States were affected by dangerous smoke.Where Wildfire Smoke Pollution Increased Over the Past Decade Map Micrograms per cubic meter of PM2.5 related to the color scale above00.250.5124+SeattleSpokaneNote: Map shows increase in average wildfire smoke from 2006-2010 to 2016-2020."

     The San Francisco and general northern California fog brings nourishing moisture regularly to much of that coast. Recent studies show that the fog may be lessening, raising questions as to what climate change may do to it in the future. (John Branch, The Elusive Future of San Francisco's Fog," The New York Times, September 14, 2022,
     Michael Paulson, "Too Darn Hot: How Summer Stages Are Threatened by Climate Change: In the West, wildfires are stopping shows. Extreme heat has led to cancellations in the South. And changing weather patterns are hobbling performances in the Northeast," The New York Times , August 11, 2022,", reported that in Ashland, OR, " Smoke from a raging wildfire in California prompted the Oregon Shakespeare Festival to cancel a recent performance of "The Tempest" at its open-air theater. Record flooding in St. Louis forced the cancellation of an outdoor performance of 'Legally Blonde font-weight:normal;.' And after heat and smoke at an outdoor Pearl Jam concert in France damaged the throat of its lead singer, Eddie Vedder, the band canceled several shows.  Around the world, rising temperatures, raging wildfires and extreme weather are imperiling whole communities. This summer, climate change is also endangering a treasured pastime: outdoor performance."
       Flooding from extreme rain following wildfires in the Klamath National Forest in California carried pollution into the Klamath River, causing a massive fish kill, in August 2022 (Livia Albeck-Ripka, "Massive Fish Kill Follows California Fire and Flood," The New York Times, August 9, 2022).
       "As Alaska Warms, Fires Burn Over (and Under) More Wild Land: Lightning storms, drought and thawing tundra are making fires more destructive," The New York Times , August 22, 2022,, reported, " A bewildering stew of factors, from spikes in intense lightning storms to a buildup of flammable grasses on thawing tundra, is driving the surge in wildfires across America's largest state. Faced with the rapid warming of the Arctic from climate change, people living in Alaska's fire zones are bracing for the likelihood that this year's blazes are merely a glimpse of even larger megafires to come."
    Emily Schwing and Mike Baker, "Storm Surge in Alaska Pulls Homes From Their Foundations," The New York Times, September 17, 2022,, reported on one of the strongest and most wide spread storm to hit Alaska in decades, reported, " Communities along Alaska's western coast faced widespread flooding on Saturday as a powerful storm &emdash;; the remnants of Typhoon Merbok &emdash;; roared across the Bering Sea, with wind gusts tearing the siding off buildings and a storm surge pulling homes from their foundations. 
    The impact was felt across hundreds of miles of coastline as the storm raked the state from south to north
. In Nome, raging waters pushed into six of the city's streets, including part of Front Street, near where mushers finish the Iditarod sled-dog race. In Chevak, about 200 miles south, images showed sheds floating in tumbling waves next to sunken boats."   
     With cold weather and winter coming soon many Alaska villages that suffered flooding and home destruction and damage are in a precarious condition . for example, Emily Schwing, "In Recovery After Storm, Alaska Faces Hard Days Ahead," The New York Times, September 19, 2022, h, reported, "In the village of Golovin, 50 miles east of Nome, initial reports indicated that up to a dozen of the 48 houses there had been inundated with water.     Some 250 miles south in Newtok, a third of the population of about 200 sought shelter in the local school."
       Maria Abi-Habib and Bryan Avelar, "Mexico's Cruel Drought: "Here You Have to Chase the Water': Nearly two-thirds of the country's municipalities are facing a water shortage. In Monterrey, a major economic hub, the government delivers water daily to 400 neighborhoods.   
     Residents lining up to fill their containers with water in Monterrey, where the entire metropolitan area of about five million people is affected by drought. The New York Times, August 3, 2022,, reported , "Mexico, or large parts of it, is running out of water.  
     An extreme drought has seen taps run dry across the country, with nearly two-thirds of all municipalities facing a water shortage that is forcing people in some places to line up for hours for government water deliveries."
     "The extent of the drought has been shocking. By the beginning of July 2022, eight of Mexico's 32 states were experiencing extreme to moderate drought, resulting in 1,546 of the country's 2,463 municipalities suffering from water shortages. By mid-July, the extreme drought had expanded to 48 percent of Mexico's territory, compared to 28 percent at the same time in 2021."

    David Shortell and Lorena R’os,"How Droughts in Mexico Could Shape the Future of the Beer Industry: Brewers and other heavy water users have landed at the center of the climate fight in Mexico as the government and industry confront water shortages in the north," The New York Times, November 13, 2022,, reported, " As northern Mexico this year endured one of its worst droughts in decades, brewers dotting the parched landscape guzzled vast quantities of water, pumping out national favorites like Corona and Tecate that helped make the country the world's largest exporter of beer."  
     " As droughts become more frequent and severe around the world, brewers and other heavy industrial water users have landed at the center of the climate fight in Mexico, with activists leading a movement to reclaim resources from corporations that has gained recognition at the highest levels of government."
      "Hurricane Fiona Strengthens as It Moves Offshore From the Dominican Republic," The New York Times, September 19, 2022,, reported, " Hurricane Fiona moved northwestward into the Atlantic Ocean on Monday afternoon and continued to strengthen after battering the northeastern coast of the Dominican Republic through the day and knocking out power across Puerto Rico on Sunday, causing what the governor there called 'catastrophic' damage.     More than 1.3 million utility customers in Puerto Rico were still without electricity as of the latest update on Monday morning, according to, which tracks power interruptions. Puerto Rico's power company, LUMA, said it had restored power to about 100,000 customers but warned that full restoration could take several days."     NPR News reported over 30 inches of rain fell in places in Puerto Rico. The storm was devastating to the still not repaired power grid, and flooding is slowing repairs. (Laura N. Pérez Sanchez and Patricia Mazzei, "On Anniversary of Hurricane Maria, Storm Leaves Puerto Rico in the Dark," The New York Times, September 19, 2022,

     Edmar Barros and Fabiano Maisonnave. "Months after floods, Brazil's Amazon faces a severe drought: In the Porto Praia Indigenous community, the nearby branch of the Amazon River has become a vast swath of sand that during the day becomes too hot to walk across," ICT, October 22, 2022,, reported, " Just months after enduring floods that destroyed crops and submerged entire communities, thousands of families in the Brazilian Amazon are now dealing with severe drought that, at least in some areas, is the worst in decades. The low level of the Amazon River, at the center of the largest drainage system in the world, has put dozens of municipalities under alert.    The fast-decreasing river water level is due to lower-than-expected rainfall during August and September, according to Luna Gripp, a geosciences researcher who monitors the western Amazon's river levels for the Brazilian Geological Survey. As most of Amazonas state is not connected by roads, the main concern is the shortage of food, fuel and other goods normally transported through waterways. In Tefe, a city of 60,000 people by the Amazon river, large ships have not been able to arrive at the downtown port."
A heat wave with yet again record temperatures was hitting Europe in mid-June, with 102 degrees Fahrenheit in Valencia, Spain, killing birds, and 102 in Southern, with 90 degrees in London, as the heat, out of Africa was moving first north and then east ("Europe heat wave makes Tube sweaty in London, kills baby birds in Spain," Washington Post, June 17, 2022,
    David Segal and José Bautista," " The Olive Oil Capital of the World, Parched: Spain's Jaén Province, home to one fifth of the world's supply of "green gold," copes with climate change and threats to its way of life," The New York Times, September 10, 2022,, reported, " Drought has ravaged dozens of crops throughout Europe &emdash;; corn in Romania, rice in Italy, beans in Belgium, and beets and garlic in France. Among the hardest hit is the olive crop of Spain, which produces one half of the world's olive oil. Nearly half of Spain's output comes from Jaén &emdash;; pronounced hi-EN &emdash;; a landlocked southern province of 5,200 square miles, about the size of Connecticut, that yields far more olive oil annually than all of Italy, according to the International Olive Council. It is often called the olive oil capital of the world."
       Farouq Suleiman   and Sachin Ravikumar, "UK declares drought in parts of England amid heatwave," Reuters, August 12, 2022,, reported,
      Summary       Government met environment officials and water companies Drought declared for parts of England      Northern English water company announces hosepipe ban 
    Flash floods could follow dry weather, say Met Office  Britain officially declared a drought in parts of England on Friday as households faced new curbs on water usage during a prolonged period of hot and dry weather that has kindled wildfires and tested infrastructure
     The drought, the first in England since 2018, means that water companies will step up efforts to manage the impact of dry weather on farmers and the environment, including by managing water to protect supplies, the Environment Agency said. "  
     The August drought follows England's driest July in nalmost 90 years, when temperatures reached record highs of over 104 degrees Fahrenheit. The source of the River Thames River dried up further than previously recorded.
Aurelien Breeden, ""Most Severe' Drought Grips France as Extreme Heat Persists in Europe: A lack of rain and a string of heat waves have caused devastating wildfires and left farmland parched in the country and much of the continent," The New York Times, August 5, 2022,, reporte, " France declared Friday that it was in the grip of its 'most severe' drought, one that has also desiccated large areas of Europe this summer, causing wildfires and imperiling crops as temperature records shatter across the continent."
     Borut Zivulovic, quot;Rescue teams scan mountains for missing after Italian glacier collapse," Reuters, July 4, 2022,, reported, "Helicopter crews and drones flew over the Italian Alps on Monday searching for 14 people missing after part of a mountain glacier collapsed, killing at least seven people in a disaster experts linked to rising temperatures.Much of Italy has been baking in an early-summer heatwave and scientists said climate change was making previously stable glaciers more difficult to predict. read more: ""

      Jennifer Hassan , "Spain devastated by wildfires amid record-breaking heat wave," Washington Post, June 20, 2022, reported, " Wildfires in Spain have destroyed thousands of acres of land and forced hundreds of residents to flee their homes amid a punishing heat wave across Europe.     Some of the fires continue to burn, with firefighters working to extinguish flames that have now ravaged about 49,000 acres, according to the regional government of Castile and Le—n. On Friday, the World Meteorological Organization warned that all of Spain faced 'extreme fire risk' because of the heat and drought."

     The heat and dryness was continuing in Europe: "Europe's Scorching Summer Puts Unexpected Strain on Energy Supply: The dry summer has reduced hydropower in Norway, threatened nuclear reactors in France and crimped coal transport in Germany. And that's on top of Russian gas cuts." The New York Times , August 18, 2022,, reported, "It has been a summer of heat and drought across Europe, affecting nearly every part of the economy and even its normally cool regions, a phenomenon aggravated by human-caused climate change. France has been scarred by vast wildfires, and its Loire Valley is so dry the river can be crossed in places on foot. The Rhine in Germany is inches deep in parts, paralyzing essential commerce and stranding riverboat cruises. Italy is drier than at any time since 1800, and the growers of its iconic rice used for risotto now risk losing their harvest.    But perhaps the drought's most surprising impact can be found in Norway's usually drenched south, where sheep have gotten stuck in exposed mud banks and salmon have lacked enough water to migrate upriver. Hydropower reservoir supplies &emdash;; responsible for 90 percent of Norway's electricity as well as electricity exports to several of its neighbors &emdash;; have sunk to the lowest point in 25 years, causing shortages that have driven up both prices and political tensions."
      Jenny Gross, "Low Water Levels Disrupt European River Cruises, a Favorite of U.S. Tourists," The New York Times, August 29, 2022,, reported, " One of Europe's worst droughts in decades has left the water level of parts of the Rhine and the Danube Rivers too low for ships to pass, paralyzing commerce and causing disruptions for companies that transport goods and commodities like oil and coal. The drought has also affected river cruises, forcing passengers to cope with last-minute changes to their itineraries, long bus rides and missed excursions."
        The summer of 2022 drought switched Holland from a nation expert at diverting flood waters to one seeking sufficient water (Raymond Zhong, "The World Champions; of Banishing Water Now Work to Keep It," The New York Times, October 11, 2022).
      A deluge of 5.5 inches of rain in seven hours created deadly flooding in Southern Austria, in late June, 2022 (Christine Hauser and Christopher Scheutze, "Deadly Deluge Rips Through Southern Austria," The New York Times, June 30 , 2022).
      Gaia Pianigiani, "Landslide on Italian Island Sweeps Away Homes and Turns Roads Into Rivers of Mud: At least one person was killed and an estimated 10 others were missing on the island of Ischia, a popular tourist destination off the coast of Naples," The New York Times, November 26, 2022,, reported, " At least one person was killed and nearly a dozen were missing on Saturday on the southern Italian island of Ischia, where heavy rains caused a landslide that engulfed streets, vehicles and houses and left hundreds of people without electricity or running water."
      A rare huge wildfire in Algeria scorched thousands of acres, killing at least 37 people as hundreds fled, in August,2022 (Cora Englebrecht and Massinissa Benlakehal , "Wildfires Kill at Least 37 People in Algeria," The New York Times, August 19, 2022).

     In Egypt climate change is exacerbating the damage of centuries of human activity in damaging ancient monuments and sites (Vivian Yee, " Climate Change and Human Activity Erode Egypt's Treasured Antiquities: The effects of global warming on the country's monuments are already striking. And the" The New York Times,  changing weather is only amplifying centuries of destructive human impact, The New York Times, November 12, 2022,
      Karen Zraick, "Jordan Is Running Out of Water, a Grim Glimpse of the Future: The small Middle Eastern nation is already one of the driest countries in the world and rising heat, coupled with a growing population, is making things much worse," The New York Times , November 10, 2022,, reported, " Residents of Jordan, one of the driest countries in the world, have long been accustomed to a household water supply of only about 36 hours a week. But recently, even that meager flow has been curtailed by the debilitating combination of a warming planet and swelling demand."
     Samya Kullab, " Politics, climate conspire as Tigris and Euphrates dwindle : The starkly different realities are playing out along one of the world's most vulnerable watersheds," ICT, November 18, 2022,, reported, " The starkly different realities are playing out along the length of the Tigris-Euphrates river basin, one of the world's most vulnerable watersheds. River flows have fallen by 40 percent in the past four decades as the states along its length &emdash;; Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq &emdash;; pursue rapid, unilateral development of the waters' use.     The drop is projected to worsen as temperatures rise from climate change. Both Turkey and Iraq, the two biggest consumers, acknowledge they must cooperate to preserve the river system that some 60 million people rely on to sustain their lives."
      Farnaz Fassihi, "Heavy Rain Causes Deadly Flooding Across Iran," The New York Times, July 30, 2022 ,, reported, " Heavy rains in Iran that began Wednesday have set off flash floods and landslides in 21 of the country's 31 provinces, killing at least 53 people, heavily damaging hundreds of villages, cutting off access to major roads and forcing the evacuation of an ancient city, officials say.  
     With the death toll expected to rise &emdash;; at least 16 people are still missing &emdash;; the flood is the deadliest water-related episode in a decade. The national crisis center said heavy rainstorms and flood risk would continue until Monday, and it issued a nationwide warning to stay away from riverbanks and valleys."

      Ryan Woo, "Heatwaves to menace China as almanac's 'big heat' day looms," Reuters, July 22, 2022,, reported, Summary:
     Heatwaves expected to return to China over next 10 days      Manufacturing provinces vulnerable, power grid to be tested
alerts issued by some cities in Zhejiang province
      China will suffer the return of more heatwaves over the next 10 days from east to west, with some coastal cities already on their highest alert level and inland regions warning of dam failure risks because of melting glaciers."      The hot spell is expected to be similar in scope as heatwaves from July 5-17, but more regions could be hit by temperatures of 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit) or higher, Fu Jiaolan, chief forecaster at the National Meteorological Centre, told state media."
      China continued to suffer repeated, unprecedented heat waves, hurting people and the economy, thoughtout the summer of 2022. For example, "Factory Shutdowns, Showers for Pigs: China's Heat Wave Strains Economy: A severe drought has dented energy supplies and disrupted access to water for hundreds of thousands. Cities order rolling blackouts; farmers rush to save crops," The New York Times, August 18, 2022,, reported, " Faced with China's most searing heat wave in six decades, factories in the country's southwest are being forced to close. A severe drought has shrunk rivers, disrupting the region's supply of water and hydropower and prompting officials to limit electricity to businesses and homes. In two cities, office buildings were ordered to shut off the air-conditioning to spare an overextended electrical grid, while elsewhere in southern China local governments urged residents and businesses to conserve energy.     The rolling blackouts and factory shutdowns, which affected Toyota and Foxconn, a supplier for Apple, point to the ways that extreme weather is adding to China's economic woes. The economy has been headed toward its slowest pace of growth in years, dragged down by the country's stringent Covid policy of lockdowns, quarantines and travel restrictions, as consumers tightened spending and factories produced less. Youth unemployment has reached a record high, while trouble in the real estate sector has set off an unusual surge of public discontent."

    And yet again: "China's scorching southwest extends power curbs as drought, heatwave continue," Reuters, August 22, 2022,, reported,      " Summary
     China announces 11th consecutive heat 'red alert'  Sichuan extends industrial power use curbs until Aug. 25      Chongqing cuts working hours of commercial venues     Shortages could affect Tesla       China's scorched southwestern regions extended curbs on power consumption on Monday as they deal with dwindling hydropower output and surging household electricity demand during a long drought and heatwave.State weather forecasters issued a heat 'red alert' for the 11th consecutive day on Monday, as extreme weather continues to play havoc with power supplies and damage crops. They also raised the national drought alert to "orange" - the second-highest level."
       John Yoon, "South Korea Is Spared as Typhoon Hinnamnor Makes Swift Exit: The storm brought heavy rain and blackouts near the southern coast, but its fast pace kept the country from experiencing the severe damage caused by floods in August," The New York Times , September 6, 2022,, reported, "South Korea on Tuesday was hit by heavy rain and strong winds but avoided the extensive destruction that many had feared as Typhoon Hinnamnor [one of the strongest storms ever to reach South Korea] made its way out to sea faster than forecasters had expected. By Tuesday evening, three deaths had been reported and eight people were missing, the authorities said. The damage nationwide appeared to be limited. There was isolated flooding, trees were felled, street lamps broken and about 66,000 homes lost power, mostly in the south. Forty inches of rain were recorded on Jeju Island and 11 in cities near the southern coastal region."

    Max Bearak, Raymond Zhong and Ihsanullah Tipu Mehsud, "Deadly Floods Devastate an Already Fragile Pakistan: More than 1,100 have died as record monsoon rains inundate the country, washing away bridges, roads and crop fields. Much of Pakistan is underwater," The New York Times, 29, 2022,, reported, " Across Pakistan, torrents of floodwater have ripped away mountainsides, swept buildings off their foundations and roared through the countryside, turning whole districts into inland seas. More than 1,100 people have died so far, and more than one million homes have been damaged or destroyed.  
     After nearly three months of incessant rain, much of Pakistan's farmland is now underwater, raising the specter of food shortages in what is likely to be the most destructive monsoon season in the country's recent history
     In Nepal, a project underway since 1972 to bring piped water from the mountains to every house in the capital of Kathmandu was totally destroyed when a climate change caused sudden spike in temperature caused millions of gallons of water to come crashing down from the Himalayas, setting off a massive mud slide (Emily Schmall and Bhadra Sharma, "Kathmandu inally got Tap Water. After a Climate Disaster, It was Gone," The New York Times, October 7, 2022 ).
       Ruma Paul, "Cyclone lashes Bangladesh killing nine, flooding low-lying areas," Reuters, October 25, 2022,, reported, " A cyclone roared into the Bangladesh coast on Tuesday, killing at least nine people, destroying houses, uprooting trees and disrupting road, power and communication links, officials said.   Mass evacuations before Cyclone Sitrang made landfall on the west coast helped save lives, but the full extent of the casualties and damage would only be known after communications were fully restored, they said."
       Hikari Hida and John Yoon, "Powerful Typhoon Thrashes Japan, With Millions Told to Evacuate," The New York Times, September 18, 2022,, reported, " Typhoon Nanmadol brought torrential rain and the risk of destructive landslides to Japan's southernmost main island on Sunday, and more than eight million people were ordered to evacuate and seek shelter from the powerful storm, which was expected to traverse virtually the entire length of the country.     Some areas of the southern island, Kyushu, were expected to receive 20 inches of rain or more, an amount not seen in the area in decades, officials said. While the heavy rain was viewed as the primary threat to residents' safety, winds exceeding 110 miles per hour were also recorded, causing heavy waves."
      Christina Goldbaum and Zia ur-Rehman, ""Very Dire': Devastated by Floods, Pakistan Faces Looming Food Crisis: The flooding has crippled Pakistan's agricultural sector, battering the country as it reels from an economic crisis and double-digit inflation that has sent the price of basics soaring," The New York Times, September 11, 2022, reported, "Violent swells have swept away roads, homes, schools and hospitals across much of Pakistan. Millions of people have been driven from their homes, struggling through waist-deep, fetid water to reach islands of safety. Nearly all of the country's crops along with thousands of livestock and stores of wheat and fertilizer have been damaged &emdash;; prompting warnings of a looming food crisis. Since a deluge of monsoon rains lashed Pakistan last week, piling more water on top of more than two months of record flooding that has killed hundreds of people and displaced tens of millions, the Pakistani government and international relief organizations have scrambled to save people and vital infrastructure in what officials have called a climate disaster of epic proportions."
On top of what seems obvious, there is now clear evidence that Pakistan's unprecedented in time and intensity flooding in late summer 2022 is global warming induced climate change related (Raymond Zhong, "In a First Study of Pakistan's Floods, Scientists See Climate Change at Work: A growing field called attribution science is helping researchers rapidly assess the links between global warming and weather disasters," The New York Times, September 15, 2022,
       Choe Sang-Hun, ""We Couldn't Do Anything': Family Drowns in Seoul Basement During Floods: Hundreds of thousands of poor people live in semi-underground homes around the city. The death of a family of three showed how vulnerable they are to flooding," The New York Times , August 10, 2022,, reported, "At 4:40 p.m. on Monday, the 13-year-old girl texted her 72-year-old grandmother who was in the hospital, wishing her well and saying that she was praying for her quick recovery."
    "Four hours later, floods triggered by one of South Korea's heaviest rainfalls gushed down the steps into the three-room, semi-underground home in southern Seoul where the teenager had lived with her mother, 47, and her aunt, 48"

     Severe Tropical Storm Nalgae trashed the Philippines, in late October, causing mud slides and floods, killing at least 54 people (Jason Guitierez and John Yoon, "At Least 54 Killed in Philippine Storm, " The New York Times, October 30, 2022).
     Elian Peltier,     "At Least 141 Die in Congo as Floods and Landslides Hit Capital: In Kinshasa, a megacity of 15 million, heavy rain left roads, infrastructure and many neighborhoods underwater or in ruins," The New York Times, December 14, 2022,, reported, " At least 141 people died in the Democratic Republic of Congo on Tuesday after heavy rains caused floods and landslides in the capital, Kinshasa, Congolese officials said. It was the latest in a series of deadly environmental disasters to hit West and Central African countries this year."
      Declan Walsh, "Somalis Are Dying of Hunger. Officials Say It's Not a Famine. Why? An official declaration of famine would unleash aid and attention. Some experts say Somalia shows that the international system for making the judgment is broken," The New York Times, December 13, 2022,, reported, " In drought-ravaged Somalia, where the starving are streaming into giant refugee camps, it looks like a famine."  "Yet the international organization responsible for monitoring global hunger, in a report released Tuesday, declared that the dire crisis triggered by Somalia's worst drought in 40 years does not constitute a famine &emdash;; at least not yet." The mass hunger threatening famine is are a result of the combination of crop destroying drought and war.
  International Crisis Group (ICG), "Emissions Gap Report 2022", commentd " Floods, Displacement and Violence in South Sudan," "Stresses brought about by climate change &emdash;; including record-breaking droughts, floods and heat extremes &emdash;; are an important driver of internal displacement in the Global South. The impact that displacement in turn has on conflict dynamics is amplified in fragile states, where political instability and poor governance undermine climate resilience, impede humanitarian support and pave the way for communal friction.      A prime example is South Sudan, reeling from its recent civil war, where four consecutive years of historic flooding have exacerbated food and livelihood insecurity. Rising waters have sent pastoralists fleeing south, where their presence has increased tensions and contributed to violence in the Equatoria region ."
     For details go to:
      Australia continues to be hit before time to recover between alternating fires and floods.  Yan Zhuang, "Rising Waters Again Force Evacuations and Spread Misery in Australia: In the southern state of Victoria, worst hit by the recent floods, officials warn that the danger will remain for weeks, with the ground already saturated," The New York Times, October 15, 2022,, reported, " Two people have been killed, hundreds of homes inundated and thousands told to evacuate as flooding again battered Australia's southeast coast."
    "The states of New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania have all experienced flash flooding over the past week, as torrential rain fell onto already saturated land, causing rivers to swell and overflow
. Because of those conditions, flooding will continue to remain a risk for weeks, with even moderate rainfall posing a threat, the authorities said."
      "International Crisis Group (ICG), "Drought, Violence and Politics: Inside Laikipia's Cattle War, Photo Essay / Africa  20 July 2022,, commented, " A historic drought in Kenya is coinciding with a hotly contested election. Nerves in central and northern Kenya are fraying, as climate stresses intensify intercommunal conflict and amplify electoral tensions.
      Climate change, politics and resource competition are colliding again in a deadly combination on Kenya's fertile Laikipia plateau. When previous rainy seasons failed, in 2011 and 2017, herders from Kenya's arid and semi-arid regions took their cattle to lush Laikipia, sometimes leading to violent clashes among rival herder communities or between herders, on one hand, and farmers and ranchers on the other. But the violence in 2022 has been particularly pitched, thanks in part to conditions that include a two-year dry spell (or four consecutive failed rainy seasons, the longest string in at least 40 years) and hotly contested national and local elections, scheduled for 9 August .  
    Some of the worst violence in recent years has centred around western Laikipia county, where the immediate trigger for fighting often involves cattle rustling by rival communities (mainly Pokot, Samburu and Turkana) or the movement by herders of their cattle onto private ranches, conservancies and cultivated land. The clashes have killed at least 35 people since September 2021 and the army has been deployed in the area.    The roots of this violence are multifaceted. Land in Laikipia has long been contested. Large conservancies and ranches, along with commercial farms, occupy thousands of acres of well-watered grassland. Local communities, whose forebears were displaced from those lands by British colonial authorities and post-independence elites, resent the capture of both land and water. Grievances over inequitable land ownership tend to escalate in election years, particularly when candidates encourage herders to send their cattle to graze on private ranches', conservancies' and farmers' land in a bid to curry favour with the herders, even though this practice whips up local tensions. Kenyan police temporarily detained two local politicians for incitement in September 2021. While the charges were dropped for one of them, the other was charged again, for hate speech, in January 2022.
      There is no relief in sight from the immense pressure on livelihoods created by the long drought. Forecasts predict a fifth season of poor rains later in the year. At the same time, food insecurity is rising, compounded by rising global food and fertiliser costs in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine
    The Conference of the Parties, the main decision-making body of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, will hold its 27th annual meeting in Egypt in November to discuss global efforts to combat climate change. The topic of climate security will not figure on the official agenda, but the situation in central Kenya highlights why it requires more political attention by illustrating how increasingly severe climate stresses and conflict risks feed off one another, magnifying the dangers of instability, climatic distress and violence." Ruma Paul and Zarir Hussain, "Bangladesh, India race to help millions stranded in deadly flooding," Reuters, June 22, 2022,, reported,  " Authorities in Bangladesh intensified efforts on Wednesday to deliver food and drinking water to millions of people struggling after heavy rain unleashed catastrophic flooding across a quarter of the country." Parts of India were again impacted by climate change increased heavy rains.

     More and more frequently, scientists are able to show that increasingly extreme and destructive weather events are caused by climate warming induced climate change. This is the case of the increasingly torrential, deadly and less predictable monsoons inflicting great losses in the Indian subcontinent (Henry Fountain, "The Monsoon Is Becoming More Extreme and Harder to Predict," The New York Times, October 10, 2022).
       Ruth Maclean, "Nigeria Floods Kill Hundreds and Displace Over a Million: The country is experiencing its worst floods in years, damaging homes, infrastructure and vast sections of farmland," The New York Times, October 17, 2022,, reported, " Nigeria is suffering its worst flooding in a decade, with vast areas of farmland, infrastructure and 200,000 homes partly or wholly destroyed.     Then there are the lives that have been lost.      At least 603 people have died, more than 2,400 other people injured and over 1.4 million displaced. For some states, more than a month of floods is likely still to come."
      Renju Jose, "Tens of thousands of Sydney residents told to evacuate as rains flood suburbs," Reuters, July 4, 2022,, reported, " Fresh evacuation orders were issued for tens of thousands of Sydney residents on Monday after relentless rains triggered floods for the third time this year in some low-lying suburbs.     An intense low-pressure system off Australia's east coast is forecast to bring heavy rain through Monday across New South Wales after several places in the state were hit with about a month's worth over the weekend."
     Madagascar has been suffering an even worse than normal cycle of drought and strong storms bringing serious flooding, destroying crops and causing human suffering (Lynsey Chutel, "Madagascar, Battling Draught, Cyclones and Floods" The New York Times, November 19, 2022).
       Jane Margolies, "New York Developers Rush to Reduce Emissions as Hefty Fines LoomBuilding owners are trying to figure out how to pay for upgrades needed to comply with city regulations intended to fight climate change," The New York Times, August 16, 2022,, reported that New York City's City Council enacted Local Law 97 in 2019 as part of an effort to curb greenhouse gas emmissions in the City, " The law zeros in on large buildings in New York, setting limits on their emissions. The city's one million buildings generate nearly 70 percent of its carbon emissions because much of the energy for their heating, cooling and lighting comes from burning fossil fuels.   
     Now , with just 16 months until the deadline to meet the first thresholds &emdash;; and with the threat of fines that could climb to millions of dollars a year for buildings that do not &emdash;; landlords are on high alert."
      Brad Plumer, "California Approves a Wave of Aggressive New Climate Measures: After lobbying by the governor, lawmakers adopted $54 billion in climate spending and voted to keep open the state's last nuclear plant, The New York Times, September 1, 2022,, reported that the California legislature approved the governor's plan for an aggressive climate legislation that would require California to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2045, while reaching net zero emissions by other means, such as carbon capture and tree planting. "Lawmakers approved a budget laid out by Mr. Newsom that would spend a record $54 billion over five years on climate programs. That includes $6.1 billion for electric vehicles, including money to buy new battery-powered school buses, $14.8 billion for transit, rail and port projects, more than $8 billion to clean up and stabilize the electric grid, $2.7 billion to reduce wildfire risks and $2.8 billion in water programs to deal with drought
    As part of that spending package, legislators endorsed a plan to keep open the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, a pair of nuclear reactors on the state's central coast that provide 9 percent of California's electricity."
       Susan Phillips, " New Jersey sues oil companies for deceiving public about climate change,",
    October 18, 2022,, repored, " New Jersey filed a lawsuit against five oil companies and a trade organization (, saying the companies knowingly deceived the public about their contributions to global warming.  
    New Jersey Attorney General Matthew Platkin said internal industry documents show Exxon Mobil, Shell Oil, Chevron, BP, and ConocoPhillips all hid their knowledge that burning fossil fuels contributes to climate change."
Kenny Stancil, "Biden Accused of Lighting Fuse for 'One of the Nation's Biggest Carbon Bombs:' 'This is pouring another 5 billion gallons of oil on the fire every year and bulldozing a national forest in the process,' said one critic. 'It's a horrifying step in the wrong direction,'" Common Dreams, July 7, 2022,, reported, " The Biden administration came under fire this week after paving the way for an oil railway that its own projections suggest would increase planet-heating pollution in the United States by almost 1% .      President Joe Biden 'should be doing everything in his power to respond to the climate emergency, but he's about to light one of the nation's biggest carbon bombs,' Deeda Seed, a campaigner with the Center for Biological Diversity, said Wednesday in a statement.      'This is pouring another 5 billion gallons of oil on the fire every year and bulldozing a national forest in the process,' Seed continued. 'It's a horrifying step in the wrong direction."     On Tuesday, the U.S. Forest Service rejected challenges to the Uinta Basin Railway, which is expected to quadruple oil extraction in northeast Utah's Uinta Basin by connecting its fracking operations to a transcontinental railroad network that would move hundreds of heated tank cars loaded with waxy crude through the Colorado Rockies en route to Gulf Coast refineries each day .  
    If completed, the railway would provide enough transportation capacity to increase production from roughly 85,000 barrels per day to 350,000 barrels per day, 'amounting to up to 53 million tons of annual carbon pollution&emdash;;as much or more than what's produced by the nation's three largest power plants,' the Center for Biological Diversity, the Sierra Club, and Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment explained
    'Sending tens of millions of barrels of crude oil each year from Utah to the Houston area for refining would be equivalent to adding a new refinery to the region, which already exceeds national pollution standards,' the groups added.  Despite acknowledging that the project would increase nationwide greenhouse gas emissions by 0.8% at a time when scientists warn that global emissions must be halved by 2030 to stave off the worst impacts of the climate crisis, the Forest Service argued that constructing 88 miles of rail line to transport fossil fuels is in the public interest
     The agency issued a special use permit for the roughly 12 miles of tracks that would cross the Ashley National Forest in Utah, dismissing opponents' objections to cutting through public lands protected by the Roadless Area Conservation Rule.
      Although the oil trains pose a heightened risk of fires and spills, including along the vulnerable Colorado River that provides drinking water for 40 million people, federal regulators ordered Ashley National Forest officials to issue a right-of-way that would enable construction to begin next year
     Utah Sierra Club director Carly Ferro characterized the Forest Service's move to expand polluting activities 'into an area that's protecting an ecosystem critical to public and environmental health' as 'an egregious decision that exacerbates climate change instead of addressing the impacts we're feeling right here at home.'  
     The Biden administration's decision to greenlight the Uinta Basin Railway came just days after the U.S. Supreme Court's reactionary majority sharply curtailed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's authority to regulate power plant emissions, which prompted progressives to demand stronger executive action on climate from the White House. It also came less than two weeks after U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack directed the Forest Service to 'take bold actions' to 'address the climate crisis.'     'Secretary Vilsack was right to call for bold climate action but unleashing this destructive flood of oil is climate cowardice,' said Jonny Vasic, executive director of Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment. 'This area is already facing water and air quality issues.' 
    More than 100 environmental groups representing millions of people urged Vilsack in January to prevent construction of the Uinta Basin Railway by blocking the proposed right-of-way through Ashley National Forest, to no avail.  
     The federal government's own environmental analysis shows that the project would cause irreparable harm to biodiversity, digging up Utah streams in more than 400 locations and stripping bare 10,000 acres of wildlife habitat, including areas crucial to the survival of pronghorn, mule deer, and greater sage grouse . Dozens of counties and local governments in Colorado have also voiced opposition to oil railway, with several asking U.S. Sens Michael Bennet (D-Colo.) and John Hickenlooper (D-Colo.) to do everything in their power to stop it.
     In a Colorado Sun opinion piece published just three days before the U.S. Surface Transportation Board's (STB) mid-December approval of the Uinta Basin Railway, Seed wrote that "there is no such thing as a safe oil train."     If the railway is built, she noted, 'all routes lead through Colorado.' Each day, up to 10 two-mile-long trains hauling crude oil would whizz through mountains, valleys, and towns along the Western Slope and through cities in the Front Range. The oil trains would travel 'along the Union Pacific mainline, paralleling the Colorado River almost to its headwaters,' Seed pointed out. 'The trains will follow the Fraser River to Denver, where they'll head south through Colorado Springs and Pueblo toward refineries along the Gulf of Mexico. This will pose a tremendous health and safety threat to Coloradans and the state's remarkable wildlife and wild places.'
    In February, a coalition of environmental and public health groups sued the STB, accusing the agency of violating the National Environmental Policy Act by failing to adequately account for the life-threatening consequences of adding 53 million tons of carbon dioxide per year to the atmosphere by extracting and refining 350,000 barrels of oil per day from the Uinta Basin.      The pending lawsuit, filed in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, also accuses the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of violating the Endangered Species Act by failing to protect rare plants that the Uinta Basin Railway is set to destroy .     Ferro said that 'we will stay resilient in the face of the increasingly devastating consequences of the climate and extinction crises by fighting this project.'     Our work is licensed under Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)."
     "Trump-Appointed Judge Permanently Blocks Biden's Oil and Gas Leasing Moratorium: Fossil fuel extraction on federal lands and waters has accounted for an estimated 25% of all U.S. carbon emissions since 2005," Common Dreams, August 19, 2022,, reported, " A Trump-appointed federal judge in Louisiana issued a permanent injunction Thursday against President Joe Biden's moratorium on oil and gas lease sales on public lands and waters, a decision that came just 24 hours after a different court ruled that the administration's long-blocked drilling freeze could take effect .  Judge Terry Doughty of the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Louisiana, the same judge who temporarily halted Biden's lease sale moratorium last year, sided Thursday with the 13 fossil fuel industry-friendly Republican attorneys general who sued to block the pause."
      Jacob Bogage, " Biden's zero-emission government fleet starts with USPS: The Postal Service is set to roll out 34,000 electric mail trucks in the coming years, and it's transforming its operations to make them go," Washington Post, November 25, 2022,, reported, "The grandest experiment of the government's sprint to electrify its vehicle fleet is happening here, a 1 million-square-foot warehouse leased by the U.S. Postal Service in the outer reaches of Atlanta.
      As the White House pushes public agencies and big business to slash greenhouse gas emissions, it is leaning on the Postal Service to step up the pace to meet President Biden's directive to ensure all new government-owned vehicles are EVs by 2035. And, after a hard-won $3 billion infusion from Congress to jump-start its transition, the first of the agency's 34,000 zero-emission mail trucks will begin rolling out next year."     In all, the postal service operates some 317,000 vehicles. More are slated to be electric, but how many will be is not known.

    The U.S. Senate, in late September 2022, ratified the Kigali treaty amendment, joining 137 other countries in banning the use of the greenhouse gas warming Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (Lisa Friedman and Coral Davenport, "Senate Ratififies Global Pact to HFCs, Used in Cooling," The New York Times, September 22, 2022).

     The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 contains $2.6 billion for funding costal restoration projects to prepare for and respond to climate events (Stephanie Lai, "Costal Communities Cheer Billions in Natural Restoration Funding," The New York Times, September 21, 2022).

     text-decoration: Hannah Grover, "Amid international climate conference, EPA announces proposal for cutting methane emissions," New Mexico Political Report, November 4, 2020,, reported, " The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released new draft rules to limit methane emissions from the oil and gas sector on Friday during the United Nations Climate Change Conference, or COP27.  
     The draft rule released Friday builds upon a previous draft rule released last year ( text-decoration: Hannah Grover, ).       Environmental advocates say that the proposal is strong, but could be stronger. Many groups said further restrictions or elimination of routine flaring are needed. Full text of the draft rule can be found here ("
     "HSBC to end funding for new oil and gas fields," BBC News, December 14, 2022,, reported, " HSBC has announced it will stop financing new oil and gas fields, as part of its efforts to drive down global greenhouse gas emissions."
     "Europe's largest bank said it made the decision after receiving advice from international energy experts."

     Yadarisa Shabong and Pushkala Aripaka, Yadarisa Shabong and Pushkala Aripaka, "Shell picks gas veteran Sawan as CEO to lead transition," Reuters, September 15, 2022,, reported, " Shell (SHEL.L) has turned to the head of its gas and renewables business to drive its transition to a lower-carbon future , picking Wael Sawan to replace Ben van Beurden as chief executive.      Sawan's appointment comes at a pivotal time for the oil giant, which is aiming to reduce emissions to net zero by 2050 and moving away from fossil fuels even as Europe looks to fossil fuels to survive a growing energy crisis."
       Hannah Grover, "New online portal shows climate change impacts," New Mexico Political Reports, September 14, 2022,, reported, "A new website launched this week is intended to help people visualize how climate change is impacting their communities and to help communities plan for and respond to climate change.      President Joe Biden and Vice President Kamala Harris' administration announced the new Climate Mapping for Resilience and Adaptation portal ( ) on Thursday. According to a White House press release, the portal will "help state, local, Tribal, and territorial governments and leaders better track real-time impacts and access federal resources for long-term planning."

      Joe Lo, "Rich nations mobilise $15.5bn for Vietnam's coal-to-clean transition : The deal will help Vietnam to peak its greenhouse gas emissions five years earlier than planned and scale up renewable energy generation," Climate Home News, December 14, 2022, December 14, 2022, reported, " Wealthy countries and banks will provide $15.5 billion to help Vietnam transition away from coal, the UK foreign ministry announced on Wednesday. Half of the money is to come from governments, the Asian Development Bank and the International Finance Corporation. The rest will come from private investment co-ordinated by the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero."
      Crypto Currency has long been a significant contributor to global warming because the very extensive computer power involved in it uses a tremendous amount of electricity. In September 2022, Ethereum , the leading crypto currency firm, changed its software, reducing the operation's electricity use by 95% ( David Yaffe-Bellany, "Crypto's Long-Awaited "Merge' Reaches the Finish Line: Ethereum, the most popular cryptocurrency platform, completed its much-anticipated switch to a more energy-efficient infrastructure," The New York Times, September 15, 202, ).
      Alex Brown, "Geothermal Bubbles Up as Another Way to Fight Climate Change ," Pew Charitable Trust, September 9,, reported, "Steam and hot water pipelines feed the Blundell Geothermal Power Plant near Milford, Utah. Some states are seeking to enable more geothermal energy to power the grid and heat homes. Jon G. Fuller VWPics via The Associated Press 
      Geothermal power currently provides only a tiny fraction of the nation's electricity. But as states ramp up their transitions to renewable electricity, some leaders see a big role for geothermal as a stable, renewable power source.
     Used in the United States since 1960, geothermal plants pipe steam or hot water from deep wells to power turbines that produce electricity. Harnessing underground heat is more expensive than developing wind or solar energy, but experts say the dependable output from sources like geothermal is critical to shore up the grid at times where the sun isn't shining or the wind isn't blowing. Many state leaders have focused on battery storage or preserving nuclear plants to complement their wind turbines and solar panels. Some are starting to view geothermal &emdash;; which currently provides less than half of a percent of the country's power &emdash;; as an underutilized power source that can be accessed 24/7.               '[The capacity for geothermal power] is hugely greater than what we're generating right now,' said Roland Horne, the Thomas Davies Barrow professor of earth sciences at Stanford University. 'It's not intermittent, it runs all the time, and that's a very compelling advantage.'       Experts say that nearly every Western state could tap into more geothermal power, with potential to produce as much as 5% of the national electricity supply using existing technology. Some emerging systems, if successful, could raise that figure as high as 15%, backers say.  
    Earlier this summer, Colorado Gov. Jared Polis, a Democrat who chairs the 22-member Western Governors' Association, announced the group would be launching an initiative to explore expansion of the 'underdeveloped' resource. The association will study permitting challenges, workforce issues, markets and mapping, among other factors."  Brett Wilkins, "'Big Win' for Public Lands and Climate as US Judge Reinstates Coal Lease Ban: /It's past time that this misguided action by the Trump administration is overturned,' said one environmental campaigner," Common Dreams, August 12, 2022, ," reportd, "Climate and Indigenous activists on Friday applauded the reinstatement of an Obama-era moratorium prohibiting new coal leases on all public lands until after the completion of a thorough environmental review.  
    Brian Morris, chief judge of the U.S. District Court in Montana, issued an order reinstating the
2016 moratorium , which Ryan Zinke, former President Donald Trump's disgraced interior secretary, reversed the following year."

     Jake Johnson, "Reports of 'Breakthrough' in Fusion Power Fuels Hopes of Major Clean Energy Progress: 'If this is true, we are witnessing a moment of history: controlling the power source of the stars is the greatest technological challenge humanity has ever undertaken,' said one physicist," Common Dreams, December 12, 2022,, reported, "After decades of experimentation and billions of dollars in public investment, U.S. government scientists have reportedly achieved a major 'breakthrough' in fusion energy technology, a potential game-changer in the critical pursuit of clean, reliable, and low-cost alternatives to fossil fuels and conventional nuclear power. Citing unnamed sources with knowledge of the results, the Financial Times reported Sunday ( that scientists at a federal laboratory in California successfully produced 'a net energy gain in a fusion reaction for the first time,' a milestone that the Biden administration is expected to announce publicly on Tuesday."     This is an impotent development, but still a long way from reaching the point where fusion is a practical source of energy.
       Lisa Friedman, "E.P.A. to Designate PFAS, or "Forever Chemicals,' as Hazardous: A proposed rule would require companies to report spills of two toxic chemicals that have been linked to cancer," The New York Times, August 26, 2022,, "The Environmental Protection Agency said on Friday it will designate the two most commonly detected toxic 'forever chemicals,' which have been linked to cancer and have been found in everything from drinking water to furniture, as hazardous substances.      The move doesn't ban the chemicals, known as PFAS, but the proposed rule is one of the most significant actions the E.P.A. has taken to date on perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl compounds. It requires companies to assess and report to the government when the chemicals seep into water or soil, and could make companies responsible for any cleanup costs."

     Currently, the states, Indian nations and other entities that use the dwindling waters of the Colorado River are wrangling over how to allocate the far lesser amount that will be available. The successful settlement by the water users of the Yakama river water use distribution, in Washington, via a collaborative process - one of a number of such collaborative settlements, an Indigenous approach - offers a useful model for working out reduced water use for the Colorado River ( Henry Fountain, "Climate Change Is Ravaging the Colorado River. There's a Model to Avert the Worst: Success in the Yakima River Basin in Washington holds lessons for the seven states at war over water in the American West," The New York Times, September 5, 2022,
  Joseph Lee and Brett Marsh, "Colorado River Basin tribes work to protect their water rights: Amid historic drought and federal calls for cuts, tribes along the river face difficult choices," ICT, September 1, 2022,, reported, " Amid historic drought in the Colorado River Basin, the Gila River Indian Community is taking a drastic step to protect their own water resources. In a statement last week, Gov. Stephen Roe Lewis announced the tribe &emdash;; located just south of Phoenix &emdash;; would stop voluntarily contributing water to an important state reservoir ( ' We cannot continue to put the interests of all others above our own when no other parties seem committed to the common goal of a cooperative basin-wide agreement,' the statement reads.   
    Since 2021 , Lake Mead, a crucial water supply for the region, has been boosted by voluntary water contributions from the Gila River Indian Community and the Colorado River Indian Tribes. The Colorado River is a crucial source of water in the West, supplying water to 40 million people across seven states and Mexico. For years, tribes and communities in those states have received river water based on a complex allocation system (, but last week, the federal government announced historic water cutsthat will force Arizona, the most impacted state, to reduce water withdrawals from the Lake Mead reservoir by 21 percent next year. Lake Mead's levels are currently at a historic low of about 27 percent capacity."

     Christopher Flavelle, "Here's Where the U.S. Is Testing a New Response to Rising Seas: Native American tribes are competing for the first federal grants designed to help move communities away from high water and other dangers posed by climate change," The New York Times, November 2, 2022,,  reported that the United States is beginning to offer funding for Pacific Northwest tribes on the coast, seriously threatened and some already impacted by the rising Pacific Ocean,
     To move to new secure locations. This includes the Shoalwater Bay Reservation in Tokeland, WA among several more competing for funding in the first round
. Christopher Flavelle, " In a First, U.S. Pays Tribes to Move Away From Climate Threats: The Interior Department has selected the winners of a new competition to relocate communities vulnerable to climate change. It could become a model for the rest of the country." The New York Times, November 4, 2022,, reported, " At least 11 tribes applied for relocation funding under the new $130 million program, according to records obtained by The New York Times through a public-records request. Six were rejected.     The winning tribes include the Akiak Native Community, a village of fewer than 500 people on the Kuskokwim River in Southwest Alaska." " Nunapitchuk, a village 40 miles west of Akiak facing similar challenges, will get $2.2 million to relocate. Chefornak, a village on the Kinia River not far from the Bering Sea, will get $3 million." The other nation winning relocation funding in addition to the Makah Tribe, "was the Port Gamble S'Klallam Tribe, whose reservation is on the northern tip of Kitsap Peninsula, across the Puget Sound from Seattle, WA."   "Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe denounces Environmental Protection Agency's flawed Grasse River cleanup: March 2022 Ice Scour Event Released Hazardous PCBs," ICT, August 4, 2022,, reported, " The Saint Regis Mohawk Tribal Council submitted a letter this week to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) expressing its ongoing objection to the remedy for the Grasse River Remediation Project. The Grasse River remediation was completed on October 15, 2021. Addressed to Environmental Protection Agency Region 2 Administrator Lisa Garcia, the letter notes the 'devastating failure' earlier this year of Environmental Protection Agency's chosen remedy and the reintroduction of hazardous waste into the environment following an ice jam.  "A portion of the cap system approved by Environmental Protection Agency to cover the significant contamination in the sediment was torn apart by a March 2022 ice jam scouring event, which exposed and introduced hazardous waste with concentrations up to 1,500 mg/kg (parts per million) of PCBs in the river, and unknown concentrations released downstream into the St. Lawrence River,' stated Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe Environment Division Director Tony David.  The March 2022 and other ice jam events are noted on the Grasse River Project website jointly maintained by the Environmental Protection Agency and Arconic, as well as in the First Five-Year Review Report for Grasse River (aka ALCOA Aggregation Superfund Site - St. Lawrence County, New York )that is publicly available from the Environmental Protection Agency's website at"
      Gabrielle Canon, ""We're dwindling like the salmon': the Indigenous nations fighting for water rights: In California's Bay-Delta, civil rights are inextricable from water rights, a coalition says &emdash;; and a way of life is on the line," The Guardian, August 2022,, reported that the Bay-Delta, where the Sacramento and the San Joaquin rivers come together in California, climate change and overuse have been progressively degrading the area for many years, while the California wat authorities have been slow to act to mitigate the situation. A major problem has been that in the face of drought, greater amounts of water have been allocated for urban consumption and agricultural lands. "Once abundant species of plants and animals [and also salmon] that call these spaces home are disappearing. Flourishing toxic algal blooms threaten the health of the rivers and the people who live near them. As temperatures surge, there's even less water to go around." Wetlands have increasingly been disseminated, leaving only 5% of what originally flourished. Increased pollution has also been a problem.       "Now, a coalition of Indigenous nations [including Winnemem Wintu Tribe and the Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians], frontline communities and environmentalists has come together, hoping to spur state water officials to secure not just their water rights but their civil rights. The two, they say, are inextricably tied." The coalition is calling for more strict regulation to reduce water use.
     Hannah Grover, "Environmental assessment shows Chaco mineral leasing mineral moratorium would impact few Navajo allottees," New Mexico Political Report, November 17, 2022,, reported, Map Description automatically generated " Bureau of Land Management: The proposed area around Chaco Culture National Historical Park that could be withdrawn from mineral leasing.The U.S. Bureau of Land Management's environmental assessment of withdrawing federal lands around Chaco Culture National Historical Park from mineral leasing shows that less than a dozen Navajo allottees will be highly impacted by the decision .This is based on past analysis of where potential development could occur.The withdrawal is intended to protect sites that are sacred to the Pueblo tribes of New Mexico and the Navajo, or Diné, people."

      Norimitsu Onishi, "After Deadly Fires and Disastrous Floods, a Canadian City Moves to Sue Big Oil: A potential lawsuit by Vancouver would be the first in Canada to target the fossil fuel industry's role in climate change," The New York Times, August 29, 2022,, reported, " Nothing has been rebuilt since flames devoured the tiny village of Lytton [BC] last year, turning it into a national symbol of climate change. It was in Lytton, about 90 miles northeast of Vancouver, that temperatures set a national record of 49.6 degrees Celsius &emdash;; 121.3 Fahrenheit in Canada! &emdash;; before the deadly fire erupted." 619 people died from the heat in British Columbia, while causing tens of millions of dollars in damage.      "Now, the region is fighting back. Vancouver's City Council took preliminary steps in July toward suing major oil companies, seeking damages for the local costs of climate change."

     DeSmog, "Puerto Rican Cities Sue Fossil Fuel Companies in Major Class-Action, Climate Fraud Case," EcoWatch, December 5, 2022, m/puerto-rico-climate-liability-lawsuit.html, reported, " Nearly 25 years ago, oil major Shell predicted in an internal 1998 report that a class-action lawsuit would be brought against fossil fuel companies following "a series of violent storms .' That prediction is finally coming true: A group of Puerto Rican communities, which were ravaged by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017, are suing Shell and other fossil fuel producers in a first-of-its-kind, class action climate liability lawsuit.  The groundbreaking case &emdash;; filed November 22 in the U.S. District Court for the District of Puerto Rico &emdash;; is the first climate-related class action lawsuit in the United States filed against the fossil fuel industry to target the industry with federal charges of racketeering . It alleges that the fossil fuel defendants engaged in a coordinated, multi-front effort to promote climate denial and defraud consumers by concealing the climate consequences of fossil fuel products in order to inflate profits."
      Brijesh Patel, Rod Nickel and Nia Williams, "Keystone pipeline shut after 14,000-barrel oil spill in Kansas," Reuters, December 9, 2022,, reported,  " Canada's TC Energy shut its Keystone pipeline in the United States after more than 14,000 barrels of crude oil spilled into a creek in Kansas, making it one of the largest crude spills in the United States in nearly a decade.  
     The cause of the leak, which occurred in Kansas about 20 miles (32 km) south of a key junction in Steele City, Nebraska, is unknown. It is the third spill of several thousand barrels of crude on the pipeline since it first opened in 2010."

     A pipeline break and oil spill of about 50 barrels of brine (salt water and oil) on the Navajo reservation in Arizona in August 2022 may have done permanent damage to the fragile local environment (Donovan Quintero, "Elder questions Red Valley oil spill cleanup effort," Navajo Times, August 11, 2022).
       Max Bearak, "In Colombia, Drilling Pays the Bills. The Country's Leaders Want to Quit Oil: The president says oil is his economy's worst addiction. Phasing it out would be a global first for a major oil producer," The New York Times, November 15, 2022,, reported, "Over the past four decades, Colombia has pumped billions of barrels of oil from under a vast savanna it shares with neighboring Venezuela. Through pipelines, the thick crude travels over the Andes and to the Caribbean coast, and then onto tankers, mostly to the United States." As a result, Colombia has become economically addicted to oil. In the span of a generation, the nation's economy became dependent on oil revenue.This year, voters moved to break that habit, electing Colombia's first leftist president in two centuries of independence, a former guerrilla fighter and environmentalist who wants to phase out oil while heavily taxing coal mining companies."

     "Europe's Race to Secure New Energy Sources Is on a Knife's Edge: A long-term switch to more renewable sources has been overtaken by a short-term scramble to stave off a crisis," The New York Times, July 30, 2022,, reported, " As Russia tightens its chokehold on supplies of natural gas, Europe is looking everywhere for energy to keep its economy running. Coal-fired power plants are being revived. Billions are being spent on terminals to bring in liquefied natural gas, much of it from shale fields in Texas. Officials and heads of state are flying to Qatar, Azerbaijan, Norway and Algeria to nail down energy deals."  
     But an important part of Europe's energy struggle is an effort at energy conservation, reducing energy, in fact, from all sources of its generation, "Dry Fountains, Cold Pools, Less Beer? Germans Tiptoe Up the Path to Energy Savings: Local leaders find themselves at the front line of Europe's conservation efforts, fearing a Russian gas cut. It's not an easy place to be," The New York Times, July 29, 2022,, reported, "...these days he has the unpopular task of calculating which traffic lights to shut off, how to lower temperatures in offices and swimming pools &emdash;; and perhaps, if it comes to it, pulling the plug on Bavarians' beloved but energy-intensive breweries. 
      Municipal officials like Mr. HŸbschle, the economic adviser to the provincial Bavarian city of Augsburg, sit on the front line of a geopolitical struggle with Russia since European Union leaders agreed this week to try to reduce natural gas consumption by 15 percent, fearing that President Vladimir V. Putin could cut exports in retaliation for Europe's support for Ukraine."
     Noah Browning, Ron Bousso  and Wendell Roelf , "Analysis: Ukraine war rekindles Europe's demand for African oil and gas: Summary: Companies Potential for African projects costing up to $100 bln; Namibia oil discoveries could generate 500,000 bpd; Oil majors' steps dovetail with push by European governments; Africa sees golden chance to tap assets amid energy transition," Reuters,  July 22, 3022,, reported, " Europe's thirst for oil and gas to replace sanctioned Russian supply is reviving interest in African energy projects that were shunned due to costs and climate change concerns, industry executives and African officials said.
     Energy firms are considering projects worth a total of $100 billion on the continent, according to Reuters calculations based on public and private company estimates
       Constant Méheut, "As France Swelters, Private Jets Come Under Attack: Politicians are proposing regulating or banning flights by such planes after a summer of extreme heat and soaring energy prices prompted growing calls to tackle the causes of climate change," The New York Times, August 25, 2022,, reported, " As France reels from a summer of extreme temperatures and soaring energy prices, prompting increasingly urgent calls to rein in polluters contributing to global warming, one high-flying culprit is finding itself in the cross hairs: the private jet.     In recent days, France's transportation minister called for flights by such planes to be restricted because of their outsize contribution to climate change, while a prominent lawmaker for the Green Party said he would soon introduce a bill to ban them altogether."

      The $1.2 trillion Norwegian government investment fund, Norway Fund, set 2050 as a deadline for all companies it invests in to achieve net zero (Peter Evis, "Norway Fund Sets Deadline for Companies on Net Zero," The New York Times, September 21, 2022).
     Sibi Arasu, "India to miss renewable energy goal, officials, experts say," AP News, August 12, 2022,, reported that India had aimed at producing 43% of its energy by greenenergy by the end of 2022. " India will miss its renewable energy target for the end of the year , with experts saying ' multiple challenges' including a lack of financial help and taxes on imported components are stalling the clean energy industry.     The country has installed just over half of its planned renewable energy capacity, a high level parliamentary report found last week." The Indian government hopes to acheve the 43% goal by mid 2023."

      Emily Schmall and Hari Kumar, "Coal Baron or Climate Warrior? The Dizzying Rise of Asia's Richest Man: The business decisions of Gautam Adani could go a long way in determining whether India helps the world avert a climate catastrophe," The New York Times, October 30, 2022,, reported, that Gautam Adani " is still in a hurry. In the past five years, Mr. Adani, an Indian industrialist, has seen his net worth skyrocket 1,440 percent, to around $120 billion, making him the richest man in Asia and one of the four wealthiest people on earth.""Mr. Adani, however, is also poised to be a decisive force in India's green future, pledging tens of billions of dollars to develop renewable energy alongside his investments in coal. Much is riding on how well he strikes the balance."
     The world's nations agreed, in early October, 2022, to have aviation become carbon neutral by 2050. To achieve that will require billions of dollars in investment in research and development (Hiroko Tabuchi, "Nation's Agree to Curb Energy from Flying by 2050; Curbs on Air Travel May Be Needed," The New York Times, October 8, 2022).
     Oscar Lopez, "Mexico Sees Its Energy Future in Fossil Fuels, Not Renewables: The president's push to bring the energy sector under state control has put up roadblocks to renewable energy and left Mexico's climate goals behind," The New York Times, August 17, 2022,,  reported, "Driven by Mr. L—pez Obrador's long-held goal to wrest control of the energy sector from private companies and allow state firms to dominate the market, the government is undermining efforts to expand renewable power and staking the nation's future on fossil fuels."    "To this end, Mexican authorities are using the might of their regulatory agencies to keep renewable firms out of the market, blocking their power plants from operating, and instead propping up fossil fuel-powered plants owned or run by the state, according to interviews with more than a dozen former government officials, analysts and energy executives."
     Kevin Koenig, Eye on the Amazon, "Ecuador Declares Temporary Moratorium on New Oil and Mining Concessions." Amazon Watch, September 13, 2022,, reported, " Ecuador's Indigenous movement and the government of Guillermo Lasso have agreed to a temporary moratorium on all new oil and mining concessions. This major development puts the country's plans to double oil production and significantly boost mining investment in question.       The deal was reached after 60 days of negotiations between Indigenous organizations, including the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE), and the government. The talks were the result of an 18-day strike by Indigenous peoples over rising costs of living, the environment, and rights impacts of oil and mining activity in the Amazon and Andes mountains. The moratorium will remain in place for at least 12 months or until there is a law guaranteeing the right to free, prior, and informed consultation for Indigenous peoples before such activities can take place in their territories. CONAIE representatives are not satisfied with the negotiations and are discussing strategies to secure government responses to their core demands
     The agreement halts any new contracts for 16 Amazonian oil blocks, putting the government plans to auction the concessions in the next year on hold. The concessions, which were slated to be part of the Ronda Suroriente oil tender have long been controversial. Protests from Indigenous nations, lawsuits, and international campaigns have kept companies from drilling there for decades. But Lasso's hope to open up the blocks &emdash;; an estimated 36,422 square kilometers of primarily roadless, old-growth rainforest &emdash;; to new exploration incompatible with the goal of the Paris Climate Agreement to restrict warming to 1.5¡ &emdash;; 2¡C, continues to run into trouble.      It also halts new mining concessions &emdash;; which the government had been feverishly courting new investment for &emdash;; until a free, prior, and informed consultation law is adopted. It also restricts new environmental permits for mining activities until comprehensive environmental legislation is passed. Legal and illegal gold and copper mining have taken a devastating toll on the country's rich Andean-Amazon ecosystems and the health of local communities. Indigenous leaders critical of oil and mining continue to face intimidation, threats, and criminalization for their efforts to protect their territories and exercise their rights.
     At a Tuesday morning press conference in Quito, CONAIE president Leonidas Iza said, "After 50 years of oil "development,' the majority of the destruction is in our territories. It is our territories that are being destroyedÉIn all phases of extraction &emdash;; from the moment concessions are signed, through exploration and extraction, our rights to consultation and consent have been violated."    The oil industry is already sounding the alarm on the agreement, citing rising social risk and legal instability, and flagging that any potential oil from the new blocks is already years away&emdash;;all issues that the Indigenous movement and civil society organizations have been pointing out for years. These are many of the same issues that made companies like ConocoPhillips, ARCO, CGC, and others abandon drilling plans years ago.     Major E.U. banks have also committed to stopping the financing of trade of Ecuadorian crude, drying up the majority of traditional financing for the sale of oil from the Amazon and presenting another obstacle for government plans to double production. The move from banks forced Petroecuador to take the unprecedented step of modifying the terms and conditions of oil sales to help buyers obtain lines of credit from a dwindling pool of banks &emdash;; a move more common when a country is facing sanctions.       The agreement comes on the heels of recent legal challenges that could restrict oil extraction of Ecuador's largest oil reserves &emdash;; Ishpingo, Tambococha, Tiputini (ITT) &emdash;; underneath Yasun’ National Park. A recent decision by the country's national electoral court revived a case that could put the question of whether to leave the ITT fields permanently in the ground before voters as early as February. And a hea r ing that started in August by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in Brazil could give territorial rights to two Indigenous peoples living in isolation, expanding a "no-go" zone for them and restricting both new wells and some currently in production. El Universo reports that there will be a referendum soon on whether the constitution should specifically protect waterways and sources, and whether Indigenous peoples can be compensated by the government for protecting nature. Both opportunities are related to Indigenous demands leading up to the national strike led by CONAIE.    While CONAIE is also calling for a moratorium on current oil and mining production and for all new concessions to be canceled, the agreement is a necessary first step towards avoiding the lock-in of concession contracts and projects without securing the consultation of Indigenous peoples. This move could ultimately lead the government to end new exploration and expansion of the fossil fuel frontier and mining activity. Until it does, we'll maintain the pressure and ask for your solidarity &emdash;; international support is crucial in securing the path for the next victory."
      Julia Conley, "In 'Huge Victory' for Planet, Norway's Equinor Abandons Arctic Oil Field Plans: One group called the delay, which campaigners and experts see as a sign the project will be scrapped indefinitely, "a massive step towards a just transition,'" Common Dreams, November 10, 2022,, reported, " Climate campaigners in Norway applauded Thursday as state-owned energy giant Equinor announced it would postpone plans to develop an oil field in the Arctic Ocean, as analysts suggested the proposal will likely be put aside indefinitely.Equinor said the proposed Wisting oil field, which would have been its fourth hydrocarbon project in the Arctic, has grown too expensive due to global inflation and supply chain issues&emdash;;but campaigners credited sustained pressure as a factor that pushed the company to abandon the project."

      Jim Tankersley and Lisa Friedman,"U.S. and China Restart Climate Talks: Discussions about combating climate change between the world's two largest economies, and two biggest emitters of greenhouse gases, had been frozen since August," The New York Times, November 15, 2022,, reported, " President Biden and President Xi Jinping of China agreed on Monday to restart talks between their countries as part of international climate negotiations, a breakthrough in the effort to avert catastrophic global warming.Talks between China and the United States over climate had been frozen for months, amid rising tensions between the two countries over trade, Taiwan and a host of security issues. China suspended all cooperation with the United States, including around climate change, in August as retaliation for Speaker Nancy Pelosi's trip to Taiwan."
      " A ustralia Passes Dramatic Climate Change Bill, Pledges Net Zero Carbon Emissions By 2050," Posted by BeauHD , Slashdot, 8, 2022,, reported, "The Australian parliament Thursday passed (PDF:;fileType=application%2Fpdf) new legislation pledging to reduce carbon emissions by 43 percent by the year 2030 and to reach net zero carbon emissions by 2050. The laws mark the first Australian climate change legislation in over a decade and are the first substantial steps to combat climate change from the Australian Labor Party (ALP). ALP took power in May, defeating a conservative government that pulled back many of Australia's existing climate change measures. The new legislation requires government agencies to take emissions targets into account when creating their budgets, infrastructure or regulations. It also requires businesses to comply with new standards for energy usage, encouraging many businesses to embrace renewable energy. "

    "Anglo-French oil company threatens uncontacted tribes in Peruvian Amazon," Survival International, August 18, 2022,, reported, " Anglo-French oil company Perenco is lobbying Peru's government to scrap a proposed reserve for uncontacted tribes &emdash;; because it wants to continue drilling for oil there.  
     If the campaign is successful, it would place the uncontacted Indigenous peoples living in the proposed Napo-Tigre reserve in the northern Peruvian Amazon in extreme danger
     Perenco, headed by amateur racing driver François Perrodo, one of France's richest men, has for years faced serious allegations of environmental and human rights abuses in Africa and Latin America, and its operations are notoriously secretive.  
     In Peru, Perenco has a long-standing history of opposition to the creation of the Napo-Tigre reserve for uncontacted tribes. Its recent action &emdash;; filing a legal injunction objecting to the creation of the new reserve &emdash;; is not an isolated action: The company, along with the authorities in the Loreto region, and powerful oil and gas interests, is also involved in a public campaign against the creation and protection of Indigenous reserves.     In April, they asked the government to repeal the National Law for the Protection of Indigenous Peoples in Isolation (known in Peru as the PIACI Law); they consistently deny the existence of uncontacted peoples; and in early August, the regional governor of Loreto wrote to the government requesting the 'scrapping of the entire PIACI process.'
      Peruvian Indigenous organizations ORPIO and AIDESEP, together with Survival International, have voiced dismay at these attacks :      'Perenco is violating the human rights of our uncontacted brothers and sisters,' said Apu Jorge Pérez, President of AIDESEP, the Indigenous organization of the Peruvian Amazon. 
    On July 25, the official Commission in charge of creating the Reserve finally recognized the existence of uncontacted Indigenous peoples in the Napo-Tigre area, after a long campaign by Indigenous organizations. This vital step towards their protection had taken almost 20 years. 
    But Perenco's lawsuit, and the regional government's campaign, are aimed at undermining the process before it's complete, and would once again endanger the survival of the uncontacted tribes, the most vulnerable peoples on the planet.      Survival International researcher Teresa Mayo said today: 'Peru's government has finally recognized the existence of the uncontacted tribes of the Napo-Tigre territory &emdash;; it mustn't turn its back on them now. The Peruvian state now has an obligation to act swiftly to create and protect the reserve. We won't allow it to give in to pressure from big corporations, no matter how powerful they may be.'"
Ricardo Pérez Bail—n, Eye on the Amazon, "Oil in the Peruvian Amazon: Obscene Profits Through Immoral Strategies," Amazon Watch, August 30, 2022,, reported, As the war in Ukraine and geopolitical tensions continue, rising energy prices are causing inflation all over the world, increasing the cost of living for millions of people. While this happens, oil companies are making record profits. U.N. Secretary-General Ant—nio Guterres has described this situation as ' immoral.'  
    But generating mind-blowing profits at the expense of the general well-being is not the only immoral aspect of the global moment. In countries like Peru, the high price of oil is driving a new wave of legal initiatives benefiting the oil industry, seemingly borrowed from decades past. Anglo-French oil company Perenco is actively attempting to block the creation of a special reserve for Indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation, who are particularly vulnerable to violence and communicable diseases when outsiders enter their territory. Perenco's financial interest is directly at play, as the proposed reserve overlaps its oil concessions. Peru's national Indigenous federation, AIDESEP, recently issued a public condemnation, translated below.        Perenco's current legal strategy is to sue Peru's Ministry of Culture, demanding the nullification of the report that approved the creation of the Napo-Tigre Reserve for Isolated Indigenous Peoples, ignoring the enormous amount of evidence that in that this remote region of the Amazon rainforest is home for the Aewa, Taushiro, Tagaeri, Taromenane, and Zaparo peoples. A commission composed of more than a dozen government ministries and agencies approved the report, which contains 292 pieces of evidence in total. Of the group, only the Ministry of Energy and the provincial government of Loreto dared to vote against it. AIDESEP submitted the request for approval of this report, which was required to create the Napo-Tigre Reserve. Its approval was the result of more than 19 years of constant campaigning by AIDESEP and its affiliated organizations, and its approval signifies that the Peruvian government has finally recognized that there are indeed peoples in voluntary isolation living in this region of the Amazon. Consequently, the government now has a moral and legal obligation to establish a reserve that guarantees their rights to life and to their territory.
    Perenco, however, is demanding that the judge order the Ministry of Culture to incorporate the oil company into the approval procedure for the Napo-Tigre Reserve, and 'in this way it can carry out its legal activity before a new qualification is issued regarding the request for creation of the Indigenous Reserve presented by AIDESEP.' The company is effectively insisting that the judge stop the entire process until Perenco is formally included in the multi-ministerial commission in charge of establishing the reserve.
    In response, Julio Cusurichi, Goldman Prize winner and member of AIDESEP's National Council, stated: 'It is incredible and totally unacceptable that this foreign company has sued the Peruvian government in order to ignore the existence of these groups of human beings [É] Peru can't take a step back, the government must go ahead with the process of creating the Napo-Tigre Reserve in favor of these Indigenous peoples in isolation, as established by law [É] We will not allow this company to ignore or violate the legal framework for the protection of these very vulnerable peoples.' 
     Perenco, unfortunately, is not the only oil company with retrograde legal initiatives in the works. At the same time, Perupetro &emdash;; a public entity responsible for tendering Peruvian oil blocks on the international market &emdash;; recently proposed a bill before the Peruvian Congress that would 'authorize the exemption from prior consultation to sign a short-term contract.' If passed, this bill would facilitate the re-initiation of oil extraction in Block 8, an oil concession plagued by hundreds of environmental disasters that have been unresolved for decades.      These legal attacks against the protections for isolated Indigenous peoples and Peru's law on Free, Prior, and Informed Consultation are examples of how the oil lobby keeps the current legal framework &emdash;; the product of years of struggle by Peruvian Indigenous movements and civil society &emdash;; under constant siege. Whether the attacks are coming from the private or public sector, AIDESEP and its affiliated organizations will speak out to defend Indigenous collective and territorial rights.     We must be vigilant at their side. The global imperative to stop oil expansion &emdash;; whether in the Amazon or anywhere else &emdash;; is one of the most urgent causes that humanity has to address, before it is too late." (see AIDESEP's statement in English in Dialoguing).

      Romina Castagnino, "Mennonites deforest Peruvian Amazon, encroach on Indigenous lands: Chasing Deforestation," Mongabay, December 6, 2022, , reported, "Chasing Deforestation is a series that explores the world's most threatened forests through satellite data and reporters on the ground.  
     Host Romi Castagnino travels to the central Peruvian Amazon Rainforest, where a deeply conservative religious group, known as Mennonites, has been illegally deforesting land and encroaching upon Indigenous territories to expand their agricultural fields.
     Satellite data show that Mennonite colonies are now the leading cause of large-scale deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon
.       Mennonites, an ultra-conservative religious group, are illegally converting pristine forests in the Peruvian Amazon into agricultural land. They are not only threatening biodiversity but also encroaching on Indigenous territory. Satellite data show that Mennonite colonies are now the leading cause of large-scale deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon ( &emdash;; exceeding deforestation caused by agribusiness and oil palm plantations."
      Hilary Swift, "In Utah, Restoring Spruce Forests One Cone at a Time: Seasonal workers climb tree after tree to collect seeds that will eventually help regrow forests, an effort that could get the country closer to its climate goals," The New York Times, November 20, 2022,, reported, "Blake Votilla stared up at the 120-foot spruce tree. He strapped braces with four-inch spurs to his shins and clipped two large red plastic sacks on his climbing harness. Reggaeton blasted from a portable speaker on his hip."      "Mr. Votilla, 30, was here in the Manti-La Sal National Forest, which covers stretches of Utah and Colorado and is known for its Engelmann spruce trees, as part of a federal program that hires contractors to climb the trees and collect their cones. The seeds from the cones are sent around the country and ultimately get planted to regrow forests that have been decimated by wildfire or deforestation. These efforts have become more urgent at a time when the rate and intensity of forest fires have increased and the country is attempting to meet ambitious climate goals."

     " To Fight Climate Change, Canada Turns to Indigenous People to Save Its Forests: Canada is looking to its Indigenous communities to help manage its boreal forests, the world's largest intact forest ecosystem and one of its biggest stores of carbon," The New York Times, November 17, 2022,, reported on Canadian policy concerning its boreal forests, representing the world's largest intact forest ecosystem and  one of the world's largest terrestrial carbon vaults, holding at least 208 billion metric tons of carbon. " In part to meet its climate goals, in part to further reconciliation with Canada's Indigenous communities, the Canadian government has been turning to them more and more to help manage boreal forests by ceding more of the forest land to Indigenous groups. Last year, the federal government set aside $340 million to support areas protected by Indigenous groups and networks of Indigenous experts.    Under this program, more than 50 Indigenous communities across the country have received financing to establish and oversee areas for conservation, turning them into stakeholders entrusted to not only resist deforestation, but also to safeguard their carbon sinks. The program will also support Indigenous people who will oversee these areas."
  Max Bearak and Manuela Andreoni, "Brazil, Indonesia and Congo Sign Rainforest Protection Pact: The three countries, home to more than half of the world's tropical rainforests, have agreed to negotiate a "funding mechanism' for conservation," The New York Times, November 14, 2022,, reported, " The three countries that are home to more than half of the world's tropical rainforests &emdash;; Brazil, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo &emdash;; are pledging to work together to establish a "funding mechanism' that could help preserve the forests, which help regulate the Earth's climate and sustain a variety of animals, plants, birds and insects.      The agreement, announced on Monday and signed by ministers from the three countries, said they would cooperate on sustainable management and conservation, restoration of critical ecosystems and creation of economies that would ensure the health of both the people and the forests."      At this point the announced plan is a preliminary call to action with no strategy, tactics or outside financial support. It is a hopeful first step in developing all that is necessary to put into action.

     Ruth Maclean and Dionne Searcey,"Congo to Auction Land to Oil Companies: "Our Priority Is Not to Save the Planet': Peatlands and rainforests in the Congo Basin protect the planet by storing carbon. Now, in a giant leap backward for the climate, they're being auctioned off for drilling," The New York Times, July 24, 2022,, reported, " The Democratic Republic of Congo, home to one of the largest old-growth rainforests on earth, is auctioning off vast amounts of land in a push to become 'the new destination for oil investments,' part of a global shift as the world retreats on fighting climate change in a scramble for fossil fuels.
    The oil and gas blocks, which will be auctioned in late July, extend into Virunga National Park, the world's most important gorilla sanctuary, as well as tropical peatlands that store vast amounts of carbon , keeping it out of the atmosphere and from contributing to global warming." 
     Irene Wabiwa, who oversees the Congo Basin forest campaign for Greenpeace in Kinshasa stated,  "If oil exploitation takes place in these areas, we must expect a global climate catastrophe, and we will all just have to watch helplessly.'"

     Dionne Searcey, "Can a Nation Replace Its Oil Wealth With Trees? Gabon knows its oil won't last forever, so officials are turning to the Central African nation's rainforest for revenue &emdash;; while also promising to preserve it," The New York Times, November 3, 2022,, reported, Gabon for decades has relied on petroleum to drive its economy. But officials know their oil won't last forever. So they've turned to Gabon's other abundant resource &emdash;; a huge Congo Basin rainforest, full of valuable trees &emdash;; to help make up the difference once the oil is gone.  
     Gabon is engaging in activities that have become dirty words in the world of climate activism: It allows palm-oil plantations in certain areas and is turning rainforest into plywood. However, unlike Brazil and other countries that have stood by as rainforests are decimated, Gabon has adopted strict rules designed to keep the vast majority of its trees standing. Its aim is to strike an important balance between the needs of a single nation and those of a world facing a climate crisis."
      The EU Parliament voted, in mid-September 2022 , to phase out some wood energy subsidies, possibly a first step in removing them all, in effort to reduce deforestation and cut production of greenhouse gasses (Sarah Hurtes, "E.U. Signals a Move Away from Wood Energy Aid," The New York Times, October 30, 2022).

      In Romania, in the false name of green energy, old growth trees are being cut to make pellet stove pellets whose burning is mor polluting than coal (Sarah Hurtes and Weiyi Cai, "Sacrificing Centuries-Old Trees in the Name of Renewable Energy" The New York Times, September 10, 2022).
      Lynsey Chutel and Clifford Krauss, "South African Villagers Win Suit to Halt Shell's Oil Exploration: A judicial panel ruled the energy giant had not properly consulted local communities, possibly setting a broader precedent for challenges to offshore drilling activities," The New York Times, September 2, 2022,, reported, "In a case that pitted rural South African communities against the energy giant Shell Global, a judicial panel ordered a halt this week to the company's plans to explore a pristine coastline for oil and gas, saying the residents were not properly consulted on the project.  In revoking Shell's rights to explore the seabed of South Africa's Wild Coast, a panel of three judges sided with rural communities, fishermen, traditional healers and environmental activists against the company and South Africa's government", saying the company had not held sufficient consultation with local people.
Sandra Cuffe ,"Guatemalans strongly reject mining project in local referendum," Mongabay, September23,  2022,, reported, " Nearly 88% of participating residents voted against metallic mining in a municipal referendum in Asunci—n Mita, in southeastern Guatemala .   
     Locals fear the Cerro Blanco gold mining project would pollute soil and water sources, affecting the health of residents and crops.
     There is also strong opposition in nearby El Salvador to the mine as it is located near a tributary of the Lempa River that provides water for millions of Salvadorans. Cerro Blanco owner Bluestone Resources, the Guatemalan Ministry of Energy and Mines and a local pro-mining group contest the legality of the referendum. The vast majority of participating voters rejected metallic mining projects in the referendum held on September 18 in Asunci—n Mita. Residents are concerned about the impacts a Canadian-owned gold mining project would have on local water sources and a major river downstream in nearby El Salvador. Following the vote, however , the mining company, Guatemalan Ministry of Energy and Mines and industry groups have all contested the legality of the referendum.  
    Casting their ballots at the same six polling stations used in general elections, 87.98% of participating registered voters in Asunci—n Mita rejected mining."

    "John Eligon and Lynsey Chutel, "The World Got Diamonds. A Mining Town Got Buried in Sludge: Waste from a diamond mine in South Africa grew ever higher as the ownership changed from De Beers to a billionaire to a Dubai-based retailer. The mining town paid the price. The New Yok Times , September. 23, 2022,, reported, " The dirt wall holding in mucky waste from diamond mining grew over the years to resemble a wide, towering plateau. Suspended like a frozen tsunami over neat tracts of Monopoly-like homes in the rural South African mining town of Jagersfontein, the dam alarmed residents who feared it may collapse." 
    " The worst fears of residents came true this month when a section of the dam crumbled, sending a thunderous rush of gray sludge through the community that killed at least one person, destroyed 164 houses, and turned a six-mile stretch of neighborhoods and grassy fields into an ashen wasteland." 
    This is not an isolated incident. All over South Africa there are similar mines with dammed sludge waste.
       Sameer Yasir and Mike Ives, "Air Quality in India's Capital Is Dreadfully Bad. Again.Toxic air in New Delhi and large parts of northern India this week has prompted school closures, traffic restrictions and political infighting," The New York Times, November 4, 2022, reported " This year's air pollution season in northern India is off to a dreadful start, even by the standards of a region with some of the world's worst air. 
    Particulate matter hovering over New Delhi, the capital, and nearby areas in recent days has turned the sky a muted gray and led to widespread suffering, school closings and other disruptions. Politicians are trading bitter accusations over who is to blame" for the worst air pollution seen in many years.
  Zach Winn, "Tapping Into the Million-Year Energy Source Below Our Feet: Creating geothermal wells made from the deepest holes in the world," Portside, July 18, 2022,, reported that MIT research engineer Paul Woskov has developed methods for using the still intact steam turbine in an abandoned coal power plant in upstate New York, still connected to transmission lines,  to produce geothermal energy. "Quaise Energy, the company commercializing Woskov's work, believes if it can retrofit one power plant, the same process will work on virtually every coal and gas power plant in the world.  Quaise is hoping to accomplish those lofty goals by tapping into the energy source below our feet. The company plans to vaporize enough rock to create the world's deepest holes and harvest geothermal energy at a scale that could satisfy human energy consumption for millions of years. They haven't yet solved all the related engineering challenges, but Quaise's founders have set an ambitious timeline to begin harvesting energy from a pilot well by 2026."

     Michelle Lewis, Michelle Lewis, " In a US first, California will pilot solar-panel canopies over canals,"  Electrek, August 26, 2022,, reported,  
     " Solar over canals:       August 26 update: Project Nexus in the Turlock Irrigation District, a $20 million project funded by the State of California, will break ground in mid-October at two locations : A 500-foot span of a canal in Hickman, east of ModestoA mile-long canal span in the nearby city of Ceres  
    Josh Weimer, Turlock Water & Power's external affairs manager, said [via Reuters]: 'If this is something that works on these first two miles of Project Nexus that we're doing, there's the potential that this could scale to multiple locations.'  
     If all 4,000 miles of California's canals were covered with solar panels, that could produce 13 gigawatts of renewable power. A gigawatt is enough to power 750,000 homes, so that would be enough power for 9.75 million households. For perspective, as of July 2021, there were 13.1 million households in California ."

     Ana Swanson, "This Remote Mine Could Foretell the Future of America's Electric Car Industry," The New York Times, August 30, 2022,, reported, "The company [ Talon Metals] is proposing to build an underground mine near Tamarack[MN] that would produce nickel, a highly sought-after mineral that is used to power electric vehicles. It would be a profitable venture for Talon, which has a contract to supply nickel for Tesla's car batteries, and a step forward in the country's race to develop domestic supply chains to feed the growing demand for electric vehicles.
     But mines that extract metal from sulfide ore, as this one would, have a poor environmental record in the United States, and an even more checkered footprint globally. While some in the area argue the mine could bring good jobs to a sparsely populated region, others are deeply fearful that it could spoil local lakes and streams that feed into the Mississippi River. There is also concern that it could endanger the livelihoods and culture of Ojibwe tribes whose members live just over a mile from Talon's land and have gathered wild rice here for generations."
    Ivan Penn "A Solar Firm Plans to Build Off-Grid Neighborhoods in California: Sunnova Energy is seeking permission from state regulators to develop microgrids for new housing developments that would not be reliant on established electric utilities," The New York Times, September 1, 2022,, reported, "On Thursday, one of the nation's largest rooftop solar companies, Sunnova Energy, asked the California Public Utilities Commission to let it directly compete with investor-owned utilities to provide electricity to homes in new residential developments as a private "micro-utility" &emdash;; a business model that is illegal in much of the United States.
    The company said it would offer those residents electricity that was up to 20 percent cheaper than the rates charged by investor-owned utilities like Pacific Gas & Electric and Southern California Edison. If approved by regulators, the micro-utility model, also known as a microgrid, could undermine the growth of those larger utilities by depriving them access to new homes or forcing them to lower their rates to keep that business."
      " Canada Plans Massive Wind-Powered Plant Producing Hydrogen for Germany," Slashdot ( 122, Posted by EditorDavid on Monday August 15, 2022,, reported, that in a first for Canada, "' The leaders of Canada and Germany will sign a multibillion-dollar green energy agreement this month "that could prove pivotal to Canada's nascent hydrogen industry,'" reports CTV News: The German government on Friday issued a statement confirming the agreement will be signed August 23 in Stephenville, where a Newfoundland-based company plans to build a zero-emission plant that will use wind energy to produce hydrogen and ammonia for export."            "Germany is keen to find new sources of energy because Russia's invasion of Ukraine has led to a surge in natural gas prices.... Meanwhile, the company behind the Newfoundland project, World Energy GH2, has said the first phase of the proposal calls for building up 164 onshore wind turbines to power a hydrogen production facility at the deep-sea port at Stephenville." 
    The first windfarm is scheduled to be complered in a year. Plans are to eventually tripple its size.

      In the North Sea off the coast of Scotland, as offshore oil production slows down, the building of huge offshore windfarms by former oil workers isf easing the transition to green energy and demonstrating the personal and general economic advantage of the transition. "Giant Wind Farms Arise Off Scotland, Easing the Pain of Oil's Decline: Oil and gas workers, losing their jobs as fossil fuel investment wanes, find work in the wind energy business," The New York Times, November 28, 2022,

      Brad Plumer, "War in Ukraine Likely to Speed, Not Slow, Shift to Clean Energy, I.E.A. Says: While some nations are burning more coal this year in response to natural-gas shortages spurred by Russia's invasion of Ukraine, that effect is expected to be short-lived: The New York Times, October 27, 2022,, reported, " The energy crisis sparked by Russia's invasion of Ukraine is likely to speed up rather than slow down the global transition away from fossil fuels and toward cleaner technologies like wind, solar and electric vehicles, the world's leading energy agency said Thursday.  
    While some countries have been burning more fossil fuels such as coal this year in response to natural gas shortages caused by the war in Ukraine, that effect is expected to be short-lived
, the International Energy Agency said in its annual World Energy Outlook, a 524-page report that forecasts global energy trends to 2050 ("
      Ellen Phiddian," World's biggest flow battery opens in China: The vanadium flow battery represents a paradigm shift in big storage," Cosmos, September 30, 2022,, reported, " The world's largest flow battery has opened, using a newer technology to store power. The Dalian Flow Battery Energy Storage Peak-shaving Power Station, in Dalian in northeast China, has just been connected to the grid, and will be operating by mid-October.    The vanadium flow battery currently has a capacity of 100 MW/400 MWh, which will eventually be expanded to 200 MW/800 MWh," sufficient to supply 200,000 people with electricity."
      Marco Alvera and Tree Energy Solutions have developed a gas fuel substituting non-greenhouse gas hydrogen for carbon based natural gas that uses existing gas pipelines and burning equipment which promises to solve the natural gas shortage for Germany, and perhaps Europe, in the face of the gas cutoff from Russia (Stanley Reed, "He Promises Green /solution For Energy in Europe," The New York Times, October 11, 2022).
     Robert Glennon, "A water strategy for the parched West: Have cities pay farmers to install more efficient irrigation system," June 30, 2022,, stated, "On June 14, 2022, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Commissioner Camille Calimlim Touton warned Congress that the seven Colorado River Basin States &emdash;; Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming &emdash;; need to reduce their diversions from the Colorado River by 2 million to 4 million acre-feet in 2022. An acre-foot is enough water to cover an acre of land, about the size of a football field, with a foot of water &emdash;; roughly 325,000 gallons. If the states don't come up with a plan by August 2022, Touton may do it for them. To achieve Touton's objective, states need to focus on the region's biggest water user: agriculture. Farmers consume 80% of the water used in the Colorado River Basin . As a longtime analyst of western water policy , I believe that solving this crisis will require a major intervention to help farmers use less water." A major step would be to pay farmers to have more efficient irrigation systems. [A proposal along this line in California called for covering the state's extensive irrigation channels with solar panels, preventing huge quantities of water from being lost to evaporation, while producing a great quantity of needed green energy].
A possible development to move away from a diet of meat from methane producing cattle, Clare Toeniskoetter, "Lab-Grown Meat Receives Clearance From F.D.A.: In a first step toward cultivated meat reaching dinner tables and restaurant menus, regulators said that a start-up company's chicken was safe to eat," The New York Times , November 17, 2022,, reported, " The Food and Drug Administration has cleared a California company's " slaughter-free" chicken, putting lab-grown meat one step closer to restaurant menus and grocery store shelves in the United States.On Wednesday afternoon, the agency said it had completed an evaluation of chicken from the company, Upside Foods, and had "no further questions' about the product's safety, signaling that the agency considered it safe for consumption. It will probably take months, if not longer, before the product reaches consumers, and it first must get additional clearance from the Department of Agriculture."
       Raymond Zhong, "Who's Driving Climate Change? New Data Catalogs 72,000 Polluters and CountingA nonprofit backed by Al Gore and other big environmental donors says it can track emissions down to individual power plants, oil fields and cargo ships," The New York Times, November 9, 2022,, reported, "How Satellites Help Researchers Track Emissions," by Zach Levitt, " Climate TRACE, a nonprofit coalition of environmental groups, technology companies and academic scientists. By using software to scour data from satellites and other sources, Climate TRACE says it can project emissions not just for whole countries and industries, but for individual polluting facilities. It catalogs steel and cement factories, power plants, oil and gas fields, cargo ships, cattle feedlots &emdash;; 72,612 emitters and counting, a hyperlocal atlas of the human activities that are altering the planet's chemistry."

     Sandra Cuffe, "Honduran forest governance agreement brings cautious hope," Mongabay, November 3, 2022 ,, reported, " A timber trade agreement that aims to ensure Honduras exports only legally harvested timber products to the European Union is the first of its kind to go into force in the Americas.   Under the framework, a timber legality assurance system currently under development will be the backbone of licenses for the export of legal timber and timber products. Indigenous and agroforestry groups that took part in negotiations leading up to the agreement say they hope the deal will spur action to address illegal logging and land grabs affecting forests and communities.       Community-based groups in Honduras have expressed optimism that a new timber export agreement with the European Union will help curb illegal logging and other illicit activities impacting the country's forests and forest communities."
            Karan Deep Singh and Bhadra Sharma, How Nepal Grew Back Its Forests: An effort decades in the making is showing results in Nepal, a rare success story in a world of cascading climate disasters and despair," The New York Times, November 11, 2022 ,, reported, " This transformation is visible across Nepal, thanks to a radical policy adopted by the government more than 40 years ago. Large swaths of national forest land were handed to local communities, and millions of volunteers like Mr. Karki were recruited to protect and renew their local forests , an effort that has earned praise from environmentalists around the world. But the success has been accompanied by new challenges &emdash;; among them addressing the increase in potentially dangerous confrontations between people and wildlife."
     Manuela Andreoni, Blacki Migliozzi, Pablo Robles and Denise Lu, "The Illegal Airstrips Bringing Toxic Mining to Brazil's Indigenous Land: The Times identified hundreds of airstrips that bring criminal mining operations to the most remote corners of the Amazon," The New York Times, August 2, 2022,, reported,  " The airstrip is owned by the Brazilian government &emdash;; the only way for health care officials to reach the Indigenous people in the nearby village. But illegal miners have seized it, using small planes to ferry equipment and fuel into areas where roads don't exist. And when a plane the miners don't recognize approaches, they spread fuel canisters along the airstrip to make landing impossible."      " The New York Times identified 1,269 unregistered airstrips throughout Brazil's Amazon rainforest in the last year, many of which supply a thriving illicit industry that has surged under President Jair Bolsonaro of Brazil." The airstrips are a major logistical supporter of the unlawful extraction which forthe most part takes place far from roads.     President Bolsonaro has pushed for extensive mining on Indigenous land. On one Indigenous territory alone, the 37,500 square miles of the Yanomami which is legally protected, law enforcement officials estimate that 30,000 miners are working illegally, while the government stands idley by. This is the pattern all over the Brazilian Amazon, which comprises some 60 percent of the country.
2035 ( 113, "E U Reaches Deal To Ban Sale of New Combustion-Engine Cars," Slashdot,  October 28, 2022,, reported, "The European Parliament and EU member countries have reached a deal to ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2035 . From a report ( Union negotiators sealed on Thursday night the first agreement of the bloc's'Fit for 55' package set up by the Commission to achieve the EU's climate goals of cutting emissions of the gases that cause global warming by 55 percent over this decade. The European Parliament said the deal is a "clear signal ahead of the UN COP27 Climate Change Conference that the EU is serious about adopting concrete laws to reach the more ambitious targets set out in the EU Climate Law." According to the bloc's data, transport is the only sector where greenhouse gas emissions have increased in the past 30 years, rising 33.5 percent between 1990 and 2019. Passenger cars are a significant polluter, accounting for 61 percent of total CO2 emissions from EU road transport."
    "Electric Vehicles Start to Enter the Car-Buying Mainstream: While sales are still skewed toward affluent buyers, more people are choosing electric vehicles to save money," The New York Times, November 13, 2022,, reported, " Electric vehicles are starting to go mainstream in the United States after making earlier inroads into the mass markets in China and Europe .  
     Battery-powered cars now make up the fastest-growing segment of the auto market, with sales jumping 70 percent in the first nine months of the year from the same period in 2021
, according to datafrom Cox Automotive, a research and consulting firm. Sales of conventional cars and trucks fell 15 percent in the same period. Buyers of electric vehicles in 2021 were more likely to be women and tended to be younger than in 2019, according to Cox data."

     Dake Kang, Victoria Milko And Lori Hinnant, "'The Sacrifice Zone': Myanmar bears cost of green energy," Associated Press, August 9, 2022,, reported that one of the places worst hit by the global search for rare earths needed for batteries and otjer uses for greenenrgy is Myanmar. Complaints about dirty mining in China led to the government to greatluy tighten environmentla regualtion of mining at home. That helped move the effort to mine the mineral rich areas of Northern Myanmar. As a result, " The birds no longer sing, and the herbs no longer grow. The fish no longer swim in rivers that have turned a murky brown. The animals do not roam, and the cows are sometimes found dead ."     The people in this northern Myanmar forest have lost a way of life that goes back generations. But if they complain, they, too, face the threat of death.
       Julia Conley, "WHO Leads Global Health Coalition Demand for Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty: 'It is our duty to prioritize our patients' safety, dignity, and comfort and we are duty-bound to speak out about the serious global health risks posed by the continued extraction and use of fossil fuels," said nearly 200 global health groups," Common Dreams, September 14, 2022,, reported, " Citing the health and safety risks directly linked to fossil fuel pollution, nearly 200 global health groups Wednesday joined the World Health Organization in calling on international governments to agree to a Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty&emdash;;an agreement to rapidly end oil, gas, and coal production and exploration and ensure a just transition to a renewable energy economy .  
     Scientists have been joined in recent years by the International Energy Agency and pro-climate action policymakers in demanding that governments phase out fossil fuels in order to prevent global heating over 2¡C, but the open letter spearheaded by the Global Climate Health Alliance, Physicians for Social Responsibility, and Health Care Without Harm represents a landmark moment, organizers said. 
    'This is the first time the health sector has come together to issue such a statement explicitly about fossil fuels," Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, coordinator of the WHO's climate change and health program, told The Guardian. "The current burden of death and disease from air pollution is comparable to that of tobacco use, while the long-term effects of fossil fuels on the Earth's climate present an existential threat to humanity&emdash;;as do nuclear weapons.'"      " The open letter outlined the risks to human health posed by the continued extraction of fossil fuels and the resulting emissions, including:Air pollution, which has been linked to seven million premature deaths per year and rising cases of cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and cancer;  
    The creation of conditions ideal for "the transmission of food and water-borne diseases and spread of vector-borne diseases, undermining decades of progress in global public health";Increased risk of heat-related illness and death, especially for young children, outdoor workers, athletes, and older adults;     Jeopardized food and water security due to droughts, floods, extreme weather events, and sea level rise;      The disruption of global medical supply chains and healthcare operations due to extreme weather events; and    The increased prevalence of mental health conditions including anxiety and depression, especially in young people, as fossil fuel extraction continues and the effects of the climate emergency affect more and more communities.
     The signatories also noted that people who live near oil and gas extraction sites are more likely to experience respiratory ailments, proximity to petrochemical refineries is linked to increased risk of childhood asthma and hematological malignancies, and communities located near extraction activity are often at greater risk for threats and violence if they seek to protect their homes from development."
     An increasing number of architects and builders are turning to Indigenous construction methods and use of natural materials, such as straw and earth to preserve temperatures in structures and greatly reduce the need for cooling and heating which consume large amounts of energy (Stephanie Haines, Whitney Eulich, Nick Roll and Dominique Soguel, "Back to nature for cooler buildings, Christian Science Monitor Weekly, September 26, 2002).

     While Beijing has reduced its very serious air pollution, New Delhi has not. " Smog engulfs Indian capital as winter pollution worsens," Reuters, November 29, 2022, , reported, " Thick smog engulfed India's capital New Delhi on Tuesday as air pollution worsened with the setting in of winter, shooting up concentrations of fine particles in the air three times above the acceptable limits."
      Polina Shulbaeva (Selkup), "Nairobi Convention on Biodiversity Meeting Succeeds in Establishing a New Target on Gender and Inclusive Biodiversity," Cultural Survival, July 20, 2022,, reported, "The negotiations to develop the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) in preparation for the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP15) continued within the framework of the 4th session of the Open-Ended Working Group to resolve unfinished issues of the Open-Ended Working Group-3. The six-day meeting was held in Nairobi, Kenya from June 21-27, 2022. The main purpose was to reach consensus and specify the text of the framework program, which should be finalized and adopted at CBD COP15 in December in Montreal, Canada, just weeks after the UNFCCC COP27 climate talks in Egypt.        The first meeting towards the development of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework was held in August 2019 in Nairobi, Kenya. The Zero Draft was discussed at the second meeting in February 2020 in Rome, Italy. The third meeting was convened in two parts: the first part consisted of virtual negotiations in August 2021, and the second, in-person meeting was held in March 2022 in Geneva, Switzerland. At COP15 in Montreal, under a China presidency, the world will adopt a Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework as a stepping stone toward the 2050 vision of "Living in harmony with nature."       The participants and negotiators of the Working Group recently held in Nairobi were hopeful that this meeting would remove the square brackets (square brackets signify that no consensus has been reached, and proposed language is still up for negotiations).  Many had hoped that no new suggestions, additions, and/or deletions of parts of the text on a specific issue would be introduced to the text agreed to in the meeting at Geneva earlier this year. Participants were similarly hopeful that the last draft of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework would be finalized and prepared for CBD COP15. Unfortunately, only the text of two targets ( 19.2 and 12) were cleared. The remaining goals and targets need to be finalized, so it was proposed to hold an additional meeting one week before COP15 to allow the text to be finalized and cleared.   Cultural Survival participated in the negotiations of Nairobi. We followed and supported Indigenous working groups working on various targets including Target 3, a plan to increase conservation of land and sea areas up to 30 percent by 2030, and Target 9, which aims to provide social, economic, and environmental benefits and customary sustainable use by Indigenous Peoples. We also participated in side events pushing for the inclusion of Indigenous Peoples rights in related targets, and followed the activities of the International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity. Their opening statement paid tribute to the Maasai Peoples and their traditional lands where the meetings were being held in Nairobi, highlighting the disastrous situation faced by Maasai communities in Lolilondo, Tanzania. The statement highlightedthe fact that while Parties are working on a future Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework that will protect biodiversity and ecosystems, they are forgetting the rights of Indigenous Peoples who have lived on their territories for thousands of years, and who have stewarded these territories and the ecosystems through their Traditional Knowledge and methods of interaction with nature. The Maasai in Tanzania are being forcibly displaced to create a commercial gaming reserve. This is an example of increasing systematic repression, criminalization, and gross violations of the rights of Indigenous Peoples to their lands, territories, and resources in the pursuit of profit.  Massai Elders, present at a press conference in Nairobi during the Working Group, stated, 'we have never been given a space to share our perspective. Instead, we have been categorized as enemies&emdash;;people who should not be consulted.'  
     The lack of inclusion of Indigenous Peoples in these processes is why it is so important for Cultural Survival to participate in these negotiations, especially regarding Target 3.  Target 3, commonly referred to as the 30x30 Initiative, would use area-based conservation measures such as protected areas or parks to achieve its conservation goals.  This target is of particular importance to Indigenous Peoples as it has the potential to have a direct impact on our territories.  Our goal, therefore, is to push for a human rights-based approach that will encapsulate the rights of Indigenous Peoples and promote the recognition of Indigenous Peoples' rights to their lands, territories, resources, and rights to manage and steward their lands in accordance with Indigenous worldviews, beliefs, traditions, and practices.
      If the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework is to be successfully implemented and truly transformative, it is fundamental that it include explicit references to human rights, including the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples standards as guiding light. This means it must ensure respect and protection of Indigenous Peoples' rights to self-determination,  territories, land tenure, sustainable use, equitable benefit-sharing mechanisms, including respect and implementation of Free, Prior and Informed Consent, as well as full, effective, and equal participation of Indigenous Peoples in decision making processes.  Indigenous Peoples must participate as vital actors and partners in the Goals and Targets of the Post-2020 GBF, as well as in the planning, monitoring, and review of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans.        One of the most debated and negotiated targets during the meeting was Target 19 of the framework on finance for nature and biodiversity. This target has two parts, 19.1, dealing with financial flows with the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, and 19.2, which is intended for technical and scientific cooperation and capacity-building. A number of countries, including several in Latin America, proposed a separate fund from the climate finance fund to be established and running by 2025.  They referred to this separate fund as the 'global biodiversity fund.'However, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada opposed this proposal, claiming such a fund for nature and climate already exists.  Currently, less than one percent of global conservation funding is dedicated to Indigenous Peoples, yet they conserve about 80 percent of the planet's biodiversity. Therefore, during the negotiations, Indigenous Peoples actively participated in the work on Target 19.1 to ensure open and direct access to funding for all Indigenous Peoples for their programs and projects in their communities and by their organizations, without intermediaries who take more than half of the funding for their own operations. Work on this target has been successful, and all proposals by Indigenous representatives are now in line for consideration at COP15. The need for access to such direct funding for Indigenous Peoples from all seven socio-cultural regions, regardless of the level of development of the countries, was emphasized. The division into Global South and Global North should not apply to Indigenous Peoples, and should not be divided into developed and developing countries. Indigenous Peoples from all countries have the same problems and challenges in preserving biodiversity and protecting their lands, territories, and resources, and therefore should have the same rights to access finance.        Perhaps the biggest achievement coming out of the Nairobi meetings is the inclusion of a new target related to gender. We are happy to report that the strong voice of the Women's Caucus in Nairobi brought victory to participants fighting for gender issues in the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, including a new target on gender and inclusive biodiversity. At negotiations in Geneva last March, the Parties adopted a draft of the "Gender Action Plan" as a guide in developing and updating their 2030 Biodiversity National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans, which started work after adopting this document at the COP15. Currently, the women's caucus has pushed and promoted the inclusion of a specific gender target in the GBF. Target 22, now in the draft text of the document, includes women and girls, persons of diverse gender identities, and youth, including people with disabilities.
      'We are a network established to advocate for a right to a healthy environment for all. We believe that living in harmony with Nature needs to take into account the roles and contributions of women and girls to achieve transformative change. This requires addressing gender equity and needs to embrace the holistic solutions and the recognition of women's human rights to achieve it," said women's rights and environmental rights advocate Mrinalini Rai (Rai), Director of Women4Biodiversity. Rai is also Chair of the Women's Caucus at the Convention on Biological Diversity and Cultural Survival's newest Board member. For many years, Rai has promoted women's rights through the programs and decisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and it was her team's solidarity and determined approach to negotiating and seeking possible solutions that led to Target 22 in the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.'"
     Anatoly Kurmanaev, " How Belize Cut Its Debt by Fighting Global Warming: Developing nations are reducing their debt by pledging to protect their resources in financial deals that could give them a bigger role in the fight against climate change," The New York Times November 7, 2022,, reported that when Belize faced economic collapse from a pandemic driven recession, "A solution came from unexpected quarters. A local marine biologist offered Prime Minister Johnny Brice–o a novel proposal: Her nonprofit would lend the country money to pay its creditors if his government agreed to spend part of the savings this deal would generate to preserve its marine resources.     Belize, that meant its oceans, endangered mangroves and vulnerable coral reefs. The resulting deal, known as blue bonds, is an example of a novel approach that has allowed a growing number of developing nations to cut their debt by investing in conservation, giving them a larger role in the fight against climate change."
      Jon Hurdle, "A Planned Restart of a Crab Harvest Pits Conservation Against Industry: After a decade-long ban, the potential revival of crab harvesting in the Delaware Bay poses a threat to shorebirds, naturalists say," The New York Times, November 9, 2022,, reported, "On Nov. 10, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission will vote on whether to move toward lifting a ban on the female crab catch that had been imposed after overharvesting led to a severe decline in the populations of knots and other migratory shorebirds dependent on crab eggs as a critical food source." 
      Environmentalists are concerned that the crabs have only partially recovered their population and a return to harvesting them will threaten the existence of the red knots.
    The nature conservancy has taken a new approach to preserving coral reefs in Hawai'i that may prove to be a model for a portion of such work. The conservancy has taken out insurance on the large reef surrounding many of Hawai'i's islands, which would pay wit in two weeks for damage to the reef by a storm. If the state gives permission, the conservancy would then work to repair the reef with financing from the insurance (Christopher Flavelle and Catrine Einhorn, "A Group Buys Insurance to Protect Hawai'i's Reefs Amid Worsening Storms," The New York Times, January 1, 2022).
       Christine Chung, "U.N. Mission Joins Growing Calls to Label Great Barrier Reef "In Danger:' The report's authors said current conservation efforts were not enough to address the "ongoing and increasingly serious challenge" presented by climate change.," The New York Times, November 28, 2022,, reported, " The Great Barrier Reef in Australia, the world's largest coral reef ecosystem and one of its most biodiverse, is under significant threat from climate change and should be placed on a list of world heritage sites in danger, a United Nations-backed mission has recommended.The mission's report, released on Monday, said current conservation efforts were not enough to protect the Great Barrier Reef, "in large part due to the sheer scale of the challenge" presented by climate change, development and deteriorating water quality.
The World Trade Organization took soke steps in its June 2022 meting to reduce government policies that encourage overfishing, but did not nit go very Far toward ending the problem (Ana Swanson, "Vaccine and Fishing Deals Close WTO Meeting " The New York Times, June 18, 2022, 2022).

      Livia Albeck-Ripka, "Toxic Red Tide Kills "Uncountable' Numbers of Fish in the Bay Area: A harmful algal bloom in the San Francisco Bay is killing fish, sharks and stingrays. Some are washing ashore," The New York Times, August 30, 2022,, reported, " A harmful algal bloom known as a red tide is killing off "uncountable" numbers of fish in the San Francisco Bay Area, with residents reporting rust-colored waters, and piles of stinking fish corpses washing ashore."  
    " While such algal blooms are not uncommon, the scope and deadliness of the one in the Bay Area is concerning, Dr. Rosenfield said. Even the hardiest of fish, like the sturgeon, an ancient creature, are dying, he said. Bat rays, striped bass, yellowfin gobies and even sharks are washing ashore dead."
      Mike Ives, "A "Sea Cow' That Evoked Mermaids Is Extinct in Chinese Waters, Study Finds: The study said the dugong, a vegetarian mammal that ranges across Asia and Africa, has essentially vanished from the country's coastline," The New York Times, August 26, 2022,, reported, " The dugong, a species of so-called sea cow that roams the ocean floor in Asia and Africa and is said to have inspired ancient legends of mermaids, has been spotted off China's southern coast for centuries.  
     Not lately, though. A new study suggests that the dugong has become the first large vertebrate to go functionally extinct in China's coastal waters, the result of a rapid population collapse there that began in the mid-1970s."
       Rachelle Young, "We did it! Canada now has a ban on single-use plastics," Oceana, June 21, 2022,, reported, "It's time to celebrate! On Monday, June 20, 2022, the federal government [of Canada] announced a national ban on six single-use plastic (SUP) items. This journey began in 2018 when the federal government agreed to a Zero Plastic Waste strategy which included a ban on SUP. After years of scientific assessment and consultation, it's official &emdash;; we will see the phasing out of several SUP, including checkout bags, six-pack ring carriers, straws, foodservice ware (i.e. takeout containers, bowls, plates), stir sticks, and cutlery."
      Sameer Yasir, "As India Takes on Throwaway Plastic, This State Shows How It's Done: Tamil Nadu's ban on single-use plastic has gotten results, thanks to relentless policing. Now, India says it will tackle the problem nationwide," The New York Times, July 31, 2022,, reported, that following a difficult but largely successful campaign by one Indian state to ban single use plastics, India's, "Prime Minister Narendra Modi's government has banned some of those ubiquitous items, including disposable cups, plates, cutlery, straws and ear swabs. Single-use bags are forbidden, but thicker, reusable ones are allowed. The ban does not include soda bottles and plastic packaging for chips and other snacks."  
     The campaign to ban resuable plastic bags in Tamil Nadu was successful in reducing their use by two/thirds over three years. But it was not an easy tranistio, requiring persistent enforcement. Low income sellers could not afford to supply reusable bags, and often viuolated the legal ban, on many occassions being fined. It was only when enough buyers brought theit own reusable bags to market that the ban became largely successsful
      Hannah Grover, "Amid drought, stressed trees fall victims of bark beetle," New Mexico Political Report, July 19, 20219,, reported, " Dead and dying pi–on trees dot the slopes of northwest New Mexico, particularly in an area north of Cuba. For the past few years, the State Forestry Department has been monitoring the die off. John Formby, a forest health specialist with the State Forestry Department, said bark beetles have been infesting trees that are already weakened by drought conditions." Bark Beetles. always present, have been thinning stands of weakened trees throughout the state of New Mexico amid 4 years of extreme drought.

     Sarah Kaplan, "The world's longest-lived trees couldn't survive climate change." Washington Post, July 14, 2022,, reported, "The trees had stood for more than 1,000 years. Their sturdy roots clung to the crumbling mountainside. Their gnarled limbs reached toward the desert sky. The rings of their trunks told the story of everything they'd witnessed &emdash;; every attack they'd rebuffed, every crisis they'd endured. Weather patterns shifted; empires rose and fell; other species emerged, mated, migrated, died. But here , in one of the harshest environments on the planet, the bristlecone pines survived. It seemed they always would.      Until the day in 2018 when Constance Millar ascended the trail to Telescope Peak &emdash;; the highest point in Death Valley National Park &emdash;; and discovered hundreds of dead and dying bristlecones extending as far as she could see."

    Somini Sengupta, "Unearthing the Secret Superpowers of Fungus: In the fight against warming, a formidable ally hides just beneath our feet ," The New York Times, July 27, 2022, , reported on the research undertaken on fungi in Alerce Costero National Park, Chile by evolutionary biologist Toby Kiers, who found that " Some species of fungi can store exceptional levels of carbon underground, keeping it out of the air and preventing it from heating up the Earth's atmosphere. Others help plants survive brutal droughts or fight off pests. There are those especially good at feeding nutrients to crops, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers.     In short, they are what she called 'levers' to address the hazards of a warming climate."

      Lucas Rhoads , "EPA Must Re-Assess the Risks of Glyphosate: 3 Things to Know," Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), June 23, 2022,, reported, " The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals has struck down the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's decision to allow continued, widespread use of glyphosate, an herbicide commonly known as RoundUp.  The opinion was prompted by a lawsuit brought by NRDC, Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA), and a coalition of groups represented by attorneys at the Center for Food Safety ('Rural Coalition').  
     Below are three key takeaways from this important victory for people and the environment, which forces EPA to re-assess the harms of glyphosate and may result in significant restrictions on its use. But first, some background:      What is glyphosate? Glyphosate is an herbicide that is used on huge swaths of the country and is linked with a wide variety of harms to people, pollinators, and ecosystems. Two are particularly salient. First, glyphosate has been linked with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a cancer that afflicts parts of the immune system. Because of these links, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2015 categorized glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic to humans."  
      Second, widespread use of glyphosate has devastated milkweed plants that once blanketed much of the country, providing critical forage for the imperiled Monarch butterfly. Glyphosate's use has been identified as a driving factor in the steep declines in these iconic pollinators. 
     What prompted this lawsuit? 
    The Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the federal statute that governs pesticide approval, requires EPA to re-assess glyphosate's risks and ensure that its use does not cause 'unreasonable adverse effects on the environment.' Through this reassessment process, called "registration review," EPA has an obligation to restrict use of glyphosate where harms to people and wildlife are not clearly justified by glyphosate's benefits.
    In January of 2020, despite glyphosate's widespread harms, EPA came out with a decision that largely maintained the status quo. It permitted continued glyphosate use across the country with no meaningful changes to how this harmful chemical is used. As a result, NRDC and our partners sued to throw out this faulty analysis and to rein in glyphosate's use.      NRDC and PANNA argued that EPA's decision, which was based on a cursory and incomplete cost-benefit analysis of glyphosate, was fundamentally flawed. For instance, we argued that EPA ignored serious risks of glyphosate's use and that EPA failed meaningfully to compare glyphosate's risks with its benefits.     After the Biden Administration came into office, it decided not to fight these claims. Instead, it asked the Court to send its ecological determination back to the agency for re-consideration. We urged the court to set a deadline for this reconsideration to ensure that our serious concerns were addressed quickly.      Meanwhile, EPA continued to defend its conclusions about human health and its failure to analyze the effects of its decision under the Endangered Species Act.Three Takeaways from the 9th Circuit's Decision 
    The Court rejected EPA's finding that glyphosate does not cause cancer. EPA concluded that glyphosate's use does not present any risks to human health. Critically, it found that glyphosate is "not likely to be carcinogenic to humans," disagreeing with IARC's 2015 conclusion. In the lawsuit, Rural Coalition petitioners argued that this conclusion contradicted EPA's earlier findings about glyphosate's cancer risk, as well as EPA's own guidance about how it should conduct a cancer assessment. The Court agreed&emdash;;and threw out EPA's human health risk assessment. EPA must now revisit its cancer determination and release a revised assessment.EPA violated the Endangered Species Act. The ESA requires that all agencies analyze the effects of their actions on endangered and threatened species. This analysis must occur before the action so agencies can ensure that their actions are not likely to jeopardize those species. The Court held that EPA violated this mandate by issuing its decision before performing the required analysis. Notably, EPA has since started the required ESA process and determined that glyphosate's use likely harms nearly 1700 threatened species&emdash;;over 90% of those listed. This is the kind of information that should have been central to EPA's decision of whether to allow continued glyphosate use.  
     EPA must re-issue its ecological assessment by October 2022. EPA's request to re-assess the ecological piece of its analysis threatened to delay its decision for years. Meanwhile, glyphosate would have remained on the market without an adequate assessment of its effects. The Court rejected EPA's request for an open-ended remand, instead requiring the agency to issue its assessment by October of 2022. At that point, EPA will either address the serious deficiencies raised by NRDC and PANNA, or we will be back in court. These are all huge victories, but the fight is not over. The Court's decision is critical because EPA now has to go back and re-do major parts of its analysis that supported continued use of this harmful chemical. Had the Court sided with EPA, we would have been stuck with widespread glyphosate use for at least another fifteen years&emdash;;the next time EPA will do a similar re-assessment. Now, EPA's revised analysis might require serious restrictions on how, where, and when glyphosate can be used. NRDC stands ready to ensure that happens."
     A Louisiana District Court, in mid-September 2022, denied a permit for the construction of a $9.4 billion petrochemical (plastics) plant in the predominantly Black community of Welcome, LA, in what is known as "cancer alley," on the grounds that its pollution would be excessive, damaging the sacredness of the land to its people (Lisa Friedman, "In Louisiana's "Cancer Alley,' Judge Issues Another Blow to  Massive Plastics Plant," The New York Times , September 19, 2022).

     Scientists have found a method of destroying water polluting PFAS, once they have been removed from water or soil, by mixing them with two inexpensive compounds at a low boil (Carl Zimmer, "Fighting Forever Chemicals with Chemicals," The New York Times , August 23, 2022).
     The company Waterplan, has developed software to help water intense entities adjust their water use to changing conditions, including drought, while replenishing watersheds and aquifers (Craig S. Smith, "A Start-Up Aims to Help Companies Manage Their Water Use," The New York Times , August 23, 2022).
     Ed O'Loughlin, "Irish Farmers Help Save a Bird Whose Calls Used to Herald Summer: The corncrake's cry, thought to be loud and harsh, is a poignant reminder for older people of the advent of warmer weather. Efforts are underway to preserve its call for younger generations," The New York Times , August 4, 2022,, reports that in Ireland, a once populus and belovid bird has now become quite few and endangered, "But there is hope for the return of the corncrake's call. In recent years, conservationists, government agencies and farmers have come together to try to reverse the decline in numbers of the corncrakes &emdash;; and preserve the corncrake's " kek kek" for new generations."

      Jenny Gross and Vivian Yee, "The Red Sea's Coral Reefs Defy the Climate-Change Odds: As warming waters devastate coral around the world, the sea's stunningly colorful reefs have been remarkably resilient. But pollution, mass tourism and overfishing put them at risk," The New York Times, November 19, 2022,, reported, "The vast majority of the world's coral reefs are likely to be severely damaged in the coming decades if the planet keeps warming at its current rate. But the wildly colorful coral reefs in the waters outside the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Sharm el Sheikh, where the annual United Nations climate conference is taking place, are an anomaly: They can tolerate the heat, and perhaps even thrive in it, making them some of the only reefs in the world that have a chance of surviving climate change. There is a limit to how much they can take, however."
     Elizabeth Claire Alberts,   "Climate change and overfishing threaten once "endless' Antarctic krill," Mongabay, August 11, 2022 ,, reported, " Antarctic krill are one of the most abundant species in the world in terms of biomass, but scientists and conservationists are concerned about the future of the species due to overfishing, climate change impacts and other human activities.     Krill fishing has increased year over year as demand rises for the tiny crustaceans, which are used as feed additives for global aquaculture and processed for krill oil.     Experts have called on the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), the group responsible for protecting krill, to update its rules to better protect krill; others are calling for a moratorium on krill fishing.  
    Antarctic krill play a critical role in maintaining the health of our planet by storing carbon and providing food for numerous species.  
     Antarctic krill &emdash;; tiny, filter-feeding crustaceans that live in the Southern Ocean &emdash;; have long existed in mind-boggling numbers. A 2009 study estimated that the species has a biomass of between 300 million and 500 million metric tons, which is more than any other multicellular wild animal in the world. Not only are these teensy animals great in number, but they're known to lock away large quantities of carbon through their feeding and excrement cycles. One study estimates that krill remove 23 million metric tons of carbon each year &emdash;; about the amount of carbon produced by 35 million combustion-engine cars &emdash;; while another suggests that krill take away 39 million metric tons each year. Krill are also a main food source for many animals for which Antarctica is famous: whales, seals, fish, penguins, and a range of other seabirds.
    But Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are not "limitless," as they were once described in the 1960s; they're a finite resource under an increasing amount of pressure due to overfishing, pollution, and climate change impacts like the loss of sea ice and ocean acidification. While krill are nowhere close to being threatened with extinction, the 2022 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicated that there's a high likelihood that climate-induced stressors would present considerable risks for the global supply of krill

     In the midst of overfishing in much of the world, China is by far the largest over-fisher. Steven Lee Myers, Agnes Chang, Derek Watkins and Claire Fu, "How China Targets the Global Fish Supply: With its own coastal waters depleted, China has built a global fishing operation unmatched by any other country," The New York Times,   September 26, 2022,, reported, "Over the last two decades, China has built the world's largest deep-water fishing fleet, by far, with nearly 3,000 ships. Having severely depleted stocks in its own coastal waters, China now fishes in any ocean in the world, and on a scale that dwarfs some countries' entire fleets near their own waters
     The impact is increasingly being felt from the Indian Ocean to the South Pacific, from the coasts of Africa to those off South America &emdash;; a manifestation on the high seas of China's global economic might." While much of China's fishing is legal, a significant amount is not, including making illegal catches - such as taking sharks for shark fins - and violating other nation's waters. But most of all, it contributes heavily to global over harvesting of the oceans.
      Johnny Diaz, "Alaska Cancels Snow Crab Season Amid Population Declines: Biologists say the warming of the waters of the Bering Sea in recent years is a possible factor in the decline of snow crabs," The New York Times, October, 14, 2022,,reported, " The Alaska Department of Fish and Game said this week that it had canceled the winter snow crab season in the Bering Sea for the first time because of a decline in the crab population. The fishing industry described the cancellation as a crushing blow.    Biologists say t he warming of the waters of the Bering Sea in recent years is a possible factor in the decline of the snow crab population. The number of crabs has now fallen below the threshold for opening a fishery, the fish and game department said in a statement, adding that the Bering Sea snow crab season, which typically opens on Oct. 15, would be canceled this year."
     Hannah Reyes Morales, "Sea Turtle Sanctuary Has Survived 40 Years. Climate Change May Kill It. Against long odds and initially strong opposition, a pristine marine preserve in the Philippines has thrived for decades under the care of local fishermen. Warming waters threaten the achievement," The New York Times, November 9, 2022,, Reported that on Apo Island, Philippines, " Climate change increasing the temperatures of coastal areas will kill corals and fish larvae," said Angel Alcala, a marine biologist who started visiting the island in the 1970s. "Typhoons usually reached the Negros area only once in 10 to 15 years before, but now every four or five years a typhoon hits Apo."     The community is still rehabilitating from the last typhoon, and in recent years it has had to restore parts of its reef damaged in bleaching events, when overheated seawater causes coral to expel the plantlike organism that live inside them, which causes the corals to not only turn white but also puts them at greater risk of death."  
    This, in turn, threatens the survival of the herbivorous local turtles

    The Australian environmental minister, in July 2020, released report finding that Australia's wildlife were suffering a "catastrophic environmental decline" (Yan Zhuang, Austraoian Wildlife Report Details "Crisis and Decline, '" The New York Times, October 30, 2022).
      African Wildlife Federation reported in a September 15, 2022 E-mail, "Grevy's zebras are at risk of extinction...    Their homes are steadily shrinking. Their food supplies are falling short. Droughts limit water and increase competition with people and livestock.  This iconic species was once widespread across the Horn of Africa, but their numbers have been decimated. Fewer than 3,000 of these endangered zebras remain today."
  Derrick Bryson Taylor, " Emperor Penguins Are Protected Under the Endangered Species Act: Under the new listing, federal agencies are required to reduce threats to emperor penguins, which are vulnerable to warming temperatures and melting sea ice caused by climate change," The New York Times, October 25, 2022,, reported, " Emperor penguins have been listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act because the animals' sea ice habitat is shrinking, federal officials announced Tuesday. Experts predict that 99 percent of the world's emperor penguin population will disappear by 2100 without significantly reducing carbon pollution."
    Nicolás SŸssmann-Herrán , "Indigenous Peoples Versus Colonial Conservation,"  Newsweek, July 27, 2022, reported, " Earlier this month, Indigenous Maasai people in Tanzania were violently attacked by state security forces for protesting government plans to evict them from their ancestral lands. Hundreds of police officers came to clear the area to make way for a new game reserve. When the Maasai protested, they were beaten, shot, and arrested. These brutal police crackdowns forced thousands of Maasai people to flee their homes and become refugees in neighboring Kenya, where there is limited food and resources.  Unfortunately, this is not an isolated situation. After investigating 10 protected areas, my team of researchers found a systematic pattern of human rights violations against Indigenous peoples worldwide. International organizations including the World Wildlife Fund for Nature and the Wildlife Conservation Society are partnering with local governments under the guise of environmental protection. But behind the scenes, there is a tremendous cost to the people who have been the stewards of these lands since the beginning of time. Now, they are being displaced, as if their very existence were a threat to biodiversity, and replaced with hunting game reserves or ecotourism, absent of Indigenous involvement or consent ."       "America's Cultural Legacy At Risk: How Oil & Gas Development is Harming Sacred Sites & Cultural Landscapes in Our National Parks & Monuments," A Report from Archaeology Southwest and The Coalition to Protect America's National Parks, July 2022,,   " Introduction      America's national parks and monuments protect some of our most treasured and irreplaceable cultural resources. They preserve our collective history, which, on the North American continent, stretches back thousands of years, and provide us with a chance to apply the lessons of the past to the present. Our national parks and monuments also include the ancestral homelands for scores of Tribal nations, many of which remain strongly connected to sacred sites and cultural landscapes that are found in today's parks and monuments.     To honor and protect our diverse and shared heritage, America's national parks and monuments must be preserved and protected to the maximum extent possible. But the presence of oil and gas development on their doorstep is a stark threat to their long-term protection. Development can destroy archaeological sites and turn sacred spaces and cultural landscapes that tell the story of modern-day Tribes into industrial zones. Like so many extractive activities, oil and gas development also disproportionately impacts communities of color, including Tribal communities that are close to national parks and monuments.      This threat to our cultural legacy came to a head during the Trump administration, which focused on achieving 'energy dominance' 1 and enacting 'industry-first' policies. These policies eliminated important safeguards designed to ensure cautious and well- managed oil and gas leasing and development and led directly to several leasing proposals in close proximity to several national parks and monuments, including Chaco Canyon 2 and
Hovenweep, both of which have long-standing importance to many Tribal communities. But this threat did not originate with the Trump administration
; the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has traditionally defaulted to opening public lands to oil and gas development, including lands surrounding national parks and monuments.   
      But there is hope that our national parks and monuments will finally receive the protection they need and deserve, as the Biden administration has promised to reform the federal oil and gas program. Through this effort, the administration has an historic opportunity to uphold its commitment to protecting the ancestral homelands and sacred sites of Tribes under Executive Order 13985 and other legal authorities. This EO calls for the Federal government to advance racial equity and support for underserved communities, which the Biden administration can do by protecting the relationship Tribes have with many national parks and monuments, as these places continue to provide resources, identity, and spiritual wholeness for many Tribes and Tribal members.   This report looks at five national parks and monuments that honor the culture and history of Tribal communities and examines how oil and gas activities on surrounding lands has harmed and continues to threaten these extremely sensitive and important spaces. This report also offers recommendations on how the Biden administration, through its ongoing review of the federal oil and gas program, and Congress can adopt new rules and policies that provide lasting protection to national parks and monuments.______________1.Exec. Order 13783, 82 Fed. Reg. 16,093 (March. 31, 2017).
2.BLM, February 2019 Competitive Oil and Gas Lease Sale EA for March 2019 Sale, available at Office_March_2019_OG_Lease_Sale_EA.pdf." 
    " Recommendations National parks and monuments across the country are increasingly under threat from oil and gas development on nearby public lands. Chaco Culture, Theodore Roosevelt, Hovenweep, and other parks and monuments are at-risk of becoming "islands in a sea of development," as oil and gas infrastructure and drilling activities advance steadily closer to their borders. And their cultural landscapes and values, which are of great importance to many modern-day Tribes, are becoming more and more industrialized and fragmented.      But there are steps the Biden administration &emdash;; and Congress &emdash;; can take to recognize that our national parks and monuments are frequently the centerpieces of much larger cultural landscapes and to provide those landscapes with enhanced, lasting protection. Such steps include:       1. Protecting public lands surrounding national parks and monuments by closing them to oil and gas leasing:
     Through its ongoing review of the federal oil and gas program, the administration should establish new rules and policies that require BLM to formally close to oil and gas leasing public lands surrounding and adjacent to America's national parks and monuments. Further, Congress should pass legislation, including the Chaco Cultural Heritage Protection Act, to permanently protect sensitive public lands around national parks and monuments.     2 . Establishing other protective designations around national parks and monuments, beyond BLM's 'multiple use' mandate:     Through the land use planning process, the Biden administration should identify and pursue opportunities to establish protective designations surrounding national parks and monuments. BLM has broad authority to establish "areas of critical environmental concerns" and other designations as a means of protecting sensitive landscapes that surround national parks and monuments. Such designations, the boundaries of which should be broad and informed by viewshed and soundscape analyses, can act as mechanisms to establish leasing closures and to guide development activities (on existing leases) in a way that better protects cultural landscapes and resources." The full report is at:
      The 53,804 acres of World War II Mountain troop training Camp Hale in the mountains of southeastern Colorado was declared by the Biden Administration to be Camp Hale-Continental Divide National Monument, in mid-October, 2022 (Michael D. Shear, "Biden Makes Camp Hale in Colorado a National Monument," The New York Times, October 13, 2022).
      Rachel Nuwer, "Killing of Ranger Protecting Rhinos Raises Fears for Conservation Efforts: The fatal shooting of the head ranger at the Timbavati reserve in South Africa has stoked concerns that organized poaching syndicates are targeting wildlife protectors," The New York Times, August 18, 2022,, reported, " Anton Mzimba, the lead ranger at a reserve in South Africa, had received multiple death threats. But he tried not to let the warnings of danger get to him, reminding himself that by protecting rhinos he was working for the greater good, according to an interview he gave last year."
     " Africa's close-knit conservation community has been reeling since Mr. Mzimba was gunned down in front of his family at home on July 26. His wife was also shot, but survived. The slaying has stoked concerns that criminal syndicates may be growing more brazen and violent in their efforts to secure illegal wildlife products."

     Joseph Lee, "The world spends billions to "protect' Indigenous land: Only 17 percent goes to Indigenous peoples. To access that money, Indigenous communities are creating their own funding solutions," ICT, October 10, 2022,, reported, " World leaders at last year's international climate change conference COP26 pledged $1.7 billion to support Indigenous people's efforts to protect their rights and land. Led by the United States, United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, and more than a dozen philanthropic organizations, the financing is intended to support projects like mapping traditional territories, implementing conflict resolution mechanisms, and bolstering collective governance structures.
    "According to research by the Rights and Resources Initiative and Rainforest Foundation Norway&emdash;;two nonprofit organizations dedicated to protecting forests and Indigenous rights&emdash;; only 17 percent of global climate and conservation funding intended for Indigenous and local communities actually goes to projects led by Indigenous people. Indigenous women receive even less: roughly 5 percent of total world funding. The remaining money goes to larger organizations like the World Wildlife Fund and the Wildlife Conservation Society. But instead of waiting for the global climate and conservation funding model to change, Indigenous communities are taking action by starting local funds that support grassroots efforts, as well as larger international platforms and finance mechanisms that can raise and distribute money around the world."

      Linda Qiu, "Federal Government's $20 Billion Embrace of "Climate Smart' Farming: The techniques are a cornerstone of the Agriculture Department's approach to addressing a warming planet, but it is unclear whether more widespread deployment of such methods can truly reverse the effects of climate change," The New York Times, September 26, 2022,, reported on a promising approach to agriculture, " These techniques, known as regenerative or climate-smart agriculture, are a cornerstone of the Agriculture Department's approach to addressing a warming planet. For Ms. Klaunig, the practices yield practical benefits and adhere to her convictions, but it remains to be seen whether more widespread deployment of such methods &emdash;; as the administration has sought to encourage &emdash;; can truly reverse the effects of climate change."

    "Billionaire No More: Patagonia Founder Gives Away the Company," The New York Times ," September 14, 2022,, reported, "A half century after founding the outdoor apparel maker Patagonia, Yvon Chouinard, the eccentric rock climber who became a reluctant billionaire with his unconventional spin on capitalism, has given the company away.    Rather than selling the company or taking it public, Mr. Chouinard, his wife and two adult children have transferred their ownership of Patagonia, valued at about $3 billion, to a specially designed trust and a nonprofit organization. They were created to preserve the company's independence and ensure that all of its profits &emdash;; some $100 million a year &emdash;; are used to combat climate change and protect undeveloped land around the globe."

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U.S. Developments

    Many of the reports in this issue of U.S. government legislation, agency action, and court decisions are informed by electronic flyers from Hobbs, Straus, Dean and Walker, LLP, 2120 L Street NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20037, . Reports from Indian Country Today, from the web, are listed as from ICT.

U.S. Government Developments

Presidential Actions

      Coral Davenport, Lisa Friedman and Christopher Flavelle, "Biden Promises Protections for Nevada's Spirit Mountain: But the president stopped short of designating the ecologically and cultural important region, also known as Avi Kwa Ame, as a national monument," The New York Times, December 1, 2022,, reported, "President Biden pledged Wednesday that he would preserve the Spirit Mountain area in southern Nevada, which contains some of the most biologically diverse and culturally significant lands in the Mojave Desert."  
     This is culturally sacred land to numerous regional tribes.    "But the president stopped short of designating the federal land as a national monument, something Native tribes, environmental groups, local and state leaders have been seeking for more than a decade. Doing so would represent the largest national monument created by Mr. Biden, but it could also put some of the most potentially productive land in Nevada off limits to wind and solar projects." Creating a national monument might also create additional limits including on desirable tribal activity, so the President may want some other form of protection for what may be 450,000 acres.

     " President Joseph R. Biden, Jr. Approves Disaster Declaration for the Muscogee (Creek) Nation ," The White House, September 20, 2022, is at:
      " A Proclamation on National Native American Heritage Month, 2022 ," The White House, October 31, 2022,, stated,
      "During National Native American Heritage Month, we celebrate Indigenous peoples past and present and rededicate ourselves to honoring Tribal sovereignty, promoting Tribal self-determination, and upholding the United States' solemn trust and treaty responsibilities to Tribal Nations.
      America has not always delivered on its promise of equal dignity and respect for Native Americans.  For centuries, broken treaties, dispossession of ancestral lands, and policies of assimilation and termination sought to decimate Native populations and their ways of life.  But despite this painful history, Indigenous peoples, their governments, and their communities have persevered and flourished.  As teachers and scholars, scientists and doctors, writers and artists, business leaders and elected officials, heroes in uniform, and so much more, they have made immeasurable contributions to our country's progress.
      We must do more to ensure that Native Americans have every opportunity to succeed and that their expertise informs our Federal policy-making.  That is why my Administration is engaging in meaningful consultation with Tribal leaders, particularly when it comes to treaty rights, reserved rights, management and stewardship of Federal lands, consideration of Indigenous Knowledge, and other policies that affect Native peoples.  That is also why I appointed Secretary Deb Haaland to be the first-ever Native American Cabinet Secretary, and why more than 50 Native Americans now serve in significant roles across the executive branch.
      Meanwhile, we are creating new jobs in Native American communities and bolstering infrastructure in Tribal areas.  My Administration's American Rescue plan made the largest-ever investment in Indian Country to help Tribal Nations combat the COVID-19 pandemic and to support Tribal economic recovery.  My Administration's Bipartisan Infrastructure Law secured more than $13 billion exclusively for Native communities to deliver high-speed internet to Tribal lands, build safer roads and bridges, modernize sanitation systems, and provide clean drinking water &emdash;; all while putting people to work.  Through the Inflation Reduction Act, we are lowering the price of health care coverage and capping drug costs for Indigenous families.  We are empowering Tribes to fight drought, improve fisheries, and transition to clean energy as part of the most significant climate investment this Nation has ever made.  Those investments include climate adaptation planning and community-led relocation efforts, funding a Tribal Electrification Program to provide power to unelectrified homes, making Environmental Justice Block Grants available to help alleviate legacy pollution, bolstering conservation programs across the country, and restoring protections for treasured lands that Indigenous peoples have tirelessly stewarded, such as Bears Ears and the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument.     We are also helping Native communities heal from intergenerational trauma caused by past policies.  Last year, the Department of the Interior launched the Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative to shed light on the harmful history of forced cultural assimilation at these academic institutions.  We are investing in Tribal language revitalization, protecting Tribal voting rights, and working with Tribal partners to tackle the crisis of missing or murdered Indigenous people.
      As we look ahead, my Administration will continue to write a new and better chapter in the story of our Nation-to-Nation relationships.  We will defend Tribal sovereignty, self-government, self-determination, and the homelands of Tribal Nations.  We will support Tribal economies, recognizing that Tribal governments provide a vast array of physical infrastructure, social services, and good-paying jobs that benefit their citizens and surrounding communities.  We will keep fighting for better health care, child care, education, and housing in Tribal communities.  We will always honor the profound impact Native Americans continue to have in shaping our Nation and bringing us closer to the more perfect Union we know we can and must be.
      NOW, THEREFORE, I, JOSEPH R. BIDEN JR., President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim November 2022 as National Native American Heritage Month.  I urge all Americans, as well as their elected representatives at the Federal, State, and local levels, to observe this month with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities, and to celebrate November 25, 2022, as Native American Heritage Day.
      IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirty-first day of October, in the year of our Lord two thousand twenty-two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and forty-seventh.                         JOSEPH R. BIDEN JR."
    President Biden, "A Proclamation on Indigenous Peoples' Day, 2022
," The White House, October 7, 2022, is at:

    " White House Council on Native American Affairs," visited November 27, 2022, WHCNAA Sub Menu Overview Climate Change, Tribal Homelands, and Treaties Committee Economic Development, Energy and Infrastructure Committee Education Committee Health Committee International Indigenous Issues Committee Public Safety and Justice Committee Our MissionProsperity and resilience for all tribal nations is the vision of the White House Council on Native American Affairs (WHCNAA).  The WHCNAA endeavors toward this vision through collaborative inter-agency work across the Executive Branch, regular and meaningful Tribal-Federal engagement, and by fostering an all-of-government approach in meeting treaty and trust obligations to Tribes. Tribal Consultation on Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), Renewable Energy Infrastructure Funding & Related Energy/Electric Programs The U.S. Department of Agriculture invites Tribal Leaders to a Tribal Consultation to provide input on new funding authorities provided under the Inflation Reduction Act (IR), for renewable electric infrastructure, including for electric vehicle charging stations, and related energy and electric programs, including the traditional, existing USDA Rural Development (RD) electric and energy programs. Tribal leaders are encouraged to register for both sessions of the consultation:Tribal Caucus: Date: December 15, 2022 Time: 2:00-3:00pm EST Registration LinkNote: Tribal caucus is an opportunity for Tribal leaders to discuss relevant consultation issues without federal policymakers online. Tribal Consultation: Date: December 15, 2022 Time: 3:00-5:00pm EST Registration Link Note: Tribal Leaders registered for the caucus do not have to register again for the consultation. Dear Tribal Leader Letter | Proxy Template

The 2022 White House Tribal Nations SummitThe White House is pleased to announce the 2022 White House Tribal Nations Summit on November 30th and December 1st, 2022 at the Department of the Interior in Washington, D.C. The Summit will feature new Administration announcements and efforts to implement key policy initiatives supporting Tribal communities. For more information, please visit the link below. More Information:

Native Women Rising: Inspiring the FutureThe White House is pleased to announce its third virtual session of the White House Native Women Symposium, Native Women Rising: Inspiring the Future on October 28, 2pm &emdash;; 4pm EST, shining a spotlight on issues of importance to Native women. The third session of the series will focus on MMIP issues and feature a panel of Native women experts and presentations by Native youth. The upcoming virtual session will also feature special messages from Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland and Attorney General Merrick Garland, and we will be joined by Treasurer of the United States Lynn Malerba. Please register with the link below. Registration

Tribal Consultation on Indigenous Knowledge GuidanceThe White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the White House Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) invite Tribal Leaders to a Tribal consultation to discuss Guidance being developed for Federal Agencies on Indigenous Knowledge. The virtual consultation will include an update on the development of the Guidance and a presentation of information being considered for inclusion, on Thursday, September 22, 2022, from 3:00 - 5:00pmEST.  We are eager to hear your thoughts in order to further inform our work on the Guidance. If you are unable to attend the consultation live, please submit written comments by E-MAIL to, by end of day, Monday, September 26, 2022. Registration | Guidance

Native Language RevitalizationThe White House Council on Native American Affairs (WHCNAA) is convening a Tribal Leader Consultation on Wednesday, September 14, 2022, 3pm &emdash;; 5pm EST, on the the development of a 10-year National Plan on Native Language Revitalization. The Plan would lay out a long-term, all-of-government strategy that works with Tribal Nations and, as appropriate, non-profit organizations and subject-matter experts, for the revitalization, protection, preservation, and reclamation of Native Languages. Tribal leaders are encouraged to register and participate in the consultation, to share their perspectives and recommendations on this important topic. Please send written responses to no later than 11-59pmEST, Friday, October 14 2022. Registration

BABA ConsultationThe White House Council on Native American Affairs (WHCNAA) is convening a Tribal Leader Consultation on Wednesday, September 21, 2022, 2pm &emdash;; 5pm EST, on the implementation of the Build America, Buy America (BABA) Act. BABA applies a new purchasing preference for American-made products that could significantly impact Tribal infrastructure projects. The scope of the meeting will be a Tribal Caucus from 12:30p.m. ET &emdash;; 2:00p.m. ET, and the Consultation from 2:00p.m. ET &emdash;; 5:00p.m. ET.  Tribal leaders, or their proxies, are encouraged to register and participate in the caucus to build consensus, and in the consultation, to share their perspectives and recommendations on BABA implementation. Written responses to framing questions will also be accepted until Thursday, October 20, 2022, to Caucus Registration | Consultation Registration | Invite

Tribal Treaty Rights MOU Consultation The White House Council on Native American Affairs (WHCNAA) is convening two Tribal Leader Consultations on Friday, September 16, 2022, and Monday, September 19, 2022, each from 2:00 p.m. &emdash;; 4:00 p.m. (ET), to receive consultation  on the implementation of the Memorandum Of Understanding Regarding Interagency Coordination And Collaboration For The Protection Of Tribal Treaty And Reserved Rights (TTR MOU). Of particular interest are Tribal Leader perspectives on how the TTR MOU signatory agencies may improve best practices and training for federal staff on identifying and honoring treaty rights, reserved rights, and other similar rights. Written comments to are asked to be received by 11:59 p.m. ET on Monday, October 10, 2022. Friday, September 16 | Monday, September 19 | Memorandum

Tribal Homelands InitiativesSecretary Haaland, Secretary Vilsack, and other senior Administration officials are convening a WHCNAA Tribal Leader Engagement Session on Monday, July 18, 2:00pm EST - 3:30pm EST, on Tribal Homelands Initiatives. Tribal leaders are encouraged to register and participate to share their perspectives and recommendations on the various initiatives. Written responses to framing questions will also be accepted until August 11. Registration | Invite | Joint Secretarial Order | Tribal Treaty Rights | Sacred Sites

Tribal Leader Engagement Session on Native LanguagesAs WHCNAA co-chair, U.S. Department of the Interior Secretary Deb Haaland will convene the hour and a half-hour engagement session between the WHCNAA Education Committee leadership and Tribal leaders. The Education Committee will focus on Native Language initiatives and seek Tribal leader guidance and feedback on those efforts. Specifically, the Committee will seek dialogue on the implementation of the Memorandum of Agreement on Native Languages, the White House Initiative on Advancing Educational Equity, Excellence, and Economic Opportunity for Native Americans and Strengthening Tribal Colleges and Universities per Executive Order 14049, funding opportunities, and a proposed Federal Plan on Native Languages.Session Location: Virtual
Date: Wednesday (June 29, 2022)
Start Time: 3:30 - 5:00pm Eastern Time Registration | Invite | Memorandum | Executive Order

Opportunities for Indigenous Peoples and Water Resources Water RightsWeds., May 11, 12pm - 1:30pm EST. The WHCNAA in partnership with the Indigenous Peoples Alliance for Rights and Development (IPARD) and the FSC Indigenous Foundation will host a webinar on Opportunities for Indigenous Peoples and Water Resources. This webinar will focus on the complex issues of water law and policy to discuss the struggles, lessons learned, and progress of Tribes to develop and benefit from their water resources and the challenges and opportunities that Indigenous groups face in other parts of the world. It will examine two cases in the US, the Gila River Indian Community and the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, to explore examples where water rights are being implemented and where Tribal coalitions are working together to support species restoration and river management.
      Join the webinar

Listening Sessions on RepatriationMonday, May 9, 1-3pm EST and Tues., May 10, 3pm-5pm EST. The WHCNAA International Repatriation Subcommittee will hold two virtual Tribal listening sessions, Monday, May 9, from 1:00 to 3:00 ET, and Tuesday, May 10, from 3:00 to 5:00 ET, to help shape a pilot program on the topic of international repatriation of Native American cultural heritage and ancestors. This pilot program will consist of a series of dialogue sessions on international repatriation between museum leaders from western Europe and Indian Country. We envision these initial dialogue sessions to be a starting point for future dialogues and engagement.

OMB Tribal Consultation on the President's FY23 BudgetMonday, May 23, 2pm-4pm EST. The purpose of this Tribal consultation is for Tribal leaders and their designees to provide feedback to OMB on the President's FY 2023 Budget. It is expected that listening to Tribal leaders' comments will be a significant part of this consultation. Please note that, while your feedback on the FY 2023 Budget will help guide the formulation of the President's FY 2024 Budget, OMB intends to hold a separate Tribal consultation later this year specifically to inform the FY 2024 Budget formulation process.
     Register | Invite

Native Women Rising: Inspiring the FuturePlease join the White House Council on Native American Affairs as we kick off the first session of our 2022 White House Native Women Symposium, Native Women Rising: Inspiring the Future, shining a spotlight on issues of importance to Native women. There will be four sessions held throughout 2022, focusing on issues like the MMIP crisis, economic development, and health. We hope to engage in a dialogue about the ongoing focus the Biden-Harris Administration has placed on Indian Country, with direct and lasting impacts on Native women.Session 1: Implementation of the Violence Against Women ActLocation: Virtual
Date: Wednesday (04/27)
Start Time: 3:00 - 4:30 MP Eastern Time

Sacred Sites MOU Listening Session, March 9, 2022, 1:30pm - 4:30pm ESTThe eight signatory Federal Agencies of the Memorandum of Understanding Regarding Interagency Coordination and Collaboration for the Protection of Indigenous Sacred Sites (MOU) invite you to participate in a Listening Session on Wednesday, March 9, 2022, 1:30PM-4:30PM ET. The purpose of this session is to solicit priorities, guidance, and recommendations from Tribal leaders and Native Hawaiian Organizations (NHOs) on the implementation of the MOU. The MOU signatories also encourage traditional cultural practitioners, Tribal elders, and those with Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) expertise to provide comments and share their perspectives about the MOU and its implementation. Sacred Sites | Sacred Sites Presentation

WHCNAA Tribal Leader Engagement Session, January 31, 2022, 1pm - 3:30pm ESTThe WHCNAA will host its first engagement session with Tribal leaders on January 31, 2022, as announced by WHCNAA co-chair Secretary Haaland at the 2021 White House Tribal Nations Summit. Following this inaugural session, WHCNAA-Tribal leader engagement sessions will occur three times a year, in addition to the Tribal Nations Summit. The goal of the Tribal leader engagement sessions is for Tribal leaders to have meaningful input on the policies and deliverables of the WHCNAA.Bipartisan Infrastructure Law (BIL) Consultation Fact Sheet Events Department of Justice Addressing Crime and MMIP Consultation Grant Program Phase 1

2021 White House Tribal Nations SummitPresident Biden and the Administration look forward to hosting a robust and meaningful dialogue with Tribal leaders on key issues, policy initiatives, and goals for Indian Country. This year we have changed the name from a conference to a summit to reflect the federal government's Nation-to-Nation relationship with Tribal Nations. The Biden-Harris Administration is deeply committed to honoring our trust and treaty responsibilities to federally recognized Tribes and the Summit provides an opportunity for Tribal leaders to engage directly with officials from the highest levels of the Administration. If you have any questions, please contact Registration | Questionnaire | Agenda | Fact Sheet | Progress ReportDay 1Location: Virtual from the White House
Date: Monday (11/15)
Start Time: 11:00 AM Eastern Time
Day 1 Tribal Nations Summit StreamingDay 2Location: Virtual from the White House
Date: Tuesday (11/16)
Start Time: 11:00 AM Eastern Time
Day 2 Tribal Nations Summit Streaming Who We ServeThe White House Council on Native American Affairs (WHCNAA)/was established/to/ improve the coordination of federal programs and the use of available/federal/ resources/ for the benefit of/tribal communities./ The Council will ensure/that/ tribal consultation&emdash;;grounded in the special nation-to-nation relationship between the U.S. government and tribes&emdash;;continues/ to guide federal decision-making/ in/addressing/ the needs of/ Native peoples. Key Dates Upcoming ARP and BIL Support Sessions for TribesNew InitiativesTribal Treaty Rights Interior Department, Federal Partners Commit to Protect Tribal Treaty Rights Memorandum of Understanding Regarding Interagency Coordination and CollaborationTribal Homelands Interior and Agriculture Departments Take Action to Strengthen Tribal Co-Stewardship of Public Lands and Waters Joint Secretarial Order on Fulfilling the Trust Responsibility to Indian Tribes in the Stewardship of Federal Lands and WatersSacred Sites Secretary Haaland Announces Interagency Effort to Protect and Increase Access to Indigenous Sacred Sites MOU Regarding Interagency Coordination and Collaboration for the Protection of Indigenous Sacred SitesNative Language Multi-Agency Initiative to Protect and Preserve Native Languages Memorandum of Agreement on Native LanguagesExecutive Order Improving Public Safety and Criminal Justice for Native Americans and Addressing the Crisis of Missing or Murdered Indigenous PeopleEventsEvent Feed for Org pageThere are no upcoming events. View All Events WHCNAA CommitteesThe WHCNAA Chair convenes the principals at least three times a year per Executive Order 13647 (June 2013). Recognizing Tribes have equity in all of President Biden's four priorities &emdash;; tackling COVID-19, addressing climate change, advancing racial equity, and supporting strong economic recovery &emdash;; the Council formed the following six Committee topics to carry out the Council's initiatives: Climate Change, Tribal Homelands, and Treaties Health Education Economic Development, Energy, and Infrastructure Public Safety and Justice International Indigenous IssuesThe Committees intend to produce deliverables and tools, make policy recommendations, and find ways to leverage resources and expertise among agencies to improve services to Indian Country. The Committees meet regularly and provide reports at each of the WHCNAA Principals meetings. About the White House Council on Native American AffairsPresident Obama established the WHCNAA in 2013 via Executive Order 13647 to improve the coordination of federal programs and use of available federal resources for the benefit of Tribes and Tribal communities. Co-chaired by the Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland and White House Domestic Policy Advisor Ambassador Susan Rice, WHCNAA membership consists of heads of federal Departments, Agencies, and Offices. An Executive Director and inter-agency staff carry forward WHCNAA priorities grounded in the trust responsibility and treaty rights and informed by consistent and substantive engagement with Tribal Nations. The collaboration between the WHCNAA and Tribal leaders sets the foundation for effective federal investments in Tribal communities and for effective policies that impact Tribes.  The WHCNAA also supports and organizes the annual White House Tribal Leaders Summit to/provide an opportunity for the leaders from/all/ federally recognized/ Tribes/to interact directly with the/President and representatives from the highest levels of the/ Administration./ "  
    Portia K. Skenandore-Wheelock, Congressional Advocate, "Native American Advocacy Program, Native American Legislative Update," Friends committee on National Legislation, December 2022,, reported,     White House Hosts Tribal Nations SummitOn Nov. 30 and Dec. 1, Interior Department officials hosted tribal leaders for the second Tribal Nations Summit of the Biden administration. The White House released a progress report documenting policies and initiatives that were implemented since the 2021 summit. It also celebrated the historic levels of tribal funding in President Biden's economic agenda: $32 billion in the American Rescue Plan, $13 billion in the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, and $700 million in the Inflation Reduction Act.
     During the summit, President Biden and cabinet members announced a number of new actions and commitments to tribal nations. This included a presidential memorandum on uniform standards for tribal consultation. These new standards will require annual training for federal employees who work on policies with tribal implications and a request to Congress to make Indian Health Services funding a mandatory part of the federal budget
.      The White House Council on Native American Affairs Education Committee also released a draft of a ten-year plan on Native language revitalization, committing to consult with tribal nations before finalizing the plan in 2023. In addition to integrating and supporting Native languages, the plan aims to create national awareness on the importance of Native languages and the crisis of Native language loss. It would also establish a formal policy recognizing the role that the U.S. government played in erasing Native languages.
    'Everyone is entitled to be treated with respect and dignity &emdash;; the dignity that comes from just being who we are,' said President Biden in his final remarks. "This is especially true for Tribal nations to whom the United States owes a solemn trust and treaty obligations that we haven't always lived up to. When I talk about respect, here is what I mean by respect: respect for Tribes as nations and treaties as law.'"
Congressional Developments
     "US Congress takes crucial step to stop funding conservation abuses," Survival International, June 17, 2022,, reported, " A landmark bill to stop US government funds financing human rights abuses in the name of conservation has cleared its first major hurdle, after the House Committee on Natural Resources approved it on Wednesday.      At present much of the US$78-91 billion a year spent on biodiversity conservation globally goes towards 'fortress conservation,' which evicts and excludes Indigenous and local people from their ancestral lands and employs guards who perpetrate appalling abuses .            In recent years both WWF and WCS have channeled US taxpayers' funds to support parks where rangers have killed, raped and tortured Indigenous people
     The new bill, "Advancing Human Rights-Centered International Conservation Act of 2022," establishes two ground-breaking principles:  
     - It seeks to ensure that US Fish and Wildlife Service funding of conservation projects can no longer be used to finance gross human rights abuses.     - Conservation projects must have the free, prior and informed consent of Indigenous people for new or expanded National Parks or other Protected Areas on their lands, in order to receive US government funding
. The legislation also directs the US Fish and Wildlife Service, in conjunction with the U.S. State Department, to:
    ¥ Enhance vetting of international conservation projects to protect human rights;
      ¥ Elevate standards for the treatment of Indigenous people and local communities;
      ¥ Investigate, report on, and respond to human rights abuses with transparency, suspending or terminating grants if necessary; and    ¥ Frequently audit high-risk projects and incorporate human rights standards in the audits
     The bill comes at a critical time, with a crucial meeting taking place in Nairobi, Kenya, next week where governments are preparing to agree on a plan to turn 30% of the Earth into Protected Areas, despite the violence and land theft associated with them. It also follows violent attacks on Maasai in Tanzania protesting against the theft of their land for trophy hunting and conservation .
    The proposed law is a major victory for Survival's long-standing campaign to decolonize conservation and stop evictions and human rights abuses against Indigenous people in the name of conservation. It comes after an unprecedented hearing by the House Natural Resources Committee saw WWF accused of deceit, cover-ups and dishonesty. Survival International's Fiore Longo said today: 'After years of impunity for the conservation industry and a total failure to audit their wrongdoings, legislators are finally realizing the urgency of the problem. Survival has spent decades speaking out against human rights abuses committed in the name of conservation &emdash;; funded by taxpayers.  
    'Conservation, as it's practiced today, is destroying Indigenous Peoples who are the best guardians of our natural world. The bill, even if not perfect, is nevertheless a success for the campaign to decolonize conservation: it shows just how much impact pressure from public opinion can have. It's a clear signal that times are changing for the likes of WWF and WCS : this establishes a vital precedent that will be difficult for conservation organizations, and their funders, to ignore.'
    Note to Editors: Now that it has passed the committee stage, the bill's sponsors can move it to the House of Representatives for a vote."
    Portia K. Skenandore-Wheelock, Native American Legislative Update, Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL), June 2022,, reported, "Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Holds Hearing to Address Legacy of Indian Boarding Schools," reported, "On June 22, the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs (SCIA) held an oversight hearing on the findings of volume one of the Interior Department's Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative Report. They also held a legislative hearing to receive testimony on the Truth and Healing Commission on Indian Boarding School Policies Act (S. 2907) .
     Committee members asked about efforts to revitalize Native languages and what Congress can do to address some of the consequences of former boarding school policy. "I believe that our obligations to Native communities mean that federal policies should fully support and revitalize Native health care, education, Native languages, and cultural practices that prior federal Indian policies, like those supporting Indian boarding schools, sought to destroy," said Interior Secretary Deb Haaland.    Tribal leaders also testified on how critical and timely this work is to survivors and their families. 'It's one thing to share your story within your home or in your community, but it's another thing to share where it's going to be validated by the outside entities that have brought this on,' said Sandy Whitehawk, president of the Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition. 'It brings healing in itself. It addresses what we call disenfranchised grief, a grief that's not been acknowledged.'    'The Indian Boarding School era was a dark period in our nation's history&emdash;;a painful example of how past federal policy failed American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians,' said Chairman Brian Schatz (HI). 'We can't undo history, but we must acknowledge itÉAnd most importantly, we must work directly with Native communities on forging a path towards healing.'  
    FCNL gathered statements and minutes of support from Quaker communities across the country to submit to the committee. Further stories and written comments for the hearing's record can be submitted to

       Bill Tracker
Truth and Healing Commission on Indian Boarding School Policies Act (H.R. 5444
    On June 15, the House Natural Resources Committee adopted H.R. 5444 by a voice vote, clearing the way for a possible vote on the House floor this summer. The bill would establish a commission to investigate the impacts and ongoing effects of federal Indian boarding school policies.
Advancing Equality for Wabanaki Nations Act (H.R. 6707):
On June 15, the House Natural Resources Committee adopted H.R. 6707 by a roll call vote, clearing the way for a possible vote on the House floor. The bill would update federal law to ensure Wabanaki tribes have the same access as other federally recognized tribes to federal programs and protections."

"Native American Legislative Update," Friends Commottee on National Legislation (FCNL), JULY 2022,, reported, Bill Tracker," Parity for Tribal Law Enforcement Act (H.R. 8387): On July 14, Reps. Dan Newhouse (WA-4) and Derek Kilmer (WA-6) introduced this bipartisan bill to improve hiring and increase retention for tribal law enforcement officers to better protect tribal communities and help address the crisis of Missing and Murdered Indigenous People (MMIP).
    "Portia K. Skenandore-Wheelock, "Native American Legislative Update," Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL), Native American Legislative Update, August 2022,, reported,     " Tribal Nutrition Improvement Act (H.R. 8502 , /S. 4625, : On July 26, Rep. Teresa Leger Fernandez (NM-3) and Sen. Martin Heinrich (NM) introduced legislation to promote tribal food sovereignty and make it easier for Native children to access free school meals."    " 87 Members of Congress File Amicus Brief to Defend Indian Child Welfare Act,"      On Aug. 19 , a bipartisan group of 87 lawmakers filed an amicus brief to the Supreme Court defending the constitutionality of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA ).
    Leading the group were Sens. Brian Schatz (HI) and Lisa Murkowski (AK), chair and vice chair of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs respectively, and Reps. Tom Cole (OK-4) and Sharice Davids (KS-3), co-chairs of the Congressional Native American Caucus.      ICWA was enacted in 1978 to help keep Native children in Native homes. It's considered the gold standard for child welfare policies and practices by advocacy groups. It is being challenged in the case of Haaland v. Brackeen, which is expected to be heard by the Supreme Court in November.      In ICWA cases, the first preference is that the child go to an extended family member for placement, even if the relative is non-Native. The second preference is placement with someone within the child's tribe, and the third preference is placement with another tribe.
    In 2017, however, a Texas couple and state attorneys general in Texas, Louisiana, and Indiana sued the Department of the Interior to challenge ICWA. The state of Texas claims that the law created a race-based system that makes it more difficult for Native children to be adopted or fostered into non-Native homes.      'The Indian Child Welfare Act continues to protect the best interests of Indian children, serving as a powerful check on the loss of tribal language, identity, and cultures through the removal of Native children from their families and communities and placement in non-Indian homes,' said Sen. Schatz.    'Our amicus brief reaffirms Congress' constitutional authority to legislate on Indian affairs, honors the federal government's trust responsibility to Indian tribes by urging the Court to uphold ICWA, and protects Indian children, families, and communities.'  The congressional amicus brief is one of 21 briefs submitted in support of ICWA. Briefs were also submitted by 497 tribal nations, 62 Native organizations, 20 states and Washington D.C., and 27 child welfare and adoption organizations. FCNL lobbied to pass ICWA in the 1970s." All the briefs in the case are now located at: All of the briefs in this case (party briefs and amicus briefs) can be found at:

    Portia K. Skenandore-Wheelock, Congressional Advocate, "Native American Advocacy Program, Native American Legislative Update," Friends committee on National Legislation, September 2022,, "G overnment Takes Steps to Address Castro-Huerta Decision,"
    On Sept. 20, the House Natural Resources Subcommittee for Indigenous Peoples held an oversight hearing ( on the tribal sovereignty implications of the Supreme Court's ruling in Oklahoma v. Castro-Huerta.  
    On June 29, the Supreme Court held ( that the General Crimes Act does not preempt or otherwise limit state criminal jurisdiction in prosecuting non-Indian defendants who commit crimes against Indian victims in Indian Country. The decision sets aside more than 200 years of precedent recognizing tribal sovereignty.      At the hearing, government officials, tribal leaders, and Indian law experts discussed the impacts of the decision. 'Castro-Huerta undermines tribal jurisdiction and sovereignty by creating a false narrative that Native victims are best protected by the state&emdash;;they are not,' said Jonodev Chaudhuri, ambassador for the Muscogee Creek Nation of Oklahoma. 
     Several lawmakers asked about the potential of a legislative fix to protect tribal sovereignty. 'We do believe that action is needed now,' said Chaudhuri. 'We don't call it a fix; we call it strengthening public safety issues in Indian Country.'      The Departments of Justice and Interior also held listening sessions with tribal leaders on Sept. 26 and 27. They discussed the impact of Castro-Huerta on tribal law enforcement and justice systems, cooperative agreements and processes with state and federal agencies, and reactions to the new concurrent state criminal jurisdiction in Indian Country created by the decision."
     Portia K. Skenandore-Wheelock, Congressional Advocate, Native American Advocacy Program, Friends C0mmittee on National Legislation, "Native American Legislative Update: Welcome to FCNL's Native American Legislative Update! NALU is a monthly newsletter about our Native American policy advocacy and ways for you to engage members of Congress," November  2022,
      Bill TrackerLumbee Recognition Act (H.R. 2758 ):  
     On Oct. 11, this bill was placed on the calendar for full Senate consideration. H.R. 2758 would extend federal recognition to the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina. On Nov. 1, 2021, the House passed this bill by a 357 &emdash;; 59 vote.
    Portia K. Skenandore-Wheelock, Congressional Advocate, "Native American Advocacy Program, Native American Legislative Update," Friends committee on National Legislation, December 2022,, reported, " Truth and Healing Commission Legislation Advances in the House On Dec. 7, the House Natural Resources Committee (HNRC) filed several committee reports on key bills, including the Save Oak Flat Act (H.R. 1884), the Advancing Equality for Wabanaki Nations Act (H.R. 6707), and the Truth and Healing Commission on Indian Boarding School Policies Act (H.R. 5444). This opens the door for potential floor votes before the House adjourns on Dec. 16. 
     The Truth and Healing Commission bill has made tremendous progress in the 117th Congress, with a hearing in May, a committee markup in June, and now the committee report being filed and reported to the House. 
    If passed and signed into law, the legislation would establish the first formal commission in U.S. history to investigate and document the policies, practices, and continued impacts of hundreds of federally-sponsored boarding school institutions run by Christian churches.
    Bill Tracker  
      Honoring Promises to Native Nations Act (S. 5186/H.R. 9439): On Dec. 5, Sen. Elizabeth Warren (MA) and Rep. Derek Kilmer (WA-6) introduced legislation to implement recommendations from the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights' 2018 Broken Promises Report to better meet the federal government's trust and treaty obligations to tribal nations.      Safeguard Tribal Objects of Patrimony (STOP) Act of 2021 (H.R. 2930) :
    On Nov. 29, the Senate passed H.R. 2930 by unanimous consent. The bill is now ready to be signed into law. The STOP Act would make it a crime punishable by fines and jail time for those who export tribal items with lasting historical or cultural significance.
    "California Senators Introduce Legislation to Recognize Tule River Tribe's Water Rights," Native News Online,  September 20, 2022, -rights, reported, "U.S. Senators Alex Padilla and Dianne Feinstein, both Democrats, introduced legislation last Thursday to formally recognize the Tule River Tribe's reserved water rights.   
      Senate Bill 4870
(, which also quantifies the amount of water from the south fork of the Tule River that Tribe has rights to and provides up to $568 million in funding, was referred to the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.  The legislation would finalize a multi-decade effort by the Tule River Tribe to provide clean drinking water."
    "AAIF President, Kara Brewer Boyd, to testify in front of Congress," Association of American Indian Farmers, September 12, 2022 E-mail, stated, "On September 15, 2022, AAIF President Kara Brewer Boyd, will testify in front of the House Oversight Reform Committee on the effects of climate change on the Indigenous Farmers and Tribal Nations. This hearing will examine Exxon, Chevron, BP, and Shell's record-breaking profits, discuss the adequacy of their climate pledges, and hear firsthand accounts from survivors of climate change-induced severe weather events. The hearing will start at am 9am EST; Kara's panel will present at 10am EST."
Federal Agency Developments
     "Office of Management and Budget to Hold Tribal Consultation on the FY 2024 Budget Request," Hobbs Straus General Memorandum 22-015, August 25, 2022,, reported, " The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is inviting Tribal leaders to a consultation on Monday, September 12, 2022 from 2:00 p.m. &emdash;; 4:00 p.m. ET to provide feedback on the President's Fiscal Year (FY) 2024 Budget request to Congress. The registration link is here: OMB is also accepting written comments submitted to by no later than October 14, 2022.
    This consultation will allow Tribal Leaders to provide recommendations on the President's FY 2024 Budget request as the Biden Administration begins to develop their recommendations. OMB has oversight over the entirety of the President's Budget, so this is an opportunity to share cross cutting funding and policy priorities with the Administration for next year's budget request.   
     The agency held a consultation in May 2022 on the FY 2023 budget request, and has provided follow up answers to some questions here:      More information can be found on OMB's website at:"
      "Department of Interior Establishes a Deadline for Submitting Completed Applications to Begin Participation in the Tribal Self-Governance Program in Fiscal Year 2024 or Calendar Year 2024," Hobbs-Straus, General Memorandum 22-020, October 20, 2022, Https://Hobbsstraus.Com/General_Memo/General-Memorandum-22-020/, reportrd, "Yesterday, the Department of Interior, acting through the Office of Self-Governance at the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) issued a notice in the Federal Register indicating that the deadline for Indian Tribes and consortia to submit completed applications to begin participation in the Tribal self-governance program in either fiscal year or calendar year 2024 would be March 1, 2023.
     According to the notice, this 'application deadline is predicated upon providing the parties enough time to complete funding agreement negotiations in advance of the FY or CY start date of the 2024 funding agreement.' Federal law stipulates that copies of funding agreements must be sent at least 90 days before the proposed effective date, and initial negotiations with a Tribe/ consortium that have not previously undertaken self-governance agreements are estimated to take about two months to complete.  'Agreements for an October 1 to September 30 funding year need to be signed and submitted by July 1, 2023. Agreements for a January 1 to December 31 calendar year need to be signed and submitted by October 1, 2023.'      According to the notice, 'Application packages for inclusion in the applicant pool should be sent to Sharee M. Freeman, Director, Office of Self-Governance, Department of the Interior, Mail Stop 3624-MIB, 1849 C Street NW, Washington, DC 20240.'"
  Shondiin Silversmith "Interior To Introduce "Indigenous Food Hubs'," ICT, October 13, 2022,, reported, " As a way to incorporate healthy lifestyle routines and food choices, the U.S. Department of Interior is launching an initiative to support health and nutrition efforts across Indian Country through Indigenous food hubs. The Bureau of Indian Affairs and Bureau of Indian Education, both of which operate under the Interior, will create Indigenous Food Hubs for BIE-operated schools and BIA-operated detention centers."
     Mead Gruver , "U.S. Changes Names of Places with Racist Term For Native Women: The U.S. government has renamed hundreds of peaks, lakes, streams and other geographical features that carry a racist and misogynistic term," Huffington Post, September 9, 2022,, reported, " The U.S. government (United States Geological Survey) has joined a ski resort and others that have quit using a racist term for a Native American woman by renaming hundreds of peaks, lakes, streams and other geographical features on federal lands in the West and elsewhere.  
     New names for nearly 650 places
( bearing the offensive word "squaw' include the mundane (Echo Peak, Texas), peculiar (No Name Island, Maine) and Indigenous terms (Nammi'I Naokwaide, Idaho) whose meaning at a glance will elude those unfamiliar with Native languages."
    "Interior Department to host first meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reconciliation in Place Names: Meeting set for December 7 and 8; members of the public can attend the virtual meeting and request accommodations," ICT, November 22, 2022,, reported, " The Department of the Interior yesterday announced that the Advisory Committee on Reconciliation in Place Names will hold its inaugural public meeting on December 7 and 8 from 2:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. ET. The Committee, established by Secretary's Order No. 3405, is tasked with identifying federal land unit names and geographic feature names that may be considered derogatory and creating recommendations for potential replacement names."
     "Interior Department Issues Guidance to Strengthen Tribal Co-Stewardship of Public Lands and Waters,: U.S. Department of the Interior, September 13, 2022,
Contact:,, announced, " The Department of the Interior today released new guidance to improve federal stewardship of public lands, waters and wildlife by strengthening the role of Tribal governments in federal land management. New guidance from the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), National Park Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) outlines how each bureau will facilitate and support agreements with Tribes to collaborate in the co-stewardship of federal lands and waters.  
     'From wildfire prevention to managing drought and famine, our ancestors have used nature-based approaches to coexist among our lands, waters, wildlife and their habitats for millennia. As communities continue to face the effects of climate change, Indigenous knowledge will benefit the Department's efforts to bolster resilience and protect all communities,' said Secretary Deb Haaland . 'By acknowledging and empowering Tribes as partners in co-stewardship of our country's lands and waters, every American will benefit from strengthened management of our federal land and resources'
     In managing public lands and waters, the Department is charged with trust responsibility and treaty rights to protect American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal interests and further the nation-to-nation relationship, and with distinct obligations to the Native Hawaiian Community. Tribal consultation and collaboration will continue to be implemented as components of, or in addition to, federal land management priorities and direction for recreation, range, timber, energy production, and other uses, and conservation of wilderness, refuges, watersheds, wildlife habitat, and other values.      The guidance will help further the directives from Joint Secretarial Order 3403 &emdash;; signed by the Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture during the 2021 White House Tribal Nations Summit &emdash;; which outlines how the two Departments will strengthen Tribal co-stewardship efforts. The guidance also outlines how agreements might proceed with Alaska Native corporations and the Native Hawaiian Community. Since the Joint Secretarial Order was signed, the Interior Department has celebrated a number of co-stewardship agreements, including:     Bears Ears National Monument in Utah ( : On June 18, 2022, the BLM, U.S. Forest Service, and five Tribes of the Bears Ears Commission formalized their partnership for co-management of the Bears Ears National Monument. The BLM and U.S. Forest Service will provide resources to each Tribe through a separate process to support the work that the five Tribes will perform under this agreement and through their representatives on the Bears Ears Commission. Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes Bison Range Restoration in Montana ( : On January 2, 2022, the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) assumed full management of the Bison Range. The FWS and CSKT continue to partner together to ensure the land and resources are managed at a high-level including prioritizing much needed improvements to address deferred maintenance to enhance safety to the public and wildlife.  
      Rappahannock Indian Tribe's Homeland Restoration in Virginia ( : On April 1, 2022, the Rappahannock Tribe's re-acquired 465 acres of their ancestral homelands at Fones Cliffs, a sacred site to the Tribe and a globally significant Important Bird Area for resident and bald eagles and other migratory birds. The land is located within the authorized boundary of the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge; the parcel will be owned by the Tribe and be publicly accessible and held with a permanent conservation easement conveyed to FWS.
      Dworshak National Fish Hatchery Transfer to the Nez Perce Tribe in Idaho ( : On June 16, 2022, the Department transferred fish production at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to the Nez Perce Tribe. The FWS will continue to provide support to the hatchery through the Idaho Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office and Pacific Region Fish Health Program.      The Interior Department is responsible for the management of millions of acres of federal lands and waters that were previously owned and managed by Tribes and also manages many important natural and cultural resources that once belonged to the Native Hawaiian Community. Those lands and waters contain cultural and natural resources of significance and value to Indigenous peoples, including sacred religious sites, burial sites, wildlife and its habitat, and sources of Indigenous foods and medicines. In addition, many of those lands and waters lie within areas where Tribes have the reserved right to hunt, fish, gather plants, and pray pursuant to ratified treaties and other long-standing legal agreements with the United States.  
    The Department is committed to ensuring that decisions relating to co-stewardship will continue to advance safeguards for traditional subsistence, cultural practices, trust interests and treaty rights for Tribes. Each bureau publishing guidance today is taking steps to ensure that Tribal governments play an integral role in the continued management of federal lands and waters through consultation, capacity-building, and partnerships consistent with federal authority."
  Chez Oxendine , "BIA Distributes First $3m Round Of Funds To Create, Bolster Native Business Incubators," Tribal Business News, November 14, 2022,, reported that the BIA distributed the First round of funds to create and enhance tribal business incubators with $3 million. Among the 10 recipients was Plenty Doors Community Development Corporation with plans to establish a new business incubator to help Native entrepreneurs on or near the Crow Indian Reservation.   
    "Éeach of the 10 organizations that received grants in the initial round are Native-led or tribally owned, according to the BIA announcement. The recipients include:Change Labs, Arizona &emdash;; $300,000Quechan Indian Tribe, Arizona &emdash;; $300,000Plenty Doors Community Development Corporation, Montana &emdash;; $300,000Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma &emdash;; $300,000Chickasaw Nation, Oklahoma &emdash;; $300,000Sinte Gleska University, South Dakota &emdash;; $300,000South Puget Intertribal Planning Agency, Washington &emdash;; $300,000Taala Fund, Washington &emdash;; $300,000Regents of New Mexico State University, New Mexico &emdash;; $289,869Mohave County Community College District/Hualapai Tribal Nation, Arizona &emdash;; $237,055"
     IHS Seeks Applications for Negotiation Cooperative Agreements and Planning Cooperative Agreements," Hobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-011, July 14, 2022,, reported, "On July 13, 2022, the Indian Health Service (IHS) published two notices in the Federal Register seeking applications for Negotiation Cooperative Agreements and Planning Cooperative Agreements , both under the Tribal Self-Governance Program .  The deadline to apply for both funding opportunities is August 31, 2022.  Tribes, tribal organizations, and inter-tribal consortia are invited to apply. Background.  There are multiple ways, either individually or in conjunction with each other, that Tribes can obtain health care services through the IHS.  One of these options is to enter a self-governance compact with the IHS under Title V of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (ISDEAA) to assume control over health care programs the IHS would otherwise provide.  The Tribal Self-Governance Program (Program), administered by the Office of Tribal Self-Governance within the IHS, facilitates these compacts.  Each compact and associated funding agreement requires an extensive negotiation process, which consists of four stages: (1) planning, consisting of legal and budgetary research and internal tribal government preparation to administer health care services; (2) pre-negotiations, consisting of federal-tribal discussions of issues identified during the planning stage; (3) negotiations, consisting of a collaborative determination of the terms and provisions of the compact and funding agreement; and (4) post-negotiations, consisting of both parties signing the compact and funding agreement, which then become legally binding and mutually enforceable.  This negotiation process will also take place if a Tribe wishes to modify or expand the terms of its existing compact or funding agreement.       Negotiation Cooperative Agreements.  The Negotiation Cooperative Agreement is a funding opportunity to help defray the costs associated with preparing for and engaging in negotiations with the Program.  The negotiation process determines the terms and provisions of the Tribe's self-governance compact and funding agreement, which are both necessary documents for the Tribe to participate in the Program.  A Negotiation Cooperative Agreement is not necessary for Program participation; it is simply intended to mitigate the substantial resources necessary to engage in the required negotiations.  
     The IHS estimates that it will issue five awards of $84,000 under this program posting, with total funding identified as approximately $420,000.  The period of performance is one year, with no cost-sharing or match requirements.  Applications that are approved, but not funded due to lack of available funds will be held for one year and reconsidered if more funding becomes available.
    To be eligible, the applicant must be either a Tribe, tribal organization, or inter-tribal consortium as defined by ISDEAA and its corresponding regulations, demonstrate financial stability and financial management capability for three fiscal years, and present a tribal resolution or equivalent governing action requesting program participation.  If the application requests an award that will affect multiple Tribes, it must include resolutions from each tribal governing body.  If the applicant is unable to obtain a signed tribal resolution before the application deadline, a draft resolution may be considered until a signed resolution is available.The application, along with more information on eligibility and the required application materials, is available here
    Planning Cooperative Agreements.  The Planning Cooperative Agreement is a funding opportunity to help defray the costs associated with the planning stages of the negotiation process.  Like Negotiation Cooperative Agreements, they are not necessary for Program participation.
     The IHS estimates that it will issue five awards of $180,000 under this program posting, with total funding identified at approximately $900,000.  The period of performance is one year, with no cost-sharing or match requirements.  Applications that are approved but not funded due to lack of available funds will be held for one year and reconsidered if more funding becomes available.
    The eligibility requirements are largely the same as Negotiation Cooperative Agreements, although Tribes that have already completed the planning stages of their negotiation are ineligible for this award. 
     The application, along with more information on eligibility and the required application materials, is available here"
"Indian Health Service announces investment to address Alzheimer's Disease in Indian Country: Cooperative agreements for tribal and urban Indian health clinics announced September 21, 2022 &emdash; World Alzheimer's Day," ICT, September 22, 2022, , reported, "On World Alzheimer's Day, the Indian Health Service announced $662,176 in cooperative agreements for tribal and urban Indian health clinics and systems to develop models incorporating comprehensive approaches to care and service for people living with dementia, and their caregivers."

    "Efforts to Reduce Barriers to Accessing Veterans Affairs' Native American Direct Loan Program," Hobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-014, August 12, 2022,, reported, " Congress established the Native American Veterans Direct Loan program (NADL Program) in 1992 (PL 102-547) to help Native Veterans or spouses of Native Veterans secure Veterans Affairs loans to buy, build, or improve homes.  At that time, there had 'not been a single documented case of a Native American receiving a VA guaranteed home loan on reservations or trust lands.  In contrast, over 13 million other veterans have used their entitlements to obtain more than $250 million in home loans.' [1]  Since its inception, barriers to access have plagued the NADL Program.  On August 10, 2022, National Public Radio reported (NPR) on challenges that Tribes face when accessing funding made available through the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Native American Direct Loan Program.  NPR spoke to Bryant Lacey, who oversees the NADL Program at VA, and heads the NADL team that was created on October 1, 2021.  NPR also spoke to several Tribal Veterans regarding their experiences with accessing the NADL Program. 
      For years, Tribal advocates and their congressional delegations have reported significant difficulties and inefficiencies related to the NADL Program, and worked to streamline the process.  Last year, Senator Rounds (R-SD) requested a Report ( #GAO-22-104627) by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) on the effectiveness of the NADL program.  On July 12, 2022 Senator Rounds and Senator Tester (D-MT) introduced the Native American Direct Loan Improvement Act, S. 4505
     While there are several NADL Program eligibility require[ment]s , a first step is that Tribal governments must enter into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the VA.  This MOU must detail how the program will work on its trust lands.  As NPR reported, only twenty percent of Tribal governments have a current MOU.  The VA includes draft MOU language and lists of Tribes with MOUs by state on its website.    The GAO found that in FYs 2012-2021, the NADL Program originated loans to less than 1 percent of the estimated potentially eligible population in the contiguous United States, Hawai'i, and Alaska.  Further, there hasn't been a single NADL originated in Alaska, nor has VA developed an operating plan for making NADL loans on the vast majority of NADL-eligible land in Alaska.  The GAO also found that VA outreach reaches less than 1 percent of eligible Native veterans. Tribes and individuals can contact an NADL coordinator by email at NADL@va.govor by phone at 888-349-7541. 
     Over the years, Hobbs Straus has worked on both Tribal-VA MOUs, as well as Private Homeownership Lease Ordinances and leasing and purchase documents.  While the process has been difficult, the process is not impossible, and the recent administrative and legislative developments have the potential to streamline the process.      Please let us know if you would like further information regarding the Native American Veterans Direct Loan program or need assistance navigating the MOU process or contacting your congressional delegation.___________________ [1] Statement of Rep. Lane Evans, Housing Benefits for Native American Veterans and Oversight of Title Insurance, Subcomm. on Housing and Memorial Affairs of the Comm. on Veterans' Affairs (Oct. 1, 1992)."
     Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, "Tribal Clean Energy Summit 2022,", reported, "On Oct. 4-5, 2022, tribal leaders joined U.S. Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm and Office of Indian Energy Director Wahleah Johns for a nation-to-nation discussion to explore how tribes can harness clean energy to enhance energy sovereignty, address climate resilience, and build stronger economies.The 2022 Tribal Clean Energy Summit, held in Washington , DC, focused on:  Federal energy programs and opportunities such as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and Inflation Reduction Act Increasing access to energy project finance and capitalEnergy access, security, reliability, and transition issuesWorkforce development and transitionEnsuring consultation and meaningful tribal leader participation in national energy infrastructure decision making. ICYMI: DOE Brings Constructive Tribal Clean Energy Summit to Close LEARN MORE: Secretary Granholm Announces 7th Tribal Energy Summit, LEARN MORE:       Summit MaterialsView presentations and documents that were provided at the Summit.DAY 1 PRESENTATIONS: 2 PRESENTATIONS: DOCUMENTS: Recordings: Watch recorded livestream sessions from the Key Energy Partner and Stakeholders agenda. Tribal leader sessions with Secretary Granholm were closed to the public and were not streamed. Day 1 livestream recording: Day 2 livestream recording: Url: from the Key Energy Partner and Stakeholders agenda.U.S. Department of Energy AgendaFor tribal leaders: a high-level overview of key DOE programs, a moderated tribal leader-focused caucus discussion, and a facilitated roundtable discussion on tribal energy sovereignty with Secretary Granholm. Tribal Leader Agenda: other key energy attendees: a separate and highly impactful track with DOE briefings on current developments and opportunities, as well as key external strategies to support tribal energy infrastructure development and advance tribal energy security and sovereignty. Energy Partners Stakeholder Agenda: The DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, along with the DOE Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, hosts these summits in collaboration with the National Conference of State Legislatures. For questions, please email ."
     "FCC Webinar on Using the Broadband Data Collection System," Hobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-01, July 13, 2022,, reported, "On June 29, 2022, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) held a Webinar discussing the Broadband Data Collection (BDC) System. The purpose of the Webinar was to help service providers learn how to submit required information in the BDC System . The inaugural BDC filing window began on June 30, 2022. The first deadline for submission of broadband availability data is on September 1, 2022. The main presentation during the Webinar was a tutorial walkthrough on the BDC System followed by a Q&A.       Brief History     The Broadband Deployment Accuracy and Technological Available Act ( DATA Act) was enacted by Congress in March 23, 2020. The DATA Act requires the FCC to collect data from service providers on the availability and quality of broadband internet access. The collected data will provide the federal government with an accurate coverage map including the upload and download speeds of fixed broadband services throughout the United States.       The BDC System is the means by which the FCC plans on complying with the provisions set forth in the DATA Act. The DATA Act mandates workshops for tribal governments in each of the 12 Bureau of Indian Affairs regions on technical assistance in data collection and submission. [1]
     The FCC has encouraged tribal governments to identify an entity that will be primarily responsible for mapping or tracking broadband coverage over reservation land
. [2] Tribal governments should email with questions and/or concerns about using the BDC System.       Broadband Data Collection (BDC) System Tutorial
    Tribal governments can enter broadband location data into the BDC System. The tutorial on how to use the BDC System was led by Ian Locke, analyst at Emprata. Emprata is the company that created the BDC System for the FCC. The BDC System opened on June 30, 2022, for service providers to enter fixed broadband coverage data with a deadline of September 1, 2022.   
     The tutorial covered several topics such as how to gain access to the BDC System, how to upload data, what kind of format the data has to be in, and more. A FCC Registration Number ( FRN) is required to upload data into the BDC System. The BDC System has internal safeguards and notifications to help prevent incorrect data entries and to help provide guidance for correcting mistakes.
      Q&A Session     The Q&A panel included Chelsea Fallon, Senior Implementation Manager of the Broadband Data Task Force; Jonathan McCormack, Acting Deputy Chief of the FCC Data Division; and Paul Salasznyk, CEO of Emprata. The FCC Q&A portion primarily focused on questions presented by service providers. Additional topics related to tribal governments were also addressed.   
     Tribal governments can obtain the FCC's Fabric data. The Fabric data includes current locations where broadband services are available. A tribal government is not required to upload any data in order to receive Fabric data. This data can be helpful when making broadband infrastructure plans. Additionally, the FCC will soon provide an online location where consumers and tribal governments can challenge the accuracy of the broadband coverage map.     In order to receive the Fabric data, the tribal government must obtain an FRN and complete the Entity Information Form. Then the FCC will review the information on the Entity Information Form. The FCC will then contact CostQuest, the company hosting the Fabric data, which will send an email invitation to execute a license agreement to gain access to the Fabric data. The tribal government can then download the broadband coverage data limited to the tribal government's jurisdiction.      All facilities-based service providers should register and submit data as a service provider, even if a tribal government owns the service provider. Resellers of broadband services should not file broadband availability data. This is because the facilities-based service provider, where the reseller receives the service to resell, is required to file its broadband availability data with the FCC through the BDC System. There are helpful guides to help entities prepare broadband availability data for the BDC System. If a broadband provider also provides voice data it must file data in both the Form 477 and the BDC System. Only a fixed voice service provider that does not provide broadband service can forego using the BDC System and only file the Form 477. _________________ [1] Broadband Deployment Accuracy and Technological Availability Act, Pub. L. No. 116­­&emdash;;130, ¤ 804(c)(1), 134 STAT. 237 (2020) [2] FCC, Broadband Data Collection Technical Assistance Workshop for Tribal Governments, (last visited July 1, 2022)."

    "FCC Extends Deadlines for 2.5 GHz Rural Tribal Window Licensees, Hobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-012, July 14, 2022,, reported, "On July 8, 2022, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Wireless Telecommunications Bureau (Bureau) published a Public Notice to extend the time period for meeting interim and final build-out deadlines for all 2.5 GHz Rural Tribal Priority Window (Tribal Window) licensees .  The Tribal Window was an opportunity in 2020 for Tribes in rural areas to license unassigned 2.5 GHz spectrum over their tribal lands.  Spectrum refers to the radio waves across which wireless signals travel, and Tribes have been advocating for spectrum sovereignty in order to access this important natural resource and provide much-needed broadband connectivity for their citizens. The FCC generally auctions spectrum licenses in public auctions for substantial amounts.  However, the Tribal Window provided Tribes with 2.5 GHz spectrum licenses previously reserved for educational uses at no cost to the Tribe.  The 2.5 GHz licenses issued through the Tribal Window were subject to accelerated build-out deadlines when compared to all other 2.5 GHz licenses issued after October 25, 2019.  Tribal licensees were required to meet an interim deadline within two years of receiving their license and a final deadline within five years.     The FCC has now extended these deadlines, with Tribal Window licensees being required to make an interim showing within four years of their initial license grant and a final showing within eight years, as described by 47 CFR ¤ 27.14(u)(2), (3).  The applicable showing required for Tribal Window licensees depends on the type of service the licensee provides:  Mobile or Point-to-Multipoint Service
    Within four years, licensee must demonstrate reliable signal coverage of 50% of population within service area; and      Within eight years, licensee must demonstrate reliable signal coverage of 80% of population within service area. 
      Fixed Point-to-Point Service      Within four years, licensee must demonstrate operation of one link for each 50,000 persons in service area; and
    Within eight years, licensee must demonstrate operation of one link for each 25,000 persons in service area.
     The extension of these deadlines is welcome news to Tribes that have faced delays in building out their networks due to the pandemic, supply chain issues, or other hurdles."
      "Yellowstone mountain renamed First Peoples Mountain: The Wyoming peak had been named for Lt. Gustavus Doane, who in 1870 helped lead an attack on a band of Piegan Blackfeet," ICT 17, 2022,, reported, " A government panel has renamed a Yellowstone National Park mountain that had been named for a U.S. Army officer who helped lead a massacre of Native AmericansMount Doane will now be called First Peoples Mountain after the unanimous vote by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, the National Park Service announced Thursday."
  "Department of Agriculture Opens 2nd Round of Proposals for Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations Self-Determination Demonstration Projects," Hobbs-StrausGeneral Memorandum 22-019, October 19, 2022, Https://Hobbsstraus.Com/General_Memo/General-Memorandum-22-019/, reported, " The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is inviting Tribes to apply for a second round of Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations Self-Determination Demonstration Projects (FDPIR).  According to the Federal Register Notice, FDPIR 'provides a food package of 100 percent domestically grown foods to income-eligible households living on Indian reservations and to American Indian households residing in approved areas near reservations or in Oklahoma.'   In the 2018 Farm Bill, Congress established a demonstration project for Tribal Organizations within FDPIR to enter into self-determination contracts 'for them to purchase foods for their Indian Tribe, instead of USDA, for inclusion in the FDPIR food package.'      Last year, USDA through the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) awarded $3.5 million in self-determination contracts to eight Tribal Organizations (all those who applied). In June, FNS awarded another $2.2 million to six of those eight organizations for modifications and extensions of those contracts.   USDA is now soliciting a second round of proposals for those who are not currently participating the self-governance demonstration program for FDPIR.      In order to participate a Tribal Organization 'must administer FDPIR at the time a proposal is due;' may not already be participating in a FDPIR self-governance program; must have a resolution from the Tribal Council authorizing the Tribal Organization to participate in the demonstration project; and the'Tribal Organization's FDIPR program director must attest to their support for the demonstration project.'"  The Tribal Organization must provide a budget proposal and narrative.  Total costs must not exceed $1.5 million.      Proposals are due to by January 31, 2023 at 11:59 ET. More information is available here."
  "USDA advances food sovereignty efforts in LFPA agreement with the Chickahominy Indian Tribe Eastern Division: USDA also increases total funding available for tribes, gives current cooperators more time to enact programs, non-participants more time to apply," ICT, November 23, 2022,, reported, " The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) yesterday announced it has signed a cooperative agreement with the Chickahominy Indian Tribe Eastern division under the Local Food Purchase Assistance Cooperative Agreement (LFPA) program. LFPA empowers states, tribes, and territories through cooperative agreements to provide for their communities with the purchase of domestic local foods in support of local, regional, and underserved and tribal farmers and ranchers. In September, Secretary Vilsack announced that the USDA is providing an additional nearly $500 million of Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) funds for this program, bringing the total funds for this program to nearly $900 million.Today, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is further announcing a series of new flexibilities to support our states, tribes, and territories. States, territories and tribes not currently participating in this program will be able to apply, and current recipients will be allowed to extend their programs an extra year. In addition, in response to tribal needs and input, USDA will use a nationwide funding allocation of $100 million to better support tribal applicants and better consider the needs across Indian Country. Twenty-five tribes participated in the first funding round, and with this new opportunity, Agricultural Marketing Service will be seeking additional proposals from other tribes. State and territory agencies will continue to receive funds consistent with initial Local Food Purchase Assistance Cooperative Agreement allocations."

     "USDA Announces New Resource Guides for Tribal Governments, Citizens, and Organizations," U.S. Department of Agriculture, Press Release, Release No. 0179.22, Contact: USDA Press Email:, Aug. 16, 2022,, announced, " The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Office of Tribal Relations has released the newest editions of the USDA Resource Guide for American Indians and Alaska Natives 2022 and the USDA Native Youth Resource Guide 2022. Each of these guides provides valuable information to Indian Country and can serve as a roadmap of USDA resources and services available to tribal governments, citizens, and organizations. 'USDA is committed to ensuring that tribal nations and communities more fully access and participate in USDA programs and services,' said Agriculture Secretary Vilsack. 'These guides can introduce our tribal nation partners to the many USDA funding opportunities and resources that can benefit them and their communities.'     Tribal nations have unique legal and land status that can make accessing federal programs challenging. The USDA Resource Guide for American Indians and Alaska Natives (PDF, 1.8 MB) summarizes USDA programs across four categories: 1) agriculture, food sovereignty, and traditional foods; 2) Indian Country economic development; 3) conservation and forestry; and 4) research, extension, and outreach. Almost all USDA programs are accessible by tribes, tribal organizations, or tribal citizens. The guide describes USDA grant opportunities and services, USDA agency roles and responsibilities, policies relevant to Indian Country, and success stories from people who have used USDA programs and services.     The USDA Native Youth Resource Guide (PDF, 850 KB) offers information on USDA scholarship opportunities, internship programs, cultural summer camps for Native youth, afterschool activities, and resources for employment in the federal government. 
     The guides and other resources, can be found on the USDA Office of Tribal Relations USDA Programs and Services page.     USDA has launched several new initiatives that expand USDA's commitment to serving Indian Country through equitable policies and programs. Demonstration projects at USDA's Forest Service and Food and Nutrition Service are enabling greater tribal self-governance and decision making on USDA nutrition and forest management programs. The USDA Indigenous Food Sovereignty Initiative promotes traditional food ways, Indian Country food and agriculture markets, and Indigenous health through foods tailored to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) dietary needs. A new online Tribal Treaty Database will help federal agencies implement treaty obligations. Learn more at
     USDA touches the lives of all Americans each day in so many positive ways. In the Biden-Harris Administration, USDA is transforming America's food system with a greater focus on more resilient local and regional food production, fairer markets for all producers, ensuring access to safe, healthy and nutritious food in all communities, building new markets and streams of income for farmers and producers using climate-smart food and forestry practices, making historic investments in infrastructure and clean energy capabilities in rural America, and committing to equity across the Department by removing systemic barriers and building a workforce more representative of America. To learn more, visit"
      "U.S. Department of Agriculture Initiates Tribal Consultation on Nutrition Programs, Hobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-022, October 28, 2022,, reported, "On Thursday, October 27, 2022, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) wrote to Tribal Leaders ( to initiate Tribal consultation on .five proposed rule revisions in the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR), Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), Child Nutrition Programs (CNP), and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP ).'  USDA will hold virtual consultation on Tuesday, November 8, 2022 from 12:30-4pm ET.   Registration is available here:, the letter outlines the following rules that are included in the consultation:USDA is proposing to Improve Access and Parity to nutrition programs (including FDPIR) to make "access and parity improvements." They would be amending regulatory provisions at 7 CFR Parts 250, 251, and 253.This rule would put into place provisions related to recently passed legislation &emdash;; the Access to Baby Formula Act of 2022 (ABFA, P.L. 117-129). It would "1) add requirements to State agency infant formula cost containment contracts and 2) establish waiver authority for the Secretary of Agriculture to address certain emergencies, disasters, and supply chain disruptions impacting the WIC Program.'USDA would also revise school meal nutrition standards after a review of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. It would also address Buy American provisions for school meal programs and make 'a variety of other changes to school meal requirements.'Under the Agricultural Act of 2014 (at section 4006), USDA was instructed to issue regulations "establishing that those States electing to use a heating or cooling standard utility allowance (HCSUA) in SNAP eligibility determinations must make the HCSUA available to households that receive a Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) or other similar energy assistance program payment greater than $20 annually in the current month or in the immediately preceding 12 months.' This final rule implements this provision and will be combined with the final rule on SNAP: Standardization of State Heating and Cooling Standard Utility Allowances (0584-AE69). SNAP quality control (QC) system would be revised based on instructions in the "Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 that gives the Secretary discretion on how to implement Congress' request to improve the integrity and data quality of information collected in the QC process.'More information on the consultation process at USDA can be found here:"
     " 25 Native Tribes and Alaskan Villages receive $9M boost for infrastructure, transit, Tribal Business News, October 24, 2022,, reported, " More than two dozen American Indian tribes and Alaska Native communities will see an improvement in their transit thanks to $8.6 million in federal grant funding.     The competitive grants, awarded under the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Transit Administration's Tribal Transit Program, come on top of more than $35 million in formula funding for tribal transit each year. President Biden's Bipartisan Infrastructure Law includes nearly $46 million in competitive funding over five years for Tribal Transit, an increase of nearly 83 percent."     U.S. Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg stated, "Using funds from President Biden's Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, these grants will help improve transit for Tribal Nations around our country." Tribal transit systems in 2022 provided almost 12 million vehicle miles of service a year in the U.S. and are essential for providing access to jobs, schools, healthcare, and shopping and eldercare.  
     Among the projects selected for funding in FY2022 were $1.6 million for construction of a bus garage and maintenance facility in the Alaskan Native Village of Unalakleet.  $976,360 was granted to the Walker River Paiute Tribe will to establish the Agai-Dicutta Tribal Transit Program, which will provide tribal transit services from the Walker River Paiute Reservation to several cities in Nevada, improving access to jobs, health care and economic opportunities. The Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska was awarded $489,700 to replace vehicles, buy new equipment, and upgrade its maintenance facility, to ensure continuity of services in winter weather conditions."

    Mavis Harris, Media Contact: Mary Parker, (202) 336-3470, " NIGC Chairman Simermeyer announces 3 for 35 Project: Regulating for the future," National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC}April 26, 2022,, reported, "' NIGC Chairman E. Sequoyah Simermeyer announced the "3 For 35 Project: Regulating for the Future,' at the Indian Gaming Association (IGA) Tradeshow and Convention, on Wednesday, April 20, 2022, during the IGA Membership Meeting. The NIGC 3 For 35 Project is a campaign to promote preparedness in the regulatory community's workforce. A commitment to assess and plan for the next generation of regulators will encourage all Indian gaming regulatory bodies to identify risks and anticipate opportunities for Indian gaming's continued successful regulation in the future. This initiative encourages awareness across the regulatory community and supports a 35-year-old affirmation of governmental interests in tribal self-sufficiency and greater self-governance through Indian gaming.      The Project's three components focus on strategic recruitment, knowledge retention, and skills planning. Strategic recruitment helps reduce the threat to a regulatory body's continuity of operations because of an unstable workforce while it broadens a community's pool of professional skills. Knowledge retention efforts include utilizing cross-training, internal policy reviews, data retention, and other long-term planning to prepare for the loss of key subject-matter experts in a regulatory team. Skills planning supports regulatory bodies' efforts to create a more efficient team ready to address new threats.     'On February 25, 1987, the Supreme Court of the United States affirmed tribal governments' distinct authority over gaming on Indian land. Since that time, the Indian Gaming industry has grown in sophistication and complexity. Indian gaming's regulatory community has the opportunity to build on the knowledge learned during the last 35 years in order to ensure the regulatory workforce is ready for the future.' Chairman Simermeyer said.  
    The NIGC 3 For 35 Project aims to inspire discussion and highlight efforts to emphasize regulatory bodies' workforce preparedness. 'Preparedness is essential to support the continued success and growth of a well-regulated Indian gaming industry,' Simermeyer added. 
     The NIGC will promote information and discussions around the NIGC 3 For 35 Project on its social media platforms and its website at"

    "NIGC Publishes Proposed Rule Amending Regulations on Appeals to the Commission," National Indian Gaming Association, August 11, 2022, reported, "On August 10, 2022, the National Indian Gaming Commission ("NIGC") published a proposed rule in the Federal Register that would amend the NIGC's regulations governing appeals made to the NIGC. When a party is appealing a final decision of the NIGC or the Chair that adversely effects their interests, it may either appeal such decision to a presiding officer under Part 584, or it may appeal the decision solely on the basis of written submissions to the NIGC under Part 585. This proposed rule seeks to provide processes for motion practice and seeking a settlement agreement in these types of appeals submitted to the NIGC. This proposed rule was a subject of the NIGC's Tribal Consultation Series B held between September 13 to November 1, 2021.      First, this proposed rule, if promulgated, would amend 25 C.F.R. ¤ 585.5 (a) to only allow certain motions in the context of appeals to the NIGC. Specifically, only motions for extension of time, motions to supplement the record, motions to intervene, and motions for reconsideration would be permitted; and the NIGC would no longer have the discretion to consider any other motions proffered by an appealing party.   
     The proposed rule would also create a new section at 25 C.F.R. ¤ 585.8 setting forth the process for pursuing a settlement in an appeal on written submissions to the NIGC. Said process would allow parties to jointly move to stay an appellate proceeding for a reasonable time to permit negotiation of a settlement or an agreement disposing of the whole or any part of the proceeding. Any such settlement would have to include mandatory provisions waiving any further proceedings before the NIGC regarding the specific matters settled under the agreement, and that the settlement agreement would constitute dismissal of the appeal and a final agency action.  
     Comments to this proposed rule must be submitted no later than September 9, 2022. This proposed rule, as published in the Federal Register, may be found here:"
      "NIGC Publishes Final Rule to Amend Fee Calculation Regulations,"  National Indian Gaming Association, September 7, 2022, reported, "On September 6, 2022, the National Indian Gaming Commission ("NIGC") published a final rule in the Federal Register amending its regulations at 25 C.F.R. ¤ 514.4 that govern the calculation of annual fees owed by a gaming operation to the NIGC. The NIGC first proposed amending this regulatory section during its Series B Consultation held between September 13 and November 1, 2021; and subsequently, on December 2, 2021, the NIGC published its proposed rule to amend 25 C.F.R. Part 514 in the Federal Register. However, as stated in the preface of this final rule, the NIGC was responsive to comments in opposition to the manner in which the NIGC was initially seeking to exclude promotional credits from the annual fee calculation formula.      The final rule here amends 25 C.F.R. ¤ 514.4 (c) to exclude amounts wagered as promotional credits from the 'total amount of money wagered' when calculating the amount of annual fees owed to the NIGC. Further, the exclusion of promotional credits from the calculation of the 'total amount of money wagered' is mandatory under this final rule rather than merely discretionary as initially proposed.
     The amendments to 25 C.F.R. ¤ 514.4 (c) established by this final rule will become effective on October 6, 2022. This final rule, as published in the Federal      Register, may be found here:"
      " Notice of Violation Issued Against the Catawba Indian Nation and Kings Mountain Sky Boat Partners, LLC (Sky Boat)," National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), December 7, 2022,, reported, "Chairman of the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), E. Sequoyah Simermeyer, issued a Notice of Violation (NOV) against the Catawba Indian Nation, Kings Mountain Sky Boat Partners, LLC (Sky Boat), and Sky Boat's owners, officials, managers, and consultant. The NOV resulted from a thorough investigation by the NIGC Washington, D.C. Region Office that identified multiple violations of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) and NIGC regulations. As set forth in the NOV, the investigation found the Nation allowed Sky Boat to manage in part the expansion of Catawba Two Kings Casino without an approved management contract. Additionally, the Nation and Sky Boat failed to submit a management contract within 60 days of its execution, as required by NIGC regulations.  'Based on an exhaustive investigation and analysis of the circumstances, we issued a Notice of Violation to both enforce regulatory compliance and ensure the Nation is the primary beneficiary of its gaming revenue. We do not take this enforcement action lightly, but do so to preserve the integrity of the industry and protect the valuable tool Indian Gaming represents for many Tribes as codified in the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act,' Simermeyer said.    The Nation, Sky Boat, and Sky Boat's owners, officials, managers, and consultant could face civil penalties not to exceed $57,527 per day for each violation and the Nation's gaming operation could be subject to a temporary closure order.      The full Notice of Violation is available on the NIGC's website:"
Mavis Harris, " NIGC Approves Chickasaw Nation Alternate Technical Standards for Class II Mobile Gaming ," National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), Media Contact: Mary Parker, (202) 336-3470, October 19, 2022,, reported, " The National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) announced the approval of alternate technical standards for the Chickasaw Nation Office of the Gaming Commissioners (CNOGC) applicable to Class II mobile gaming on its reservation lands in Western Oklahoma.  
     NIGC Chairman Sequoyah Simermeyer issued the approval which allows the Tribe to apply 'alternate standards' for Class II mobile gaming using player owned mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
    'I would like to congratulate the Nation on achieving this milestone, one that's rare within the Tribal gaming community.  As Class II mobile gaming becomes a larger part of an operation's offerings, we're excited the Nation has taken this step for the potential economic opportunity it offers, and acknowledge the hard work that got them to this point,' said Chairman Simermeyer.  
    CNOGC, the Tribal gaming regulatory agency of the Chickasaw Nation, submitted the alternate standards pursuant to 25 C.F.R. Part 547.17(b) &emdash;; Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment . The Nation developed and submitted documentation for an overall regulatory framework for Class II mobile gaming based on best practices from other jurisdictions that regulate mobile gaming, all of which NIGC reviewed thoroughly when making its final decision. 
    Chickasaw Nation Secretary of Commerce Dan Boren said, 'Being one of only three Nations to achieve this designation sends a signal throughout Indian country. It's such a breath of fresh air to have this collaboration and great working relationship.'      The year-long process of developing alternate technical standards was done collaboratively, and achieves a level of security and integrity sufficient to accomplish the purpose of the standard it is to replace.     NIGC IT Audit Manager Tim Cotton said, "It was an honor to work side-by-side with the Nation on alternative standards. At times it can be an arduous endeavor to align technology with regulatory standards, and I'm proud to have worked closely with Tribal regulators to elevate and further refine controls and protect tribal assets.'      Pursuant to 25 C.F.R. 547.17(b) the Chairman has approved the submitted alternate standards."
      Other actions, reports and trainings from NIGC are at:
Federal Indian Budgets
      "Tribes Positioned to Benefit from Billions in Budget Reconciliation Deal," Hobbs-Straus General Memorandum 22-013, August 4, 2022,, repoerted, " The $739 billion budget reconciliation deal reached by Senate Majority Leader Schumer (D-NY) and Senator Manchin (D-WV) on domestic energy production and manufacturing, prescription drug pricing, an extension of certain Affordable Care Act provisions, corporate tax reform, and deficit reduction is titled the "Inflation Reduction Act of 2022' or H.R. 5376.  The bill contains millions of dollars specifically for Tribes and includes Tribes among the eligible entities for billions of dollars in grants and tax credits aimed at boosting clean energy infrastructure, climate resilience, and emergency preparedness.  The deal was reached on the condition that Congress take up comprehensive energy permitting reform legislation before the end of the fiscal year.      This version is significantly scaled back from the original "Build Back Better' proposal and is the culmination of nearly a year of contentious negotiations among Democrats; however, as of this writing, it is still unclear as to whether Senator Sinema (D-AZ) will support the bill.  We understand that Majority Leader Schumer intends to bring the bill to the Senate Floor later this week.  There will then be an opportunity for all Senators to offer amendments (these amendments will only need a simple majority to pass) so this is an opportunity to improve and to secure additional Tribal provisions.  If Senate Democrats are able to pass this bill as amended, House Speaker Pelosi (D-CA) has indicated that she will bring the House of Representatives back from the August Recess to vote on it.The Senate Democrats' page for the bill is here, with links to the bill text and section by section summaries by topic.  We attach the one-page summary of the bill's revenue raising and spending provisions.  Below we highlight key provisions of potential interest to Tribes:       Appropriations   
    Funding Specifically for Tribes and Native Hawaiians
     $220 million to the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) for tribal climate resilience programs.     $10 million to the BIA for fish hatchery operations and maintenance programs.  $23.5 million to the Office of Native Hawaiian Relations for climate resilience and adaptation activities to benefit Native Hawaiians.      $145 million to the BIA for providing electricity to unelectrified tribal homes through zero-emissions energy systems, transitioning electrified tribal homes to zero-emissions energy systems, and associated home repairs and retrofitting necessary to install the zero-emissions energy systems. 
    $12.5 million to the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) for near-term drought relief actions for Tribes impacted by BOR water projects, including through direct financial assistance to address drinking water shortages and to mitigate the loss of tribal trust resources.$225 million for grants to Tribes to develop and implement high-efficiency electric home rebate programs to benefit eligible businesses developing and constructing qualified electrification projects.      Tribes Included as Eligible Entities      $1.5 billion to provide multi-year, competitive grants to government entities, including Tribes, for tree-planting and related activities, with priority for projects benefiting low-income communities and areas.     $2.6 billion to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for direct expenditure, contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, or technical assistance to eligible entities, including Tribes, for the following projects:     Conservation, restoration, and protection of coastal and marine habitats and resources, including fisheries.      Extreme storm and climate preparation for coastal communities.  Projects that support natural resources that sustain coastal and marine resource dependent communities.      $400 million for awards to eligible recipients, including Tribes, to replace emission-producing vehicles with zero-emission vehicles and to develop and maintain infrastructure for fueling and operating these vehicles.
    $7 million for grants to Tribes and other entities for system updates to ensure communication with the Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Compliance System.     $250 million for an environmental product declaration program, including to provide grants and technical assistance to Tribes implementing such programs in their own communities.
     $5 billion to eligible entities, including Tribes, for greenhouse gas pollution reduction planning and implementation grants.  $3 billion for grants and technical assistance for partnerships between Tribes, among other entities, and community-based nonprofits to engage in climate mitigation efforts. Tax Credits and Deductions        Increases tax credits by up to 20% for solar and wind energy facilities and clean electricity facilities servicing low-income areas, including Indian lands and Native American Housing Assistance and Self Determination Act (NAHASDA) housing programs.
     Allows for certain tax-exempt entities (including Tribes and Alaska Native Corporations) to make an election of certain clean energy tax credits to certain taxable entities.       Allows for certain tax-exempt entities (including Tribes and Alaska Native Corporations) to allocate energy efficient commercial buildings tax deductions to certain taxable entities."
     The White House proposed adopting a portion of the Indigenous approach to child welfare in it's new budget, following one of the standards set for Indian child welfare in the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA). Erica L. Green, "Can "Kinship Care' Help the Child Welfare System? The White House Wants to Try. The Biden administration proposes spending $20 billion over a decade to help some of the most vulnerable families in the country, including relatives suddenly thrust into child rearing," The New York Times, October 13, 2022,  , reported, "Specifically, the administration wants to increase the number of foster children who live with relatives, known as "kinship care," by reimbursing states at a higher rate if they place children with family members instead of in group homes or institutions. The administration also proposes more money for programs that help such families, and to expand a tax credit to include people who take legal guardianship of young family members.
    Amelia Schafer, "Prairie Band Potawatomi take historic step toward reclaiming land: A bill filed in Congress would clear the way for the tribe to reacquire Illinois homelands with $10 million in compensation," ICT, August 11, 2022,, reported, "More than 150 years after being forced from their homelands in what is now north-central Illinois, the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation has reason to celebrate.     A bill filed in the U.S. Congress [H.R.8380 - Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Shab-eh-nay Band Reservation Settlement Act of 2022 (] last month would allow the tribe to acquire more than 1,100 acres of land near Shabbona State Park, about 60 miles southwest of Chicago, that was illegally auctioned off by the U.S. government in 1849."
In the Courts
The U.S. Supreme Court
  Tribal sovereignty is under attack in two current cases before the Supreme Court. The court heard oral argument on November 9, 2022 in Brackeen v. Haaland, challenging all and parts of the Indian Child Welfare Act, including an assertion that the act &emdash;; and all Indian legislation &emdash;; is based on race. See discussion of the case in this issue in Articles and in Dialoguing and Research Notes A similar attack has been made on the National Indian Gaming .Act. Decisions in both cases are expected before the end of June 2023,
    "Summary of the Supreme Court Decision in Oklahoma v. Castro-Huerta," Hobbs-Straus, General Memorandum 22-09, July 1, 2022,, reported, "On June 29, 2022, the Supreme Court issued its decision in Oklahoma v. Castro- Huerta, 597 U.S. (2022), departing from long-held principles of Indian law to hold states have concurrent criminal jurisdiction over non-Indian crimes against Indians in Indian country under federal law. In a 5&emdash;;4 vote, the Court reversed Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeal's (OCCA) decision, which held the State of Oklahoma (State) did not have jurisdiction over crimes committed by a non-Indian against an Indian within Indian country. Justice Gorsuch wrote in dissent, expressing frustration at the Court's cession of jurisdictional authority to the states and disregard for long-standing presumptions against state jurisdiction in Indian country. 'Where our predecessors refused to participate in one State's unlawful power grab at the expense of the Cherokee, today's Court accedes to another's.' Dissent at 2.   BACKGROUND  
     The dispute underlying this case arose in 2015 when the State prosecuted and convicted Victor Manuel Castro-Huerta, a non-Indian, for committing child abuse&emdash;; namely, neglect&emdash;;against his then-5-year-old stepdaughter, a citizen of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, in the mother and Castro-Huerta's residence within the reservation boundaries of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. Following his conviction, the Court recognized the continued existence of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation reservation in McGirt v. Oklahoma, 140 S. Ct. 2452 (2020). Based on the McGirt ruling, the OCCA later recognized the continued existence of the Cherokee Nation, Choctaw Nation, and Chickasaw Nation reservations. See, e.g., State ex rel. Matloff v. Wallace, 2021 OK CR 21, ¦15, 497 P. 3d 686, 689.  
     After the Court announced the McGirt decision, Castro-Huerta filed an appeal with the OCCA, arguing the State lacked criminal jurisdiction over a non-Indian's commission of a crime against an Indian within Indian country. The OCCA decided in favor of Castro- Huerta and vacated his conviction. While appellate procedures at the state level were ongoing, the federal government prosecuted Castro-Huerta for the same set of offenses. Castro-Huerta later pleaded guilty in federal court.       Oklahoma petitioned the Supreme Court to: (1) revisit the McGirt decision, and (2) determine states have "'inherent' authority to try crimes within reservation boundaries by non-Indians against tribal members." Castro-Huerta contended the federal government has exclusive jurisdiction over crimes committed by non-Indians against Indians within Indian country under the General Crimes Act (GCA), 18 U.S.C. ¤ 1152. Castro-Huerta further contended Public Law 280 (PL 280)&emdash;;authorizing states to assert criminal jurisdiction over crimes committed within Indian country under certain circumstances&emdash;;barred the State from asserting this authority to prosecute him because the State lacked this authorization.  
     MAJORITY OPINION       Justice Kavanaugh delivered the majority opinion, which was joined by Chief Justice Roberts and Justices Thomas, Alito, and Barrett. It should be noted at the outset that, although the underlying case arose in Oklahoma, the Court did not limit application of the opinion to Oklahoma. The Court began by acknowledging federal law may preempt state jurisdiction under certain circumstances. The Court, however, ruled that absent these circumstances, 'a State has jurisdiction over all of its territory, including Indian country.' As support for this proposition, the Court cited to the 10th Amendment. In a stark departure from established precedent , the Court went on to call into question the continued import of the seminal case on the issue, Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. 515, 561 (1832). The Court's decision in Worcester established that state law had no force in Indian country without congressional authorization. The Court reasoned that Worcester was no longer controlling because the Court has since decided '[b]y 1880 [it] no longer viewed reservations as distinct nations' but, rather, as 'part of the surrounding State.' (citing Organized Village of Kake v. Egan, 369 U.S. 60, 72 (1962), and further citing for the proposition Cnty. of Yakima v. Confederated Tribes and Bands of Yakima Nation, 502 U.S. 251, 257&emdash;;58 (1992); Nevada v. Hicks, 533 U.S. 353, 361 (2001)). The Court then cited its decision in United States v. McBratney, 104 U.S. 621, 623&emdash;; 24 (1882) (holding states have jurisdiction to prosecute non-Indian against non-Indian crimes in Indian country), to depart from long-established precedent, finding states hold 'inherent' authority to prosecute crimes in Indian country unless preempted by federal law.      Having asserted that states possess jurisdiction to prosecute crimes in Indian country unless preempted by federal law, the Court determined that no existing law preempts the State's authority to assert criminal jurisdiction over crimes committed by non- Indians against Indians within Indian country. The Court began by stating that the GCA did not bar the states' authority to prosecute these crimes. The GCA provides 'the general laws of the United States as to the punishment of offenses committed ... within the sole and exclusive jurisdiction of the United States ... shall extend to the Indian country.' 18 U.S.C. ¤ 1152. The Court took the silence of the GCA as to preempting the State's authority to mean that under the GCA, 'both the Federal Government and the State have concurrent jurisdiction to prosecute [these] crimes.' The Court also rejected Castro-Huerta's counter argument that Indian country should be treated as federal enclaves for jurisdictional purposes in light of the Court's past rulings that states may prosecute certain crimes within Indian country. (citing McBratney, 104 U.S. at 623&emdash;;24; Draper v. United States, 164 U.S. 240, 242-46 (1896)).        The Court also distinguished the GCA from the Major Crimes Act (MCA) (18 U.S.C. ¤ 1153), noting that the MCA contains language explicitly providing defendants shall be subject to the same laws as those subject to the United States' exclusive jurisdiction whereas the GCA does not. The Court also rejected Castro-Huerta's reenactment argument&emdash;;namely, that Congress' recodification of the GCA two years after the Court decided in dicta that states lack jurisdiction over crimes committed by non-Indians against Indians within Indian country in Williams v. United States, 327 U.S. 711, 714 (1946), was a way of codifying the Court's statements in that decision. The Court reasoned his argument fails because 'the reenactment canon does not override clear statutory language' and the canon does not apply to dicta. The Court, however, maintained the McGirt decision was still good law.   
    The Court also decided PL 280 did not preempt the State's authority to prosecute non-Indian crimes against Indians in Indian country, in part, because the legislation 'contains no language that preempts States' civil or criminal jurisdiction.' PL 280, originally enacted in 1953, authorized certain states to assert criminal jurisdiction over Indian county. The Court rejected Castro-Huerta's argument that Congress enacted PL 280 because federal law did not permit states assertion of authority over those crimes until it passed the act. The Court reasoned PL 280 had no preemptive effect because 'any overlap (or even complete overlap)' between Public Law 280's jurisdictional grant with States' preexisting jurisdiction with respect to these crimes does not show the absence of such jurisdiction prior to its passage. Instead, the Court held the need to clarify state jurisdiction warranted passage of the act, especially given what the Court considered to be a cloud on states' jurisdiction over these non-Indians defendants.
     Finally, applying the test in White Mountain Apache Tribe v. Bracker, 448 U.S. 136, 142&emdash;;43, the Court further determined federal law did not preempt states' jurisdiction over crimes committed by non-Indians against Indians within Indian country. Under the Bracker test, the Court determined: (1) the exercise of state jurisdiction here would not infringe on tribal self-government because 'Indian tribes lack criminal jurisdiction to prosecute crimes committed by non-Indians' and state prosecutions of non-Indians are only between the State and the non-Indian, not tribes; (2) the State's prosecution of a non-Indian does not harm any federal interest in protecting Indian victims because states' jurisdiction runs concurrent with federal jurisdiction and does not oust or otherwise bar an earlier or later federal prosecution; and (3) 'the State has a strong sovereign interest in ensuring public safety and criminal justice within its territory and in protecting all crime victims' and it refuses to 'treat Indian victims as second-class citizens'&emdash;;the Court pointed to the fact that it would be undisputed that the State would have jurisdiction if the victim here had been non-Indian. The Court, thus, reversed the decision of the OCCA and remanded for more proceedings consistent with the Court's opinion.      DISSENTING OPINION      Justice Gorsuch issued a dissenting opinion, which was joined by Justices Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan. The dissent first discusses the Court's Worcester decision as providing 200 years of precedent for the proposition that States are prohibited from asserting criminal jurisdiction over a separate sovereign&emdash;;namely, tribal sovereigns and their territories. The dissent then noted that the majority utilized an ahistorical reading of the facts underlying the history of tribal criminal jurisdiction in this country and that, unlike the Worcester Court's unwillingness to give into the State of Georgia's attempted power grab in Worcester in the 1830's, the majority in Castro-Huerta 'wilts" where it once stood firm. The dissent asserts that the framers of the original U.S. Constitution intended the federal government to have broad powers over tribal relations while leaving tribes wide latitude to govern their internal affairs. Additionally, the dissent argued that this time in history showed the states acknowledged their utter lack of jurisdiction over Indian affairs. The dissent explains that Congress enacted the GCA a mere two years after the Court decided Worcester as a promise to tribes to protect their members from harms posed by the United States' citizenry, and they stated that this same law remains in effect pretty much in its original form. Drawing upon the Court's rulings in McBratney and Draper (governing crimes involving only non-Indian perpetrators and victims), the dissent argued, the history of these laws reveal, "States could play no role in the prosecution of crimes by or against Native Americans on tribal lands." (emphasis added).       Further, the dissent discussed the Oklahoma Enabling Act of 1906, which required the State to 'forever disclaim[] all right and title in or to all lands lying within the State's limits owned or held by any Indian, tribe, or nation.' (quoting 37 Stat. 270). Rather, Congress stated its intention that tribal territories 'would 'remain subject to the jurisdiction, disposal, and control of the United States.'' (quoting 37 Stat. 270). This language, which was adopted into the Oklahoma Constitution, was intended to limit Oklahoma's jurisdictional authority over the tribes.
     With respect to PL 280, the dissent observed that the law evolved over time to provide tribal governments more of a say over jurisdictional matters, such as requiring tribal consent before a state could assume PL 280 jurisdiction. The dissent pointedly notes that Oklahoma has never sought consent from any Oklahoma tribes to assert PL 280 jurisdiction.      The dissent followed up by arguing the State&emdash;;and the majority&emdash;;took the wrong path to get the State's desired result. The dissent argued the proper approach for the state would have been to seek consent from tribes to administer PL 280 programs or seek a statutory authority from Congress, rather than the courts.   
     With regard to the majority's position that the State may exercise jurisdiction over non-Indians in Indian country unless Congress provides otherwise, the dissent argues the majority's understanding strays far from how current law operates. Indeed, the dissent posits the opposite is true under federal Indian law principles&emdash;;specifically, state powers to assert criminal jurisdiction are barred unless Congress specifically grants that authority to the state. 'Truly, a more ahistorical and mistaken statement of Indian law would be hard to fathom,' the dissent wrote of the majority's analysis. Finally, the dissent closes by inviting Congress to take action, such as by amending PL 280, to reverse the Court's acquiescence to the State's successful power grab.       CONCLUSION        Apart from the grant of state authority to prosecute non-Indians for crimes committed against Indians in Indian country, the long-term impact of the decision in Castro-Huerta is unclear at this time. As noted in the dissent, Congress could act to restore exclusive federal and tribal jurisdiction in Indian country. However, this decision's departure from well-established Indian law principles may lead to additional litigation in the criminal as well as civil jurisdiction context."
       Mavis Harris, (202) 632-7003, "U.S. Supreme Court Decision Reinforces Equal Application of IGRA Across Indian Country," National Indian Gaming Commission, June 17, 2022 - The United States Supreme Court issued its decision this week in Ysleta del Sur Pueblo, et al. v. Texas. The decision reinforces the equal application of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act across Indian Country, as well as the jurisdiction of Tribes and the National Indian Gaming Commission over that gaming.  The Court's decision held that the Ysleta del Sur and Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas Restoration Act only bans those gaming activities also banned in Texas and did not provide for state gaming laws to act as surrogate federal law on Indian lands. Because Texas permits bingo, the Pueblo may conduct Class II bingo under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act subject to regulation by the National Indian Gaming Commission
     In response to the Supreme Court's decision, the National Indian Gaming Commission Chairman E. Sequoyah Simermeyer said, 'the United States' position in the litigation was to affirm the application of IGRA and the National Indian Gaming Commission's jurisdiction as the federal regulatory body for all Indian gaming unless federal law states otherwise. The NIGC recognizes the importance of the decision's holding for Indian gaming's long standing regulatory framework.' Chairman Simermeyer continued, 'The decision is significant to hundreds of Indian gaming operations licensed by over 240 tribal governments on Indian lands in 29 states in accordance with the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act's structure.'
     The National Indian Gaming Commission wishes to congratulate the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo on the certainty the decision provides for the tribes impacted by the federal restoration law and who are conducting gaming on Indian land in the State of Texas."
Lower Federal Courts
Federal Appeals Court Rules Tribal Treaty Lands Reacquired From Non-Indians Are Immune From State Taxation September 2, 2022," Hobbs Straus General Memorandum 22-016, September 2, 2022,, reported, "In Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians v. Evers, No. 21- 1817, ___ F.4th ___ (7th Cir. 2022) (hereinafter Opinion), the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals held that tribal landowners retained tax immunity under their treaty rights even after reacquiring fee land within reservation boundaries from non-Indians. Throughout its opinion, the court discussed a key fact distinguishing this case from others tribal tax cases where reacquired tribal lands were subject to state taxation: here the authorization to allot and remove restrictions on the alienability of tribal lands was provided by treaty terms and not by Congress. Courts have held congressionally approved allotments, such as those under the General Allotment Act, opened lands to state taxation by removing restrictions on the alienability of tribal lands. In this case, the participating tribes' treaty authorized the allotment of tribal lands. The court decided that even though the reacquired lands had previously been allotted and sold to non-Indians, the State of Wisconsin (State) had no authority to tax these Indian-owned parcels absent congressional approval or a concession of jurisdiction by the tribe&emdash;;neither of which took place here.  
     This case arises from the State's attempt to assess property taxes on tribally- owned lands within four Ojibwe reservations. The Ojibwe tribes sued to prevent the State from assessing taxes against tribal landowners on the ground that the tax immunity provided under the 1854 Treaty of La Pointe (1854 Treaty) creating their reservations remains in effect today. The State argued that tax immunity ceased once the parcels had fallen out of tribal hands. The tribal members who owned parcels reacquired from non- Indians owe state property taxes, the State claimed.      The district court decided in favor of the State, holding that 'Ojibwe-owned reservation property is tax free . . . so long as [it] has remained in Indian ownership since allotment' but the transfer of Ojibwe lands to 'non-Indian ownership permanently severs the tie between the land and the treaty.' Opinion at 18. The Seventh Circuit reversed.   
     The court began by citing to the general principle that treaties may not be impaired unless Congress provides otherwise. Id. at 6 (citing McGirt v. Oklahoma, 140 S. Ct. 2452, 2462 (2020)). And, as the court noted, when Congress makes tribal lands freely alienable, Congress intends these lands to be taxable by states. Id. at 14. Here, the court reasoned that the parcels at issue did not become subject to state taxation because Congress did not make these lands freely alienable. Id. at 23. Rather, as the court noted, the lands allotted under the 1854 Treaty became freely alienable by the Ojibwe tribes' and the President's agreement alone. Id.
    The court then cited to the principle that "[a] tax that falls on Indians on Indian land . . . is presumptively invalid unless Congress has authorized it in 'unmistakably clear' terms." Id. at 8 (emphasis original). The court emphasized that in "in the context of state taxation of tribal lands," federal courts have 'never wavered' from this presumption against state taxing authority." Id. And given that the claims here applied to tribal lands, the court held that the legal incidence fell on the tribal members, leaving the "State unable to justify its taxes." Id. at 28&emdash;;29.       Moreover, the court reasoned that the 1854 Treaty's language uniquely protected the tribal landowners from state taxation because Congress never broke the treaty's promise to set aside "permanent homes" for tribal members. Id. at 29&emdash;;30. The court reasoned that the promise of setting aside "permanent homes" typically includes an "assurance of immunity from state taxation[,]" which can only be abrogated by an act of Congress. Id. at 30&emdash;;31. The court also reasoned that unlike the circumstances of the tribe in the City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York case, "[n]othing in the record reflects anything close to the sort of out-and-out abandonment of a reservation that might lead [it] to conclude otherwise." Id. (citing 544 U.S. 197, 214&emdash;;17 (2005)). In City of Sherrill, the Supreme Court held that equitable considerations barred the Oneida Indian Nation's (OIN's) tax immunity claim after OIN did not attempt to reassert its jurisdiction over tribal lands within New York state bounds&emdash;;including its immunity from state taxation&emdash;;for over two centuries. 544 U.S. at 218. Here, by contrast, the court observed that the Ojibwe tribes maintained a strong and active presence on their tribal lands. Opinion at 15. The court, thus, concluded that when paired with the historical record, the 1854 Treaty's language promises tax immunity even for reacquired lands. Id. at 33. This case presents interesting tax immunity implications&emdash;;and potentially other sovereignty interests&emdash;;for tribes with treaties containing similar provisions."
  Mark Walsh, "A Native Student Barred From Graduation Over a Sacred Feather: Why Her Lawsuit Was Revived," Education Week,   December 09, 2022,, reported, " A federal appeals court [ U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit, in San Francisco] has revived a First Amendment lawsuit brought by a Native American student who alleges she was barred from attending her high school graduation ceremony because of a sacred eagle feather she had added to her cap.  
     The student, Lari`ssa Waln, says the Dysart, Ariz., school district violated her right to free speech and free exercise of religion because officials allowed other students in the district to attend their commencement ceremonies with adorned caps despite a supposedly strict policy against decorations on caps or gowns. Waln graduated in May of 2019." In the 2-1 decision the court held that the plaintiff had shown adequately that the policy was selectively applied."
      Allergan Reaches Tentative $2.37 Billion Deal to Settle Opioid Suits: If finalized, the agreement, along with a companion deal reached by Teva earlier this week, would send as much as $6.6 billion to communities harmed by the opioid epidemic," The New York Times, July 29, 2022,, reported, " A bipartisan group of state attorneys general announced Friday morning that it had struck an agreement in principle with the pharmaceutical company Allergan for $2.37 billion to resolve more than 2,500 opioid-related lawsuits brought by states, local governments and tribes nationwide who have suffered during the ongoing opioid epidemic."
    Jenna Kunze, " South Dakota Settles with Tribal Nations in Voting Rights Lawsuit" Native News on Line, September 13, 2022,, reported, " South Dakota voters will benefit from a court settlement reached between state officials and two tribal nations that resolves a lawsuit [in federal district court] challenging the state's numerous violations of the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA)."  
    The settlement in Rosebud Sioux Tribe and their members; Oglala Sioux Tribe and their members; Lakota People's Law Project; Kimberly Dillon; And Hoksila White Mountain v. Steve Barnett, in his official capacity as Secretary of State for the State of South Dakota and Chairperson the South Dakota State Board of Elections, et al, United States District Court District Of South Dakota Western Division, Civ. No. 5:20-cv-05058-LLP,, required numerous detailed actions including:  
    The Secretary of State "will continue to designate a statewide NVRA coordinator... responsible for ensuring, monitoring, and overseeing compliance with Sections 5 and 7 of the NVRA and this Agreement by SOS, the Agencies, and all county election officials.       2. The Statewide NVRA Coordinator's responsibilities shall include:"       "establishing complaint procedures by which any member of the public can notify the SOS of known or suspected NVRA compliance issues at an Agency or any office where Covered Transactions occur; coordinating and overseeing a prompt inquiry by SOS of any known or suspected issues of NVRA compliance... establishing written corrective action plans to address and correct NVRA noncompliance or voter registration issues...; developing a procedure for regular monitoring by SOS of the Agencies' compliance with the NVRA and this Agreement."  
     Within 30 days following the Effective Date, the Statewide NVRA Coordinator will attend a training on the NVRA conducted by The Elections Center within the National Association of Election Officials..."
     The requirements of Section 5, including the use of driver's license applications (including any renewal applications) for voter registration purposes under 52 U.S.C. ¤ 20504(a)(1)-(2); the procedural requirements in 52 U.S.C. ¤ 20504(c), including the use of attestations of eligibility for individuals without a current driver's license, state-issued ID, or Social Security number; and the change of address requirements in 52 U.S.C. ¤ 20504(c)-(d);       "assist Applicants in completing Voter Registration Application forms (unless the Applicant refuses such assistance)"    " shall be responsible for coordinating, overseeing, and monitoring the development and updating of all trainings on NVRA requirements and related voter registration policies and practices for the leadership and employees of SOS, the Agencies, and county election officials."   " DPS will ensure that all locations providing driver licensing services, whether a regular DPS office, Travel Office, or Issue Site, will be listed on the page on DPS's website listing DPS office locations (currently at, providing updated information on the days of the week (including specific days of the month for Travel Offices) and hours the offices are open."  " DPS will ensure that Section 5-compliant voter registration services are provided at all Driver's License Offices, including all Travel Offices (including, but not limited to, Travel Offices serving Wagner, Armour, Winner, Rosebud, Pine Ridge, Hot Springs, Martin, and Sisseton) and all other offices serving tribal communities."  "the State of South Dakota, agrees to pay Plaintiffs reasonable attorney fees,, including litigation expenses, and costs, in the amount of $625,000..."
     The Tohono O'odham and Gila River Indian nations field suite in U.S. District Court in Arizona, in November 2022, to block a new Arizona law (House Bill 2492 (2022)) that would require a government issued photo ID and another document proving a person's address to vote. Most tribal members living on reservation do not have street home addresses and would be unable to vote if the law went into effect ("Tribes challenge proof ofaddress requirements in Arizona," Navajo Times, November 28, 2022). The U.S. Justice Department had already filed suite against the Arizona act in early July 2022 (" Justice Department Files Lawsuit Against the State of Arizona Over Restrictive Voter Registration Requirements," U.S. Department of Justice, July 5, 2022, Justice Department Files Lawsuit Against the State of Arizona Over Restrictive Voter Registration Requirements | OPA | Department of Justice ).
     Chez Oxendine, " Marginalized farmers sue USDA over broken promises for debt relief," Tribal Business News, October 24, 2022,, o, "As the U.S. Department of Agriculture sidesteps legal concerns over previously promised debt relief targeted at minority farmers in favor of broader measures, some producers have launched a new legal battle to secure the funds they believe they're due.
      Leaders of Native- and Black-led farmer organizations have filed a joint class action lawsuit on behalf of any ""socially disadvantaged' farmer who filed for USDA debt relief included as part of the American Rescue Plan Act."
    Kathleen Ronayne, " Hoopa Valley Tribe sues US over water contracts: The suit alleges the Interior has failed to follow laws that require the contractors who use that water to pay money for habitat restoration projects, ICT, November 1, 2022,, reported, " The Hoopa Valley Tribe alleged in a lawsuit Monday that the federal government is violating its sovereignty and failing to collect money from California farms that rely on federally supplied water to pay for damages to tribal fisheries.The tribe, which has a reservation in northwest California, says in its lawsuit against the Biden administration that the Trinity River that it relies on for food and cultural purposes has been decimated by decades of the federal government diverting water."
     Katheryn Houghton, "Blackfeet Nation challenges ban on vaccine mandates: Law professors and attorneys say the challenge appears to be the first time that pandemic-related laws have been challenged in court over an alleged infringement on tribal sovereignty," ICT, November 21, 2022,, reported, "J.R. Myers' frustration grew as he read the email: To attend a local economic development council meeting in Browning &emdash;; the largest community on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in northwestern Montana &emdash;; he had to bring proof he was vaccinated against covid-19.It was November 2021. Six months earlier, Montana Gov. Greg Gianforte, a Republican, had signed a law prohibiting businesses and governments from discriminating against people who aren't vaccinated against covid or other diseases. To Myers, the requirement to attend the meeting of the Glacier County Regional Port Authority &emdash;; formed by local governments in Glacier County's tribal and nontribal areas &emdash;; appeared to violate that law.      Myers, who isn't a tribal citizen, lives in Cut Bank, just east of the reservation. He said he didn't attend the meeting at Blackfeet Community College in Browning because he didn't want to reveal his vaccination status &emdash;; adding that the Montana law protects him from doing so. Instead, he lodged a complaint with the state.
     "When this local government agency started to embrace this concept of vaccination passports, I immediately reacted because I didn't want them to be setting a precedent. I wanted them to follow the laws of Montana,' he said.
    Montana's vaccination discrimination law is one of the most controversial pandemic-related measures passed by Republican state lawmakers in 2021. Its rollout has created confusion within schools, health care facilities, and counties. And it has been challenged as unconstitutional by health care facilities, doctors, and nurses.   
     Myers' complaint exposed a new conflict: whether the state can enforce the law on the Blackfeet reservation over the tribe's right to administer its own rules to protect the health of its people as a sovereign nation within the borders of the United States
.State officials began reviewing Myers' complaint to determine whether the port authority's decision to check attendees' vaccination status violated state law, according to court documents. In response, the port authority filed a federal lawsuit, saying the state did not have jurisdiction to enforce the law on tribal land. Its attorneys cited a Blackfeet tribal ordinance that they said established vaccine rules on the reservation.      This month, the Blackfeet tribe joined the lawsuit as a plaintiff, saying it should be allowed to defend itself against "an unlawful attempt" to enforce state law within the reservation's boundaries and to protect its rights to self-governance that were agreed upon in an 1855 treaty with the U.S., according to court documents. The tribe asked the court to block the state from acting on Myers' complaint and from any other attempt to enforce the law on the reservation, according to court documents filed Nov. 15".
State and Local Courts
     Hannah Grover, Hannah Grover, " Native American groups challenge changes to the PRC, say ballot wording caused confusion," New Mexico Political Report, September 14, 2022. reported, "Three Indigenous nonprofits led by women&emdash;;Indigenous Lifeways, New Mexico Social Justice & Equity Institute and Three Sisters Collective&emdash;;filed the petition on Sept. 12 [with the New Mexico Supreme Court. They claimed that the ballot language in the 2020 election when voters approved the constitutional amendment [reducing the number of commissioners on the Public Regulation Commission commissioners and changing it from an elected to a governor appointed body] wasn't adequate to inform voters about what would happen if it was approved. Because of that, the change to an appointed body is unconstitutional, they said."
     " The petition states that one of the current PRC districts consists primarily of Native American constituents. While the filing does not specifically name the district, that district is district four. District Four has been an energy powerhouse in New Mexico and is home to all three coal-fired power plants in the state including the shuttered Escalante Power Plant, the San Juan Generating Station and the Four Corners Power Plant. The district has also faced challenges with water utilities, including a boil-water advisory that lasted more than a year for residents of a subdivision east of Bloomfield as a result of a water utility failing to keep up on maintenance and submitting falsified water quality reports, according to an investigation conducted by the New Mexico Environment Department."
     "Court strikes down two Montana laws that restrict Native American voting rights: Bills would have ended Election Day registration and prohibited paid third-party ballot assistance." ICT, October 3, 2022,, reported, " A Montana court on September 30 struck down as unconstitutional two state laws that hinder Native American participation in the state's electoral process. One measure, HB 176, would have ended Election Day registration; the other, HB 530, aimed to prohibit paid third-party ballot assistance. Native American voters living on reservations disproportionately rely upon both Election Day registration and ballot assistance to cast votes in Montana."
Tribal Government and State and Local Government Developments,
New York State is launching the Office of Indian Nation Affairs (OINA) Together with the Office of Environmental Justice, OINA reports to the Deputy Commissioner for Equity and Justice and works collaboratively to advance equity and justice for all people. The Office of Indian Nation Affairs works to address environmental concerns, cultural resources, and advanced shared knowledge through consultation with State and Federally recognized Indian Nations (an E-mail on behalf of Hilary Weaver , September 6, 2022, announcing a search for an inaugural Director).
      Audrey McAvoy, " Hawaii Seeking End To Conflict Over Astronomy On Sacred Mountain: Native Hawaiians will now have more say over use of sacred Mauna Kea summit by scientists," Huffington Post, August 21, 2022,, reported, " For more than 50 years, telescopes and the needs of astronomers have dominated the summit of Mauna Kea, a mountain sacred to Native Hawaiians that's also one of the finest places in the world to study the night sky.      That's now changing with a new state law saying Mauna Kea must be protected for future generations and that science must be balanced with culture and the environment. Native Hawaiian cultural experts will have voting seats on a new governing body, instead of merely advising the summit's managers as they do now ."
     John Flesher, "Tribes reach new Great Lakes fishing deal: 'We believe this agreement has clear benefits for all the parties'," ICT, December 13, 2022,, reported, " Four tribes have agreed with Michigan and federal officials on a revised fishing policy for parts of three of the Great Lakes, officials said Monday.     The tentative deal involves contentious issues for groups wanting shares of a valuable resource as populations of some species &emdash;; particularly whitefish and salmon &emdash;; have fallen over the past two decades.  
     A proposed order submitted to a federal judge would extend for 24 years a system overseeing commercial and sport fishing in areas of lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior covered by an 1836 treaty. Those sections of the lakes are entirely within the U.S. and under Michigan's jurisdiction.      Under the treaty, the Odawa and Ojibway nations described collectively as Anishinaabek ceded lands that would comprise nearly 40 percent of Michigan's eventual territory, while retaining hunting and fishing rights.     Rising tensions between tribal commercial operations and sport anglers led to a fishery management pact in 1985, which was updated in 2000. That version was due to expire two years ago but was extended to allow continued negotiations." 
     In addition to the state and federal governments, participants include the Bay Mills Indian Community, the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians and the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians.       The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, which has joined the previous deals, hasn't signed this one, Caroffino said. The tribe has filed a motion with U.S. District Judge Paul Maloney, who is overseeing the case, seeking the authority to regulate its own fishing. Officials from that tribe didn't immediately respond Monday to messages seeking comment."  
    The agreement, like its predecessors, sets zones where tribal fishing crews can operate and areas where commercial fishing is off limits. It deals with topics such as catch limits and which gear tribal operations can use.
     Particularly controversial is tribes' use of large-mesh gill nets, an effective tool that hangs in the water column like a wall. Critics say they indiscriminately catch and kill too many fish. The new deal let tribes use the nets in more places, with restrictions on depth in the water they're placed, the times of year they're used and how much netting is deployed.  
    State biologists are confident that the limited expansion of gill netting won't harm fish populations and will have "minimal impacts" on sport fishing, Caroffino said."
    Margaret Stafford, "Kansas Board Recommends Ending Native American Mascots," ICT, November 17, 2022,, reported, " The Kansas State Board of Education on Thursday recommended that the state's public school districts eliminate Native American mascots and branding to reduce their harmful impacts on students. The board approved a motion making a "strong recommendation" that Kansas public K-12 nontribal schools retire Native American-themed mascots and branding as soon as possible but within the next three to five years at the latest."
      New Mexico Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham formerly rescinded, in October 2022, Nineteenth Century New Mexico proclamations authorizing violence against Navajos and Apaches (Donovan Quintero, "1800-era declarations against Navajos and Apaches rescinded," Navajo Times, October 13,, 2022).

     "Yurok tribal leaders join California Governor Gavin Newsom for signing of historic Feather Alert Bill: New law establishes emergency alert for missing Indigenous people," ICT,  26, 2022,, reported, "On September 23, Yurok Chairman Joseph L. James, Vice Chairman Frankie Myers and Yurok Chief Operating Officer Taralyn Ipina joined California Governor Gavin Newsom and Assemblymember James C Ramos for the signing of the historic Feather Alert bill (AB1314). 
    "I would like to thank California Governor Gavin Newsom and Assembly Member James C. Ramos for creating a mechanism to quickly get the word out when indigenous people go missing or are at risk,' said Joseph L. James, the Chairman of the Yurok Tribe. "We supported the Feather Alert bill because it will help reduce the disproportionate rate of MMIP cases in California. The next generation of indigenous Californians should not have to live in world where they have to worry about family members going missing or worse. With the emergency notification in place, we will take action to address the remaining root causes of this complex crisis.'"

     "Victory for California Indigenous peoples: AB 2022 Signed into law prohibiting racist place names: More than 100 geographic features across the state using "'s'word," ICT, September 29, 2022,, reported, " On September 23rd, 2022, AB 2022 was signed into law by California Governor Gavin Newsom. It codifies the prohibition of the use of the racist and misogynist slur "squaw" (hereinafter, the "s word") for geographic features and place names In California. AB 2022 creates a statewide process to replace these offensive names in partnership with California tribes and the Native American Heritage Commission. Its adoption is in accordance with United States Secretary of Interior Deb Haaland's Secretarial orders 3404 and 3405 issued in November 2021, which initiated a similar process on the federal level."
     New Bedford, MA public schools reached a settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice, in September 2022, under which the school system agreed to provide speaking services to K'iche Maya students and families, in communicating with the schools, registering, and in English as a second language classes ("U..S: New Bedford Schools Must Better Address K'iche Students Needs Cultural Survival Quarterly, December, 2022).
    Elyse Wild, " Pawnee Nation inks infrastructure agreement with local government," Tribal Business News, October 17, 2022,, reported, " Pawnee Nation has signed an intergovernmental agreement with Pawnee County in Oklahoma to collaborate on infrastructure projects that affect residents.      The agreement establishes a policy to collaborate and cooperate on a government-to-government basis for planning, building and maintaining Pawnee Nation streets and roadways within the boundaries of Pawnee County; and sharing staff and equipment."

     Orlando Mayorquin, "Oakland plans to return 5 acres of city park to Indigenous groups, one of first cities to do so," USA Today, September 12, 2022,, reported, " The city of Oakland, California, announced last week a plan that would make it among the first cities in the country to return land to Indigenous people.
    The city council will conduct hearings and decide whether to grant an easement over five acres of land in a city-owned park to local Indigenous organizations: the Sogorea Te' Land Trust, the East Bay Ohlone tribe and the Confederated Villages of Lisjan Nation."
Tribal Developments
    The Tribal Resource Tool ( is an online map and resource directory of diverse resources for American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) victims and survivors of crime and abuse. The Tribal Resource Tool is funded by the Office for Victims of Tribal victim service programs, Tribal coalitions, Tribal Courts, law enforcement, Domestic Violence Shelters (Tribal & Non-Tribal), behavioral health resources and substance abuse treatment centers, are accessed by over 17,000+ advocates, victims and survivors a year. Access resources on or off Tribal lands, (Reservations, Tribal Communities, Urban Indian Communities, Alaskan Villages, adjacent cities and towns) for victims and survivors of all ages and all crime types via the Tribal Resource Tool.  A new video walks users how to use the Tribal Resource Tool, which you can access at: is an online map and resource directory of diverse resources for American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) victims and survivors of crime and abuse. The Tribal Resource Tool is funded by the Office for Victims of Crime, sharing over 1,000+ resources across the country. Resources such as but not limited to: Tribal victim service programs, Tribal coalitions, Tribal Courts, law enforcement, Domestic Violence Shelters (Tribal & Non-Tribal), behavioral health resources and substance abuse treatment centers, are accessed by over 17,000+ advocates, victims and survivors a year. Access resources on or off Tribal lands, (Reservations, Tribal Communities, Urban Indian Communities, Alaskan Villages, adjacent cities and towns) for victims and survivors of all ages and all crime types via the Tribal Resource Tool.  A new video walks users how to use the Tribal Resource Tool, which you can access here : (supplied via E-mail by Mandy Hambleton via ATIXA, <, September 7, 2022 ).

    " How the Pandemic Shortened Life Expectancy in Indigenous Communities: New federal data outline the scale of suffering among Native Americans and Alaska Natives," The New York Times, August 31, 2022,, reported, " In 2020 and 2021, as the coronavirus swept across the United States, life expectancy for Native Americans and Alaska Natives fell by six and a half years &emdash;; a decline that left the researchers aghast.      The comparable figure for all Americans was about three years, itself a terrible milestone not seen in nearly a century."       According to Elizabeth Arias, Ph.D., Betzaida Tejada-Vera, M.S., Kenneth D. Kochanek, M.A., and Farida B. Ahmad, M.P.H., NVSS: Vial Statistics Rapid Release, Report, No. 23, August 2022,, the preliminary calculation of the drop in life expectancy from 2019-2021 by group was:   
    American Indian and Alaska Native, from 71.8 to 65.2 years

    Hispanic, from 81.9 to 77.7 years.  
     Asian, from 85.6 to 83.5 years. 
    White, from 78.8 to 76.4 years.     Black, from 74.8 to 70.8 years.      See also, "Life Expectancy in the U.S. Dropped for the Second Year in a Row in 2021," Contact: CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, Office of Communication (301) 458-4800, E-mail:, August 31, 2022,

     This fall, COVID-19 was a continuing, and at least in the Southwest, resurgent problem, particularly on Navajo Nation, where in mid-November it was continuing to spread. "Over four-day period, 13 new cases and four deaths related to COVID-19 reported, 45 communities identified with uncontrolled spread: Caution imperative with the continued spread of COVID-19 and Monkeypox on the Navajo Nation," ICT, September 7, 2022,, reported, "On Tuesday, the Navajo Department of Health, in coordination with the Navajo Epidemiology Center and the Navajo Area Indian Health Service, reported 13 new COVID-19 cases for the Navajo Nation and four deaths over a four-day period from September 3&emdash;;6. The total number of deaths is now 1,891. 590,605 COVID-19 tests have been administered. The overall total number of positive COVID-19 cases is now 72,720, including 190 delayed reported cases. Based on cases from August 19&emdash;;September 1, 2022, the Navajo Department of Health issued a Health Advisory Notice for É 45 communities due to uncontrolled spread of COVID-19."
      Emily McFarlan Miller, "Reckoning with their history, Lutherans issue declaration to Indigenous peoples: The largest Lutheran denomination in the United States shared its Declaration of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America to American Indian and Alaska Native People for the first time in person Wednesday (Aug. 10) at its triennial Churchwide Assembly in Columbus, Ohio," ReligionNews Service (RNS), August 11, 2022,, reported that Vance Blackfox,  a citizen of the Cherokee Nation and director for Indigenous ministries and tribal relations for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the United States' largest Lutheran denomination commented that "in the 1960s and 1970s, Lutherans vocally supported the American Indian Movement... They set an example for how Christians can engage in justice work for and with Indigenous peoples."    "Blackfox's remarks came as the denomination &emdash;; meeting for its triennial Churchwide Assembly in Columbus, Ohio, this week &emdash;; shared its Declaration of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America to American Indian and Alaska Native People (Below in Research Notes and at: for the first time in person. Adopted by the ELCA Church Council in September, the five-page document includes confessions to Indigenous peoples inside and outside of the denomination, as well as a confession to non-Indigenous members of the ELCA."
       Mitch Smith and Julie Bosman, "Congress Told Colleges to Return Native Remains. What's Taking So Long? The University of North Dakota, the latest U.S. college to acknowledge keeping Indigenous bones and artifacts, pledged to work with tribal leaders on returning them," The New York Times , September 15, 2022, , reported on tribal leaders arriving at the University of North Dakota that finally discovered it had tribal remains and artifacts that needed to be repatriated and called in tribal leaders. "The tribal leaders arrived at the University of North Dakota last month for a somber, secret task. 
     More than 30 years ago, Congress passed a law requiring colleges and museums to return Native remains and artifacts in their possession. But a generation later, the returns have been slow and halting, when they have happened at all. Many institutions have dragged out the process, questioning tribes' links to artifacts and, in some cases, disputing whether items should be returned. Others, like the University of North Dakota, seem to have made no comprehensive effort to find and return items until recently, leaving questions about how so many decades passed without progress." 

     The passage of state laws banning abortion have provided difficulties for many Native women living within those states. From reservations in South Dakota, for example, it was already a long drive to cities where one could find the procedure. With the ban on the procedure in the state, and some of its neighbors, it is now a huge distance to a place that offers abortions (Tom Lawrence, "Abortion Ban Is Huge Obstacle for Native Women Native Women," The New York Times, June 27, 2022).
       Artificial Intelligence (AI) is no better than the data put into it. Data on Indigenous people has long been scant or nonexistent on many topics, leaving AI with biases in referring to them. Now a number of American Indian science and technology experts are working to supply missing data and lessen the bias (Alex V. Cipolle, "An Evolving Tools Place in Real Life: How Native Americans Are Trying to Debug A.I.'s Biases," The New York Times, April 16, 2022).
  Levi Rickert , "IOC Restores 1912 Olympic Gold Medals Solely to Jim Thorpe," Native News on Line, July 15, 2022,, reported, "Even in death, Jim Thorpe (Sac and Fox, Potawatomi) has once again made history and proved himself "the greatest athlete in the world." In a turn of events, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) will display the name of Jim Thorpe, whose original name Wa-Tho-Huk that means "Bright Path," as the sole gold medallist in pentathlon and decathlon at the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm . This change comes on the 110th anniversary of Thorpe's medal in decathlon."
  The National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) has been giving support to several Indian Nations that are investing in food sovereignty to improve the diet and health of their tribal Citizens.      Nicole Greenfield, " A Mississippi Tribe Is Growing Its Own Organic Movement: With programs for schools, elders, and diabetics across 10 counties, Choctaw Fresh Produce is making sure its tribal members have access to fresh, healthy food," NRDC, May 16, 2022,, reported, "A decade ago, Daphne Snow had to drive three hours from her home in Philadelphia, Mississippi, to buy organic vegetables. Since then, some organic produce has crept into the state via national supermarket chains, but quality, locally grown options are still hard to find. Even so, Snow gets what she needs because these days, she helps grow the vegetables herself.
    Snow is the farm manager for Choctaw Fresh Produce (, an organic farming initiative started by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians (MBCI) to increase access to affordable, healthy produce. The farm serves 11,000 members, who live in eight separate communities spread across 10 counties. Snow oversees five acres of high tunnel greenhouses on four different certified organic farms on the reservation and, along with three of Choctaw's five other employees, grows staples like corn, beans, and squash.
     'Instead of fast food and junk food, we're providing people with greens and fresh vegetables, things they need,' says Snow, who has worked for the tribe for 20 years and is Choctaw Fresh's only non-tribal employee. 'And what we're growing is probably even better than what they're growing in their backyards. Most people I know aren't going to pick the bugs off or pull the bad plants instead of spraying. It's very hard to find stuff like we produce.'" 
      Nicole Greenfield, " Blackfeet Nation Is Taking Back the Food System: A tribal-led plan to build a meat-processing facility on the Blackfeet Nation reservation in Montana will help invigorate the local economy, safeguard cultural traditions, and protect community health and the environment," NRDC, June 21, 2021 ,, reported, "A simple cup of tea or a few servings of fresh vegetables don't always come cheap for residents of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in northwestern Montana. For the Blackfeet Nation, one of the 10 largest tribes in the United States, whose 1.5 million acre homeland is roughly the size of Delaware, there are only two grocery stores, both in the tribal seat of Browning.
     At the local stores, a box of tea or a head of cauliflower can cost $10 or $11, more than double what one might pay elsewhere. "And with $11," says Danielle Antelope, co-chair of FAST (Food Access and Sustainability Team) Blackfeet, "you'd probably rather buy a pack of meat so that you can cook some dinner for your kids." Residents on the reservation are known to travel up to two hours to shop at a more affordable grocery store.      According to a 2017 assessment, 69 percent of people on the Blackfeet reservation struggle with food insecurity&emdash;;compared to the national average of 12.5 percent&emdash;;due in large part to poverty caused by widespread unemployment. Fresh food is particularly hard to come b y, and nutrition assistance programs can be out of reach, too, as a result of limited transportation options and unreliable internet service in this remote area just east of Glacier National Park.      Organizations like FAST Blackfeet have been doing critical work to remedy the problem, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, when, beginning last spring, demand for food at its L«yM«¥W« ("We Are Eating") Food Pantry jumped to 4,000 pounds per week from 400 to 600 pounds prior to the public health emergency. The group seeks to ensure that tribal members have access to fresh meat and produce, as well as medicinal herbal teas.  Meanwhile, the Blackfeet Nation has, for the past several years, been focused on mapping out a longer-term plan for addressing food access issues, such as enabling tribal members to raise more plants and livestock, in order to regain their food sovereignty. In addition to feeding local families, these initiatives would help boost the local economy, create jobs, and even help address the impacts of climate change through building healthier soil&emdash;;a critical tool for sequestering carbon&emdash;;and by reducing the greenhouse gases associated with trucking in groceries from long distances.  
    The Blackfeet Nation's process to create its Agricultural Resource Management Plan (ARMP), which incorporates some of FAST Blackfeet's efforts, kicked off in 2017 and is currently in its final stages. The 10-year blueprint to improve the tribe's agricultural management&emdash;;which includes input from ranchers and farmers from each of the Blackfeet Nation's five watersheds&emdash;;is the first such plan to be developed by a tribe itself. Among other initiatives, it is paving the way for the creation of a beef-and bison-processing plant owned and operated by the Blackfeet Nation
     Leaders of the ARMP expect the proposed $10 million facility to start by processing 20 head of cattle per day. The idea, similar to a beef-processing plant owned by the Quapaw Nation in Oklahoma (, aims to create a pathway for sustainable economic development for the tribe by creating jobs and putting more money in the pockets of local ranchers, who lose a lot when they sell their livestock to out-of-state processors that finish the animals on an unhealthy grain diet before being processed at a massive corporate facility. (A mere four companies control a whopping 80 percent of beef processing in the United States)."      Susan Cosier, "For Thousands of Years, Indigenous Tribes Have Been Planting for the Future: With yields of biodiversity and a more climate-resilient food supply, a movement is sprouting in BIPOC communities across North America to save heirloom seeds and preserve culture," NRDC, November 30, 2021,, "The smell of campfire wafts through the air at the Meskwaki settlement in central Iowa, as a giant pot of corn soup simmers above open flames and smoldering gray ashes. It's the Tuesday after Indigenous Peoples' Day, and the Meskwaki Food Sovereignty Initiative (MFSI) is hosting a grab-and-go lunch to celebrate the occasion. Tribal members mingle as they check out containers filled with fry bread, wa-bi-ko-ni(squash), and Tama Flint a-ta-mi-ni (corn).  
     Much of the produce offered is very locally grown, having sprouted in the Red Earth Garden just behind the packed picnic tables. Throughout the growing season, tribal members tend to crops in fields and greenhouses, then distribute the bounty to the community in boxes. In addition to tomatoes and kale, the farm yields some of the Meskwaki's historic staples. Here, tendrils of bean plants curl around tall corn stalks, while squash vines snake through the ground below.      'I've always been told that the corn and the beans, and the squash, they're like our ancestors," says Luke Kapayou, the ancestral farming manager at the settlement who has been keeping seeds since the 1990s. He explains that the crops, known as the three sisters, are "good friends with each other. They want to be planted together, they want to be grown together and be around each other. They want to be cooked together, and they want us to do it. . .The better you take care of them, the better they grow. And the happier they are.'      For thousands of years, the Meskwaki people have been eating a-ta-mi-ni. Their ancestors cultivated the corn variety by selecting plants that displayed desirable traits and crossing them with other well-performing plants. Once satisfied with the results, they would save the seeds the plant produced and pass them down, season after season, century after century. During the early 1900s, museums and other institutions began collecting seeds from Native Americans. 'A lot of it was pretty underhanded and aggressive on the part of the white collectors," says Meskwaki member Shelley Buffalo. They wanted, she says, 'to get Native artifacts into the museums, because there was a universal expectation that the Indigenous People of the Americas would cease to exist.'  
     Tribes also gave seeds to groups that preserved them. In 1909, an ethnobotanist named William Jones, whose grandmother was Meskwaki, brought seeds from the tribe to the Field Museum in Chicago for preservation. The museum returned those seeds to the Meskwaki in 2019. Now other groups are also helping tribes get those heirloom seeds back to the communities that once cared for, grew, and saved them&emdash;;an effort some call "rematriation," in acknowledgement that tribal seed savers were traditionally women.      Buffalo worked for MFSI before becoming a seasonal seed saver at Seed Savers Exchange (, an organization that has been preserving America's heirloom plant varieties since 1975 and recently began returning seeds cultivated by tribes to Native growers. At the lunch table, Buffalo gestures to the steaming soup and piles of corn. 'What you see here represents a legacy,' she says. 'It is unique and pretty dear to us.'
     Saving seeds helps that cultural legacy to live on, not only in traditional planting and culinary practices and ceremonies but also in the forms of food sovereignty and healthy bodies. And those same seeds also contain a genetic legacy&emdash;;traits that allow plants to thrive without the artificial inputs of toxic chemicals and a diversity of genes that could help them, and us, survive the climate crisis."  Jeff Turrentine, "A Native Hawaiian Digs into Her Roots to Grow Food, Knowledge, and Hope: Inspired by an ancient system of natural resource management, Kukui Maunakea-Forth works with her community to turn O»ahu youth into farmers&emdash;;and scholars, NRDC, May 18, 2021 ,, reported, "To fully grasp the idea behind MA»O Organic Farms on O»ahu, Hawai»i (, founded 20 years ago by Kukui Maunakea-Forth and her husband, Gary Maunakea-Forth, it helps to have an understanding of the concept of ahupua»a. Many centuries before colonization and industrialization took over the Pacific archipelago, Native Hawaiians developed a natural resource management system that prioritized conservation, collective responsibility, and shared bounty. In the absence of private property, ahupua»a organized the geography of the islands by following the natural flow of water, from the highest unpopulated altitudes to the sea.
     So important is water to ahupua»a that the Hawaiian word for water, wai, becomes the word for wealth simply when repeated: waiwai. 'In an ahupua»a system,' Kukui Maunakea-Forth explains, "the forests draw the rain and the wai accumulates in the wao akua&emdash;;the place of the gods&emdash;;at the tops of the mountains, where native flora and fauna thrive untouched by people. The wai then recharges aquifers, or runs into the kahawai [streams], where it will be carried through the wao kanaka, or the place of people, to be used for drinking and the cultivation of crops
.'            Unlike modern industrialized farming practices, which usually include heavy doses of pesticides and fertilizer, this ancient Hawai»ian system doesn't try to aggressively bend nature to its will. Maunakea-Forth's ancestors designed their irrigation methods with sustainability in mind. "An »auwai [ditch] was often built to divert the precious waito feed lo»i kalo," or fields of taro, which is the staple crop of the Hawaiian people and the main ingredient in poi," she says. "Then the water would continue through the »auwai, cleaned in the process, to be returned to the kahawai before eventually reaching the muliwai [estuary], where&emdash;;in the mix of freshwater and saltwater&emdash;;limu[seaweed], small crustaceans, and baby fish would be nourished before returning to the ocean."     Today, MA»O Organic Farms lies just outside the town of Wai»anae, on O»ahu's western coast. The town is a little more than 30 miles from the gleaming hotels and tourist-filled beaches of Waikiki, but in many respects, it's a world away . The poverty rate in this community of roughly 14,000 in 2019 was 24.4 percent&emdash;;more than two and a half times the poverty rate for the entire state and more than twice that of the United States as a whole. Though the island's western coast is leeward from Honolulu, the capital city's vibrant economic winds never seemed to drift over to Wai»anae, where homelessness, alcohol and drug addiction, food insecurity, and health disparities have long made their mark on the people who live there.     But Wai»anae is also distinct in other ways. The Lualualei Valley in which it sits features a nutrient-rich, highly fertile soil known as Lualualei Vertisol that is ideal for growing crops. Wai»anae is also home to one of the highest concentrations of Native Hawaiians, or Kanaka Maoli, in the state, making it a unique repository of Indigenous knowledge and traditions that have managed to survive centuries of cultural erasure, economic exploitation, and environmental degradation at the hands of colonizers and corporations alike .   Maunakea-Forth, a Native Hawaiian raised in the neighboring town of Nnkuli, has spent the last 20 years addressing the interconnections between food, poverty, health, and education. In 2001, she and her New Zealand&emdash;;born husband started a small, sustainably run farm on five acres leased to them by a local church. From its conception, they envisioned MA»O as a robust engine of community development. The couple crafted a nonprofit social enterprise business model that draws upon local youth&emdash;;many of whom are considered at-risk&emdash;;for its labor force. In addition to a monthly stipend, the farm helps pay the tuition costs of its interns at a pair of nearby community colleges. So far, more than 400 of their workers have come through the program. Over the last two decades, MA»O has become a powerful incubator for local education and self-improvement, all while providing fresh, organic vegetables to the Wai»anae community&emdash;;as well as dozens of grocers and restaurateurs who long for locally grown produce in a state that imports about 85 percent of its food.  
     Today, the couple's once-tiny plot stands at more than 280 acres, which in 2020 yielded an astounding 262,000 pounds of organically grown salad greens, cooking greens, root vegetables, herbs, and seasonal fruit. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the farm was able to increase its yield from the prior year by 43 percent&emdash;;and its role as a dependable source of healthful food for the community was never more apparent."
" Publications : Stewarding Native Lands: Forging Last-Mile Protein Supply Chains In Indian Country ," First Nations Development Institute, August 2022,, announced, "In late 2020, with support from First Nations' Keepseagle Endowment and funding from the Ronald W. Naito Foundation, First Nations began the Forging Last-Mile Protein Supply Chain in Indian Country pilot project. Through this project, First Nations partnered with six tribal grantees to strengthen their protein supply chains. Using the following strategies, these grantees sought to identify and capitalize on existing assets that could increase tribal ownership of protein supply chains and thus overall tribal food sovereignty:Identify ways to increase tribal control of food supply through supporting research on the viability of new and/or expanded meat-processing facilities and the development of value-added products.    Increase the capacity of existing Native processors to meet the needs of their communities through purchasing equipment to process, store, and market locally-produced meat and value-added products.     Strengthen tribal workforces and increase economic opportunities by investing in certifications and butchering programs, and increasing understanding of related food codes and regulations.  
     Increase the viability of smaller farms and ranches through connecting Native producers in the local protein supply chain.  
    While the COVID-19 pandemic may have exposed the vulnerabilities in tribal food chains, this project and the work of these six grantees provide a better understanding of how to build more resilient and self-reliant meat supply chains in Native communities.      To download the report go to:
      Hallie Golden, " An Indigenous reservation has a novel way to grow food &emdash;; below the earth's surface," The Guardian, December 3, 2022,, reported, "Near the southern border of the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, a curved translucent roof peeks out a few feet above the dusty plains. It's a blustery November afternoon and the last remaining greens outside are fading fast. But below ground, at the bottom of a short flight of stairs, the inside of this 80ft-long sleek structure is bursting with life &emdash;; pallets of vivid microgreens, potato plants growing from hay bales and planters full of thick heads of Swiss chard and pak choi. Two people bend over the pallets, using scissors to harvest delicate sprouts of microgreens.  
     This is an underground greenhouse, or walipini, and the harvesters are members of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. It is one of at least eight underground greenhouses that, over the past decade, have been built or are being constructed on the reservation &emdash;; which has one of the highest poverty rates in the US. Some hope they can help solve the interconnected problems of the lack of affordable, nutritious food and the difficulties of farming in the climate crisis."

      Emily St. James, "The rise of land acknowledgments &emdash;; and their limitations : More institutions are making note of indigenous rights to land. Does it make a difference?," Vox, July 28, 2022,, stated, that there has an increase in the United States of Native land acknowledgements, " Many allow for a more thorough reckoning with America's p ast. The October 2021 Boston Marathon opened with a land acknowledgement ceremony, prompted by criticisms of marathon organizers who had scheduled the race on Indigenous Peoples Day; its extensiveness drew praise from several Indigenous people in attendance. Similarly, many universities have long and thoughtful land acknowledgement pages on their websites, like this one from Northwestern University. And land acknowledgements are turning up in other spaces too, as seen in a ceremony held with the Ho-Chunk Nation by the Madison, Wisconsin, school district in April."
    " Yet too often, critics say, these land acknowledgements take the form of a simplistic, 'This establishment exists on the land of this tribe .' That doesn't make them bad, necessarily, but can make them seem like hollow gestures. As Graeme Wood wrote in the Atlantic (, 'The acknowledgment relieves the speaker and the audience of the responsibility to think about Indigenous peoples, at least until the next public event.'"

      Jana Hollingsworth, "Bois Forte celebrates historic return of tribal land: More than 28,000 acres of reservation land lost a century ago is back under band ownership," Star Tribune, June 7, 2022,, repored, "On powwow grounds overlooking the calm, wild rice-filled waters of Nett Lake, leaders of the Bois Forte Band of Chippewa on Tuesday reclaimed a massive portion of land lost more than 100 years ago, marking the largest Native American land restoration of its kind in the United States.    They were joined by tribal leaders from other Chippewa reservations and dozens of Bois Forte citizens, who gathered to celebrate the purchase of more than 28,000 acres of former reservation land, procured in partnership with the Conservation Fund and the Indian Land Tenure Foundation. Before a ceremonial proclamation was read and papers signed, a traditional drum group thrummed a healing song. A pipe ceremony invoked the Creator as the scents of a fry bread and walleye feast lingered in the air."

     Chris Aadland, " Grand Ronde citizens vote to limit disenrollment: Many say the move to amend the tribe's constitution is a critical step in community healing after painful disenrollments a decade ago divided tribal citizens," ICT, December 4, 2022, Grand Ronde citizens vote to limit disenrollment - ICT News, reported, "Being Indigenous and living in the homelands of her ancestors is the most important part of Erin Bernando's identity.
    It's a history she can trace back to Ta-hon-nah Tumulth, a chief of a Chinook band of Cascade Indians who signed the Willamette Valley treaty in 1855 and lived near present-day Cascade Locks in the Columbia River Gorge. The treaty that Ta-hon-nah Tumulth signed led to the formation of a reservation for what would become the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde. Yet, that connection to Chief Tumulth would be used against Bernando and dozens of her relatives during one of the most divisive periods of the tribe's modern history. That painful period exposed broad disagreement over how the tribe determines its formal requirements for belonging that persist today. Despite being part of negotiations for the 1855 treaty, the U.S. government executed Tumulth before he was able to move to the reservation. Residency there would eventually become an enrollment requirement &emdash;; and the basis the tribe used in 2014 to revoke citizenship for Bernando and 85 of Tumulth's other descendants. Bernando and her relatives eventually saw their citizenship restored. And had the issue been raised today, it wouldn't have led to a mass disenrollment controversy that divided tribal citizens.       That's because the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde recently took a major step to prevent such ruptures. Tribal members voted to amend their constitution to prevent most disenrollments. That sets Grand Ronde apart from nearly every other tribe in the U.S. that has disenrolled citizens for financial or political reasons &emdash;; disenrollments that critics call arbitrary and unjust."
    "Cherokees Ask U.S. to Make Good on a 187-Year-Old Promise, for a Start: The demand that Congress honor a treaty and seat a nonvoting delegate comes amid growing clashes over sovereignty and a tight race for Oklahoma's governor, a Cherokee citizen," The New York Times, November 3, 2022,, reported, " In 1835, U.S. officials traveled to the Cherokee Nation's capital in Georgia to sign a treaty forcing the Cherokees off their lands in the American South, opening them to white settlers. The Treaty of New Echota sent thousands on a death march to new lands in Oklahoma.      The Cherokees were forced at gunpoint to honor the treaty. But though it stipulated that the Nation would be entitled to a nonvoting seat in the House of Representatives, Congress reneged on that part of the deal. Now, amid a growing movement across Indian Country for greater representation and sovereignty, the Cherokees are pushing to seat their delegate, 187 years later."
    Indian Nations would like to have more voice in Congress. But might be unhappy to only have one nation represented. It might be best to have the Cherokees choose the first Native congressional representative, perhaps as the official representative of a delegation of Indian nations from throughout the United States, and then to have a process for Native nations to choose the official representative, as well as the rest of the delegation. Any such arrangement is up to Congress.
" Chief Hoskin signs Cherokee Artist Recovery Act into law, sets aside $3 million to support tribe's artists through 2024: Funding addresses the adverse economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic," ICT, October 14, 2022,, reported, " Principal Chief Chuck Hoskin Jr. officially signed into law the Cherokee Artist Recovery Act of 2022 Wednesday morning, setting aside $3 million through 2024 to address the adverse economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Cherokee artists.  Under the new law first proposed by Chief Hoskin and Deputy Chief Warner in September and approved by the Council of the Cherokee Nation Tuesday night, the tribe will set aside $3 million to purchase Cherokee art and provide more opportunities for artists to teach others over the next two years."

     " The Muscogee (Creek) Nation Department of Health announces partnership with OU-TU School of Community Medicine to provide general surgery services: Services to be provided at tribe's newest hospital, Council Oak Comprehensive Healthcare in Tulsa," ICT, October 13, 2022,, reported, "Muscogee (Creek) Nation Department of Health (MCN Health) and the OU-TU School of Community Medicine have announced a collaboration to increase access to high-quality healthcare to Native Americans and community members. Later this fall, the university's faculty practice will begin providing general surgery services in the Muscogee (Creek) Nation's newest hospital, Council Oak Comprehensive Healthcare in Tulsa.""For more information, visit"

     The Ponca Nation of Oklahoma adopted a Rights of Nature Statue, July 6, 2022, recognizing the "immutable rights of rivers" for two rivers flowing through its lands "(U.S.: Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma Declares Rivers Have Rights," Cultural Survival Quarterly, September 2022).

     Madonna Thunder Hawk, Cheyenne River Organizer of Lakota People's Law Project commented in a July 18, 2022 E-mail, "Good news! Here at the Cheyenne River Nation, things are on track toward our goal of creating a tribally-run Child Welfare Department. Just last week, we held our second hearing in Eagle Butte, our reservation's largest community. We recorded powerful testimony from several families, which we will ultimately present to the Cheyenne River Tribal Council.   I encourage you to watch our new video (, in which Virginia White Feather &emdash;; one of my fellow grandmothers in Wasagiya Najin, our Standing Strong grandmothers' group &emdash;; and I talk about the importance of our efforts to keep Native children in Native care.  We grandmas lead this charge because we're the best ones to do it. We have deep respect from our communities, and in a culture that greatly values and relies upon kinship connections, we're often the ones who step in to caretake for our grandchildren. Our connections run deep.   That's extra important when trust can be hard to come by, given that our children and families have been let down time and again. As you likely know by now, South Dakota's child welfare system doesn't hold proper respect for our kinship ties, and our children are rou"tinely taken from us. Our people, therefore, tend to be skeptical of anyone offering solutions, but they know that we grandmothers &emdash;; who spend every day organizing within our communities and caring for the next generations &emdash;; mean business. 
     We want wrap-around services for our children and caretakers. We intend to make sure they can remain together, here in a safe place, and that our families have what they need. We won't stop organizing, and we'll have even more to report soon. Our next target is editing video from our various hearings to present at Tribal Council and motivate them to act. It's exciting, because we have a golden opportunity to create a far better system that recognizes the old ways in service of our next generations.
     Meanwhile , Lakota Law's legal team just submitted our draft amicus brief for review by sister organizations in the Supreme Court case about the Indian Child Welfare Act. The Court will hear the case in October, and the stakes couldn't be higher. We'll have much more to report on that project soon, as well. Please stay tuned!  
    Wopila tanka &emdash;; thank you for standing strong for our children.
      Madonna Thunder Hawk, Cheyenne River Organizer, The Lakota People's Law Project."
     First Nations Development Institute reported in an August 19, 2022 E-mail, "The Makoce Podcast," "Long-time First Nations' colleague Nick Hernandez is a member of the Oglala Sioux Tribe and a citizen of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota. As founder and president of First Nations community partner Makoce Agriculture Development, Nick launched The Makoce Podcast, a community voice for sharing systemic solutions and strategies toward reconnecting and regenerating local food systems across the Oceti Sakowin Nation and Turtle Island. In the latest episode, bison producers Ron and Carol Brown Otter share their approach to bison transportation. Access the podcasts here:
      " Mary Annette Pember, "Wounded Knee land comes home at last: Oglala Sioux, Cheyenne River Sioux buy 40 acres at massacre site to preserve as sacred without commercial development," ICT, September  9, 2022,, reported, " The Oglala Sioux tribal council voted in an historic decision Sept. 7 to purchase [along with the Cheyenne River Tribe] 40 acres of Wounded Knee land from Jeanette Czywczynski for $500,000 &emdash;; a move that now puts almost all of the Wounded Knee National Historic Landmark site under ownership of the Oglala Sioux.      Sold for far less than the $3.9 million price demanded by her now-deceased husband, James Czywczynski, the land now includes a covenant to preserve it as a sacred site and memorial without commercial development."

     By Mark Pratt, "Sacred Items In Museum To Be Returned To Lakota," ICT, October 13, 2022,, reported, " About 150 items considered sacred by the Lakota that have been stored at a small Massachusetts museum for more than a century are being returned, museum and tribal officials announced Monday.   
    The items including weapons, pipes, moccasins and clothing &emdash;; about seven or eight of which are thought to have a direct link to the the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre &emdash;; are due to be formally handed over during a ceremony scheduled for November 5, Ann Meilus, president of the board at the Founders Museum in Barre, said during a news conference on a day that several people present noted is more commonly being celebrated as Indigenous Peoples Day."

    Nora Mabie, "At least 10 Native children reported missing in last 2 weeks: Experts say they generally see an uptick in missing persons cases during the summer when the weather is warm and school is out of session," ICT, September 1, 2022,, reported, " From Aug. 16 to Aug. 30, at least 10 Native children &emdash;; ages 11 to 17 &emdash;; were reported missing in Montana. 
     Experts say they generally see an uptick in missing persons cases during the summer when the weather is warm and school is out of session.  
    Emilee Cantrell, press secretary for the Montana Department of Justice, wrote in an email there has been an "overall uptick in missing persons under the age of 21 recently, which is typical of what we've seen in previous years." 
    A Montana Department of Justice report found that in 2021, more than 80 percent of the missing Indigenous people were under the age of 18. Dana Toole, special services bureau chief with the DOJ's Division of Criminal Investigation, told Lee Montana newspapers in July that non-Native people under 18 also go missing at a higher rate than any other age."
      Vanessa G. Sánchez, " A Navajo-led search and rescue team looks for missing and murdered Indigenous people whose cases have been ignored, " New Mexico Political Report, October 28, 2022,," reported that a number of Dine have formed a search and rescue team tp search for missing Dine in the reservation whose cases were not being dealt with officially. In one case, "From Arizona, Utah, and New Mexico, a dozen volunteers and three separate families &emdash;; uncles, aunts, cousins, neighbors &emdash;; have come together to search for Ryan Tom, yet another Navajo man missing on tribal land."

     Rima Krisst, "Council slam-dunks billion-dollar ARAPA bill ," Navajo Times, July 7, 2022, Council slam-dunks billion-dollar ARPA bill - Navajo Times, reported, "After almost a year of discussion and political wrangling, the Navajo Nation Council appropriated the remaining $1.1 billion in American Rescue Plan Act funds." "Prepared by the president's office and sponsored by Delegate Mark Freeland, with four amendments, the bill includes funding for the following priorities (per the speaker's office):$211.2 million for chapter projects (to be determined) divided equally by 24 delegate regions ($8.8 million).$96.4 million for home electricity connections.$225 million for water and wastewater projects.$109.8 million for internet broadband connections.$145.5 million for housing construction, including veteran and Bennett Freeze housing.$150 million for bathroom additions.$120 million for new Hardship Assistance applications.$40 million for E911, rural addressing and cyber security upgrades.$19.2 million for transitional housing and detox centers.Of the $2.079 billion in ARPA funding the Nation received in 2021 to respond to negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, more than $1 billion was already appropriated for Hardship Assistance ($557 million), Sihasin Fund and Unreserved, Undesignated Fund Balance project reimbursements ($76.6 million), refunded CARES Act projects ($167.6 million), and Navajo Nation government ARPA administrative/regulatory support ($207.9 million)."

     Gwynne Ann Unruh, "Navajo Nation approves projects for 1 billion infrastructure dollars," Navajo Times, August 25, 2022, Navajo Nation Approves Projects for $1 Billion in Infrastructure Dollars - The Paper. (, reported, " Navajo Nation leaders have finalized an agreement on spending priorities for more than $1 billion in federal recovery fund relief. The money will go a long way towards improving water, sanitation, housing and communication infrastructure on the Navajo Reservation. The Diné ( Navajo People) hope the jobs the money creates will attract community members back who left to work off the reservation to support their families."    "The Navajo Nation Council Resolution CJN-29-22 provides $215 million for water and waste-water projects, $97 million to extend electricity to homes, and $250 million on internet and housing projects. Another $210 million is set aside for local priorities determined by Navajo chapterhouse government units."
    ""The $272.5 million from the Inflation Reduction Act is appropriated as $150 million for Tribal home electrification, $75 million for loans to Tribes for energy development, $25 million for climate resilience funding to the Native Hawaiian community, $12.5 million to mitigate drought impacts for Tribal communities, $10 million for Tribal fish hatcheries. The Act also includes $20 billion in loan guarantees for Tribal energy development."
    The Navajo Nation Naabik'iatyi Committee recommended an FY2023 budget for the executive and legislative branches, in August, 2022. The executive budget was recommended at $8.4 million while the legislative branch budget was proposed at $18.5 million (Hannah John, "Naabik'iatyi OK's, recommends FY 23 budgets," Navajo Times, August 11, 2022
     " Navajo Nation moves forward with the development of alcohol and drug detox and residential treatment centers: $19 million allocated to develop facilities," ICT, November 1, 2022,, reported, "The Navajo Nation Fiscal Recovery Fund Office and the Office of Management and Budget have notified the Navajo Nation Division of Behavioral and Mental Health Services that funding through the American Rescue Plan Act is now available for the development of detox and residential treatment/rehabilitation centers to provide support for members of the Navajo Nation who struggle with drug and alcohol addiction. Currently, the Division of Behavioral and Mental Health Services administers nine outpatient treatment centers in Chinle, Dilkon, Fort Defiance, Kaibeto, Kayenta, Newlands, Red Mesa, Tuba City, Crownpoint, Gallup, and Shiprock. There is only one residential treatment center located in Shiprock, New Mexico. Approximately $19 million is allocated to develop the centers in Shiprock, Chinle, Kayenta, and Tuba City and transitional housing facilities in Fort Defiance and Kayenta.
     "The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a toll on the physical, mental, and spiritual well-being of many people around the world and here on the Navajo Nation. With the funding that the Navajo Nation received through the American Rescue Plan Act, Navajo Department of Health Executive Director Dr. Jill Jim prioritized the development of transitional housing and detox centers that will be able to help our people who are struggling with addiction and mental health issues while keeping them closer to home. The plan and funding are in place, and we will soon have these centers within our communities,' said President Nez."

     The federal government has awarded a $73 million contract for part of the construction of the Navajo-Gallup Water Project, to bring water to parts of the reservation in northwest New Mexico (US awards $73million contract for Navajo-Gallup water project," Navajo Times, September 29, 2022).
The Navajo Nation Naabik'iatyi Committee approved, in late June 2022, $4.1 million for the construction of a 25 unit/multipurpose housing project on the reservation, in Navajo, NM  Hannah John, Money OK'd for apartment complex in Navajo, N.M. ," Navajo Times, June 30, 2022).
  The Southern Ute Indian Tribe of Colorado, in July 2022, continued following participatory tradition by involving tribal members in having a say in the planning for and operation of substance use service and facilities through  a survey, including incentive to participate by offering  chance to win a $20 gift card to all who shared their views ("Southern Ute Public opinion Survey," Southern Ute Drum, July 29, 2022).

     "Federal report supports saving Oak Flat: New Bureau of Land Management report exposes planned devastation of culture, water, and environment," ICT, September 14, 2022,, reported, "A new federal report ( by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management details the cultural and environmental threats posed by the Biden Administration's plan to transfer Oak Flat to a foreign-owned mining company. The report adds even more evidence supporting tribal members' effort to defend their sacred religious site in Apache Stronghold v. United States (, a case currently at the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals."
     Dan Bacher News , "Wintu oversee return of salmon to McCloud River: Winnemem Wintu Tribe Collaborates With State and Federal Agencies to Release Winter-Run Chinook Eggs in River for First Time Since Construction of Shasta Dam, Chico News and Review, August 15, 2022,, reported that since the since Shasta Dam was completed in the 1940s, inundating the cultural sites of the Winnemem Wintum there have been no  winter-run Chinook salmon on  the Winnemem Waywaket, or McCloud River, which has been a great loss to the Wintu. 
    But on July 11 , the tribe, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) celebrated the return of endangered winter-run Chinook salmon eggs to the cold, glacial-fed waters of the McCloud River for the first time in 80 years. The events took place upstream from Shasta Dam.     The tribe and agency staff worked together on installing a Remote Incubation System, or RIS, into which staff from Livingston Stone Fish Hatchery&emdash;;assisted by Winnemem and other children&emdash;;gently placed 20,000 winter run eyed salmon eggs back into the McCloud."
    Jacob Dimond, Nisqually Tribe Hosts Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony for Solar Energy Project," Nisqually Valley News, September 13, 2022,,299796, reported, " The Nisqually Indian Tribe held a ribbon-cutting ceremony on Thursday, Sept. 8 to celebrate the completion of its first ever solar energy project.      The project included the installation of a 66 kilowatt array of 146 solar panels on the tribe's Medicine Creek Enterprise Board's building," which includes the Nisqually Markets." The solar panels were installed by tribal members and will save considerable money.
  "Seattle Indian Health Board opens new Lake City clinic just five weeks after opening clinic in Pioneer Square: Community gathering held to celebrate opening," ICT, September 26, 2022,, reported, " Seattle Indian Health Board (SIHB) held a community gathering to celebrate the opening of a new expansion clinic in Lake City, where they were joined by community and elected leaders. The clinic, located at 12736 33rd Ave NE, is the second expansion site the organization has opened in five weeks after opening one in Pioneer Square on August 18. SIHB's main clinic, the Leschi Center, is located in the International District."
     Mark Thiessen, "Alaska asylum seekers are Indigenous Siberians from RussiaTwo men fled Russia as it targets minority populations seeking soldiers in its war against Ukraine," ICT, October 25, 2022,, reported, " Two Russian Indigenous Siberians were so scared of having to fight the war in Ukraine, they chanced everything to take a small boat across the treacherous Bering Sea to reach American soil, Alaska's senior U.S. senator said after talking with the two."
       Jourdan Bennett-Begaye, "First Native woman in space: NASA Astronaut Nicole Aunapu Mann will be traveling to the International Space Station and, if chosen, is on route to potentially being the first woman on the moon, ICT, August 10, 2022,, reported, " Nicole Aunapu Mann will be making history as the first Native woman to fly into space this fall.             Mann, enrolled in Wailacki of the Round Valley Indian Tribes in northern California, will be aboard the [NASA] SpaceX Crew-5 mission to go to the International Space Station no earlier than Sept. 29." It is possible she could be chosen for upcoming an upcoming return to the Moon."
      Portia K. Skenandore-Wheelock, Native American Legislative Update, Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL), June 2022,, reported,      "First Native American to Lead U.S. Treasury Department,"  
     On June 21, President Joe Biden announced his intent to appoint Mutáwi Mutáhash Marilynn "Lynn" Malerba as Treasurer of the United States. Malerba is the Chief of the Mohegan Tribe and will be the first Native American to hold the position of U.S. Treasurer ."

    Richard Arlin Walker, "Chinook Citizen Tapped to Be U.S. Ambassador to Eastern Caribbean," ICT, September 29, 2022,, reported, " President Joe Biden has nominated Chinook Indian Nation citizen Roger Nyhus to be ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean in a move that could make him the second Chinook and at least the third Indigenous person to serve as a U.S. ambassador."

      Iris Samuels, Sean Maguire, Riley Rogerson, "Democrat Mary Peltola wins special U.S. House election, will be first Alaska Native elected to Congress," Alaska Daily News, September 1, 2022,, reported, " Democrat Mary Peltola is the winner of Alaska's special U.S. House race and is set to become the first Alaska Native in Congress, after votes were tabulated Wednesday in the state's first ranked choice election." She is Yup'ik, and a former state lawmaker.
       Mary Annette Pember, "Native vote turned out in force: Social media, poll-watchers kept watch over elections #NativeVote22," ICT, November 9, 2022,, reported, " Native voters hit the polls in high numbers once again. And as in the 2020 presidential election, they made a difference."
    Nora Mabie, "Republicans See Gains in Montana's Majority-Native Counties " ICT November 17, 2022,, reported, " State's Native voters, which traditionally leaned Democrat, had low turnout in the midterm elections #NativeVote22 Indigenous organizers anticipated voter turnout in Montana would be low this year, and they weren't wrong.
    Groups were late to engage Native communities, advocates acknowledged. Voters on reservations said they didn't know much about the election or who was running. Some felt ignored by candidates; others felt resentful. Many didn't understand why people living on reservations should vote, as tribes are sovereign
.       Statewide, about 60 percent of registered voters participated in the election, but in Montana's four majority-Native American counties, turnout was significantly lower."
      Dianna Hunt and Joaqlin Estus, "Election 2022: "Incredible year' for Indigenous candidates: Final results show more than 85 Indigenous candidates won up and down the ballots in 22 states in the Nov. 8 election #NativeVote22," ICT, December 6, 2022,, reported,  " More than 85 Indigenous candidates won election on Nov. 8 to political offices up and down the ballot in 22 states, adding Indigenous representation to Congress, statehouses, courtrooms and local governments across a wide swath of the nation
     The election will bring the first Native person back to the U.S. Senate in nearly two decades, put a record number of Indigenous women judges on the bench in Arizona and place more than 65 Indigenous politicians in state legislatures across the country, according to an analysis of election results by ICT ."   "Here are the Indigenous candidates identified by ICT and Advance Native Political Leadership who ran for federal, state or local office across the U.S., and the results of the Nov. 8 election. Congress  
    Won: Mary Peltola, Yup'ik, Alaska, was re-elected to a full two-year term in Alaska's At-Large Congressional District after serving out the final months of the late Don Young's term of office. Peltola won with nearly 55 percent of the vote against former Gov. Sarah Palin after ranked-choice ballots were tallied.   
    Lost: John Mark Porter, Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone, California, Republican, Congressional District 33, was defeated by incumbent Democratic Rep. Pete Aguilar, who was re-elected with nearly 58 percent of the vote.    Lost: Joe Akana, Native Hawaiian, Hawai'i, Republican, Congressional District 2, fell to Democrat Jill Tokuda, who drew 59 percent of the vote. Won: Rep. Sharice Davids , Ho-Chunk, Democrat, Kansas, Congressional District 3, drew 55 percent of the vote to defeat Republican Amanda Adkins and Libertarian Steve Hole.  Lost: Elizabeth Mercedes Krause, Oglala Lakota, Nevada, Democrat, Congressional District 2, lost to Republican incumbent Mark Amodei, who had nearly 60 percent of the vote. Lost: Rep. Yvette Herrell , Cherokee Nation descent, New Mexico, Republican, narrowly lost her bid for re-election to Democrat Gabriel Vasquez, who drew just 50 more votes to represent Congressional District 2.   
     Lost: Charles Graham, Lumbee, North Carolina, Democrat, Congressional District 7, was defeated by Republican David Rouzer, who drew 57 percent of the vote. 
     Won: Rep. Markwayne Mullin, Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma, Republican, U.S. Senate, drew nearly 62 percent of the vote in a field of four to fill out the unexpired term of outgoing Republican Sen. Jim Inhofe. Won: Rep. Tom Cole, Chickasaw Nation, Oklahoma, Republican, Congressional District 4, drew nearly 67 percent of the vote to defeat Democratic challenger Mary Brannon.       Won: Josh Brecheen, Choctaw, Oklahoma, U.S. House of Representatives District 2, Republican, drew 72 percent of the vote to defeat Democrat Naomi Andrews.   
     Lost: Tasha DeVaughan, Comanche Nation, Virginia, Democrat, Congressional District 9, fell to incumbent Republican H. Morgan Griffith, who took 73 percent of the vote.      Lost: Lynnette Grey Bull, Northern Arapaho and Hunkpapa Lakota, Wyoming, fell to Republican Harriet Hageman, who took 68 percent of the vote for Wyoming's only congressional seat.       State and local races Alaska       Won/lost: Two Indigenous candidates faced off for the State House District 39 seat. Neal Foster, Inupiaq, Democrat, drew 51 percent of the vote to narrowly defeat Tyler Ivanoff, Yup'ik, with the Alaska Independence Party. Won: Bryce Edgmon , Yup'ik, State House 37, Independent, was unopposed.
    Won: Lyman Hoffman, Yup'ik, Democrat, took nearly 65 percent of the vote to defeat Willy Keppel with the Veterans Party of Alaska, for State Senate S.      Won: Josiah Patkotak , Inupiaq, State House 40, Independent, was unopposed   
     Won: Maxine Dibert, Koyukon Athabascan, State House 31, Democrat, garnered more than 49 percent of the vote to defeat Republicans Barton LeBon, with 29 percent, and Kelly Nash, with nearly 21 percent.
    Won: Victoria Steele, Seneca and Mingo, Pima County Justice of the Peace Precinct 1, Democrat, unopposed       Won: Jennifer Jermaine, White Earth Ojibwe, Maricopa County Justice of the Peace San Marcos District, Democrat, unopposed      Won: Susie Nelson, Diné, Navajo County Justice of the Peace Precinct 4, Democrat, unopposed
    Won: Sara Mae Williams, Tohono O'odham, Pima County Justice of the Peace Precinct 3, Democrat, unopposed      Won: Theresa Hatathlie, Diné, State Senate 6, Democrat, unopposed  Won: Democrat Mae Peshlakai, Diné, won one of two seats representing State House 6, unopposed.      Won: Democrat Myron Tsosie , Diné, won one of two seats representing State House 6, unopposed.     Won: Sally Ann Gonzalez, Pascua Yaqui, State Senate 20, Democrat, unopposed
    Won: Ceyshe Napa, Navajo, Democrat, Phoenix Union High School District Ward 4, unopposed
     Won: James Ramos , Serrano and Cahuilla, California State Assembly District 45, Democrat, took more than 60 percent of the vote to defeat Republican Joseph W. Martinez     Lost: Mitch O'Farrell , Wyandotte, Los Angeles City Council 13th district, Democrat, was defeated by Hugo Soto-Martinez, who drew 55 percent of the vote.  
      Hawai'i      Won: Lynn Pualani DeCoite, Native Hawaiian, State Senate 7, Democrat, drew more than 70 percent of the vote to defeat Republican Tamara McKay. 
     Won: Jarrett K. Keohokalole, Native Hawaiian, State Senate 24, Democrat, garnered nearly 67 percent of the vote to defeat Republican Antionette Fernandez.
    Won: Michelle Kidani , Native Hawaiian, State Senate 18, Democrat, took nearly 64 percent of the vote to defeat Republican Mary Smart.   
    Lost: Leilani Soon, Native Hawaiian, State Senate 10, Republican, lost to Democrat Les Ihara Jr., who had 63 percent of the vote.
    Won: Brenton Awa, Native Hawaiian, State Senate 23, Republican, drew 49.7 percent of the vote to narrowly defeat incumbent Democrat Gil Riviere, who had 47.3 percent. Won: Dru Mamo Kanuha , Native Hawaiian, State Senate 3, Democrat, won the seat outright in the August 2022 primary election.  
     Won: Jeanné Kapela , Native Hawaiian, State House 5, Democrat, took nearly 66 percent of the vote to sail past Republican Lohi Goodwin.
    Won: Daniel Holt, Native Hawaiian, State House 28, Democrat, drew 64 percent of the vote to defeat Ernest Caravalho. 
    Won: James Tokioka, Native Hawaiian, State House 16, Democrat, had 67 percent of the vote to defeat Republican Steve Yoder.    Lost: James "Duke" Aiona, Native Hawaiian, Governor, Republican, lost to Democrat Josh Green, who had nearly 64 percent of the vote.     Won: Adrian Tam, Native Hawaiian, Democrat, State House District 24, took nearly 65 percent of the vote to defeat Republica Jillian Anderson.         Won: Justin Woodson, Native Hawaiian, Democrat, State House District 9, unopposed
    Won: Tyler Dos Santos-Tam, Native Hawaiian, Honolulu City Council District VI, drew 49 percent of the vote to defeat Traci Toguchi       Kansas      Won: Christina Haswood, Navajo Nation, State House 10, Democrat, unopposed     Lost: Jaelynn Abegg, Cherokee, State House District 105, Democrat, fell to Republican Brenda Landwehr, who drew 58 percent of the vote.       Maine Won: Aaron Dana, Passamaquoddy Tribe, State House, non-voting Passamaquoddy tribal representative; began his term Oct. 1
    Won: Jeff Irwin, Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Democrat, State Senate District 15, garnered 76 percent of the vote to defeat Scott Price.Minnesota       Won: Peggy Flanagan, White Earth Nation, Lieutenant Governor, Democrat. Flanagan and the Democratic gubernatorial candidate, Tim Walz, garnered nearly 57 percent of the vote to defeat the Republican slate, Scott Jensen and Matt Birk.   
     Won/lost: Two White Earth Nation citizens faced off in the bid for State Senate 2. Republican Steve Green took 60 percent of the vote to defeat Democrat Alan Roy.      Won: Mary Kunesh-Podein , Standing Rock Sioux, State Senate 39, Democrat, took 67 percent of the vote to defeat Republican Pam Wold. Lost: Erika Bailey-Johnson , Red Lake Nation, State House 2B, Democrat, fell to Republican Matt Bliss, who took 63 percent of the vote.       Won: Alicia Kozlowski, Grand Portage Ojibwe/Mexican, State House 8B, Democrat, garnered 71 percent of the vote to defeat Republican Becky Hall.       Won: Jamie Becker-Finn, Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe descent, State House 40B, Democrat, bested Republican opponent Allen Shen with more than 67 percent of the vote. Won: Heather Keeler , Yankton Sioux and Eastern Shoshone, State House 4A, Democrat, beat Republican Lynn Halmrast with nearly 59 percent of the vote."

    Election results: Kansas Democrat Sharice Davids, Ho-Chunk, held on to her Kansas City-area congressional seat.        Iris Samuels, Sean Maguire, Riley Rogerson, "Democrat Mary Peltola wins special U.S. House election, will be first Alaska Native elected to Congress, September 6, 2022,, reported, " Democrat Mary Peltola is the winner of Alaska's special U.S. House race and is set to become the first Alaska Native in Congress , after votes were tabulated Wednesday in the state's first ranked choice election. Peltola topped Republican former Gov. Sarah Palin."
      Carina Dominguez, " 7 Indigenous women to sit on Arizona bench: The record high number includes five who will be serving Justice of the Peace terms #NativeVote22," ICT, November 3, 2022,, reported, " In a historic first, seven Native American women will be sitting on the bench in Arizona after Election Day. Five will be serving terms at the justice court level, joining U.S. District Judge Diane Humetewa, Hopi, and recently appointed Superior Court Judge Charlene Jackson, Diné, on the bench." The Justices of the Peace are Deborah Begay, Diné, in Maricopa County, Susie Nelson, Diné, at the Kayenta Justice Court, Sara Mae Williams, Tohono O'odham, in Pima County, and ending their state legislative terms, running to be justices of the peace on their counties: Senator Victoria Steele, Seneca-Mingo, and Representative Jennifer Jermaine, White Earth Ojibwe.
    Laina G. Stebbins, "Michigan Court of Appeals Gets First Indigenous Judge,"   ICT, December 8, 2022,, reported, " A renowned chief tribal judge in Michigan has been appointed to be the first Indigenous person to sit on the Michigan Court of Appeals, Gov. Gretchen Whitmer announced Tuesday. Allie Greenleaf Maldonado is the chief judge for the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians (LTBB) Tribal Court, an LTBB citizen and member of the Turtle Clan. She is now the first tribal citizen to ever be appointed to Michigan's second-highest court. "

     Felicia Fonseca, "Buu Nygren Elected Navajo Nation President," ICT, November 10, 2022,, reported that in the tribal election, " The Navajo Nation will have a woman in the Office of the President and Vice President for the first time in running mate Richelle Montoya #NativeVote22."_^_^_^_^_^_^_^_
Economic Developments
Chez Oxendine, "Lack of data stymies investor interest in "invisible' tribal economies, Wells Fargo report finds," Tribal Village News, October 24, 2022,, reported, "Private investment in Native businesses and tribal economies largely centers on one resource: data.         That's according to Dawson Her Many Horses, head of Native American finance at Wells Fargo, who notes that longstanding accessibility issues and a fragmented financial landscape have created 'invisible economies' on tribal reservations. The invisibility of tribal economies, in turn, has stymied investor interest in supporting those communities."
Chez Oxendine, "Center for Indian Country Development deploys new data tools to inform policy making while respecting sovereignty," Tribal Business News, December 5, 2022,, reported, " To help inform better policymaking for Native communities on a national scale, the Center for Indian Country Development at the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis realized it needed to take action.       In that process, the Center also respects that it must strike a balance between the need to build new data-gathering tools while also honoring the boundaries that come with tribal sovereignty."      "The importance of data gathering to inform good policy formed a central tenet of a two-day research summit held virtually by the CICD last week. The summit invited panelists to speak on topics ranging from housing, lending, and new data collection techniques the Center has deployed in recent months."
       Savannah Maher, "Telework could help tribes curb outmigration, but Native workers are being left behind" Tribal Business News,  November 18, 2022,, reported that m any tribes focus on getting tribal members well educated, including with advanced degrees. As there are a limited number of related jobs available on the rese reservation, a great many well educated tribal citizens need to find work and live elsewhere. Remote work could help that, however, " Research ( from the Brookings Institution and the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis' Center for Indian Country Development finds that the remote work revolution could have unique benefits for tribal communities and economies, but that Native workers are being left behind.      "No one is accessing the remote work environment as little as the American Indian/Alaska Native population,' said Matthew Gregg, a senior economist at the Minneapolis Fed and an author of the report."
    "NCAI and Google Announce New Digital Coach for Indigenous-Owned Small Businesses," National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), November 3, 2022, November 3, 2022,, reported, " Grow with Google's Digital Coaches program ( and the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) are announcing a Digital Coach for Native and Indigenous-owned small businesses (SMBs). The program hosts local workshops, provides hands-on coaching, and offers opportunities to meet and learn from successful local businesses. The company's philanthropy,, is also providing a $750,000 grant to NCAI to support the organization's digital skilling efforts. NCAI will use this investment to foster a community of learning and to share best IT practices with Native and Indigenous-owned SMBs. 'While Native-owned small businesses have grown over the past thirty years and are significant contributors to growing tribal economies, entrepreneurial parity is still unrealized,' said NCAI President Fawn Sharp. 'This is a key reason why NCAI is excited to continue our partnership with Grow with Google to bring the digital skills necessary to help Indian Country businesses thrive.'  Nearly 80% of SMB leaders noted that adopting digital tools during the last two years created new opportunities for their business. To help more SMBs access digital tools, Jake Foreman will serve as the Grow with Google Digital Coach for Indigenous-owned businesses, hosting digital skills workshops specifically serving Indigenous communities. Jake is a Program Director at New Mexico Community Capital (NMCC) which provides culturally appropriate tools for success to emerging Indigenous-owned businesses, families, and tribal enterprises. In his new role as a Digital Coach, Jake will now bring these resources to Indigenous-owned businesses across Indian Country.      'Through the Grow with Google Digital Coaches program, we've seen firsthand how small businesses can reach their full economic potential when they have access to digital tools,' said Lucy Pinto, Manager, Grow with Google Digital Coaches. 'We're proud to continue our partnership with NCAI and to work with our new Digital Coach to expand access to digital skills in Native and Indigenous communities. Their strong expertise will help more Native and Indigenous-owned small businesses across the country thrive online, reach new customers, and unlock additional sources of revenue.'     This initiative builds on a previous $1.25M grant to NCAI and the success of an NCAI pilot training program that was created with support from Grow with Google. Since 2017, the Grow with Google Digital Coaches program has trained more than 160,000 Black and Latino-owned SMBs, and with the help of Jake and NCAI, it will now expand to help Indigenous entrepreneurs increase their economic potential and thrive online. Learn more about the Grow with Google Digital Coaches Program and upcoming workshops here:"
     " Proposed CDFI Fund certification changes could shut out Native CDFIs," Tribal Business News, November 8, 2022,, reported, "N ewly proposed changes to a U.S. Department of the Treasury fund that has been critical to driving Native economic development and access to capital could have devastating effects in Indian Country.
     The Treasury Department's CDFI Fund recently proposed changes to the CDFI certification application that would nearly shut out Native CDFIs from the fund altogether. Under the changes, a CDFI would be prohibited from issuing mortgage loans with balloon payments or terms longer than 30 years, or any interest-only loan. As well, CDFIs would be barred from counting youth-based programs as qualifying development services and would be limited in the amount of staff time dedicated to development services."

    "Native CDFI Network partners with BMO to expand banking services to Native-owned business," Tribal Buiness News, October 24, 2022,, reported, " Native CDFI Network has partnered with one of North America's largest banks to launch an initiative aimed at driving economic growth in Native American communities.  
    On Indigenous Peoples Day, Native CDFI Network and the BMO Harris Bank N.A. launched BMO for Native-owned Businesses to expand funding and resources to Native American communities across BMO's footprint.   The program is a part of parent company the Bank of Montreal's EMpower initiative, a five-year, $5 billion fund that supports equitable economic recovery through lending, investing, giving and engagement in local communities."

     Joe Boomgaard, " Native-Owned Fintech Totem Raises $2.2m In Pre-Seed Capital, Eyes Spring 2023 Launch," Tribal Business News, December 5, 2022,, reported, " Native-founded and -led fintech startup Totem Technologies Inc. plans to use the proceeds from its $2.2 million pre-seed round to continue developing its technology and building out its staff. The company, founded this year by CEO Amber Buker, an enrolled member of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, is creating a digital banking app to serve the needs of Native communities and partner with tribal governments to help them distribute benefits to their members."
     Mark Fogarty, " HUD reaches out to Native CDFIs on mortgages," Tribal Business News, December 5, 2022,, reported, Map Description automatically generated with low confidenceThis map from the Department of Housing and Urban Development shows the areas where it will guarantee Section 184 loans. (Image courtesy HUD).      " An extensive new rule for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's section 184 American Indian guaranteed mortgage that's designed to make lenders more comfortable using it also includes an outreach to Native community development financial institutions. HUD also is looking to get Native CDFIs involved in other lending programs, such as the Federal Housing Administration's huge FHA mortgage program."
      " Bison proliferate as Native American tribes reclaim stewardship," Guardian, November 26, 2022,, reported, on the convergence of biological and traditional restoration with a new version of an old economic activity,  "Descendants of bison that once roamed North America's Great Plains by the tens of millions, the animals would soon thunder up a chute, take a truck ride across South Dakota and join one of many burgeoning herds Heinert has helped re-establish on Native American lands."     "Some 82 tribes across the US from New York to Alaska now have more than 20,000 bison in 65 herds and that's been growing in recent years along with the desire among Native Americans to reclaim stewardship of an animal their ancestors lived alongside and depended upon for millennia."

      Mavis Harris, " 2021 Indian Gaming Revenue Jumps To Record High $39 Billion, Increases 40%," National Indian Gaming Commission, August 10, 2022,, Media Contact: Mary Parker, (202) 336-3470, reported, " 2021 Indian Gaming Revenue Jumps to Record High $39 billion, Increases 40% .      Today the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) released Fiscal Year 2021 (FY 2021) Gross Gaming Revenue (GGR) numbers totaling $39 billion, an increase of 40% over FY 2020 and a 13% increase compared to FY 2019.      Chairman E. Sequoyah Simermeyer and Vice Chair Jeannie Hovland made the announcement live from Tulsa, Okla. 
     Gaming Revenue for FY 2021 is the highest in Indian gaming history, with all NIGC administrative regions showing a positive increase from FY 2020. This is Indian gaming's largest increase, following its greatest decrease brought on by a record level of pandemic-related closures. With the pandemic still at the top of mind for tribes, Indian gaming continues to show its resiliency through innovative operational advancements and the steadfast leadership of tribal regulatory authorities.     'NIGC recognizes this year's rebound has not been felt equally by all tribes.  We are committed to helping all tribal operations benefit from the regulatory lessons learned over the past two years," said Simermeyer. 'As we seek to build the regulatory workforce's preparedness, all parts of the Indian gaming industry have a responsibility to learn from the experiences of tribes who have forged the path so we preserve those lessons and ensure we retain that knowledge for generations to come.'     Indian gaming's regulatory community remains mindful that dramatic fluctuations - whether positive or negative&emdash;; require time for the industry's return to more predictable trends. Tribes engage in gaming for a variety of reasons, and have different ways to define an operation's success. The path returning to pre-pandemic trends has meant different things for different gaming operations.
     While last year experienced a record number of closures there was also growth with new operations opening. This demonstrates gaming operations and tribes are making difficult decisions as they navigate a rebound from the pandemic,' Simermeyer added.
    Vice Chair Hovland noted this year's GGR also reflects Indian gaming geographic, demographic and financial diversity. "The industry has much to celebrate and be proud of." Hovland said. 'With 43 gaming operations reporting GGR greater than $250 million and accounting for more than 50% of total revenues, this year's revenues underscore the wide diversity in gaming operations across Indian country." The FY 2021 revenues are calculated from the independently audited financial statements of 510 gaming operations owned by 243 federally recognized tribes. Indian gaming operations are located on Indian land in 29 states
     For more information on Gross Gaming Revenue, including charts and graphs, visit"
  Chez Oxendine, "Cherokee Nation Businesses Purchases Mississippi Casino for $450m," Tribal Business News, June 13, 2022,, reported, " A subsidiary of Cherokee Nation Businesses will pay $450 million to purchase the Tunica, Miss.-based Gold Strike Casino Resort from operator MGM Resorts International, the company announced Thursday."
    "Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma announces metaverse gaming venture­," Tribal Business News, December 12, 2022,, reported, " The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma has debuted a new venture that will bring the tribe's flagship gaming property to virtual platforms for global audiences.      The tribal enterprise has partnered with Vancouver-based Lucky Lady Games Inc. to bring IndigoSky Online, a metaverse-based online gaming option, to northeast Oklahoma.

     Mark Fogarty, "Tiwa Lending Services boosts mortgages for New Mexico pueblo, eyes statewide expansion," Tribal Business News, June 13, 2022, reported, " Tiwa Lending Services, a Native community development financial institution, has developed a viable mortgage business from a base on the Isleta Pueblo of New Mexico." In addition to its real-estate loan business, the service also provides consumer loans to Isleta members both on and off its reservation  
      Isleta became a HEARTH Act tribe to enable it to run its own leasing program, making mortgages easier by eliminating bureaucratic roadblocks. The lender would like to reach out to all tribes in New Mexico to help them accomplish something similarly sovereignty-friendly."

     "Indian Pueblo Cultural Center announces groundbreaking for makerspace facility September 21: Multi-agency financial partnership helps to create multi-use commercial kitchen to support Pueblo entrepreneurs, artisans, small farmers," ICT, September 20, 202, , reported, " The Indian Pueblo Cultural Center Campus is pleased to announce that it is holding a groundbreaking ceremony for its latest endeavor &emdash;; a makerspace facility that will be the first structure of the Entrepreneur Complex - on Wednesday, September 21 from 1&emdash;;2:30 p.m. at the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center's campus, 2401 12th Street NW in the heart of Albuquerque.       The 7,500 square-foot makerspace will house a commercial kitchen, providing a centralized space where entrepreneurs can develop their food businesses, and a produce wash and processing line that can accommodate farmers' needs for a place to safely prepare their produce for distribution. The entire three-acre complex will be located on the northwest end of the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center campus."      "The Makerspace facility is part of a phased approach to the entire complex that will include a hoop house, an expanded farm and garden space, and incorporate two other existing buildings. The exterior architectural design of the building will have a contemporary, southwestern-pueblo aesthetic to complement the surrounding Indian Pueblo Cultural Center campus. Development and construction are expected to be complete within two years."  
     It is part of the ongoing development of land around the Cultural Center that includes Pueblo owned businesses, and rental of space for other business, as well as still developing Pueblo services.
      With New York State issuing licenses to sell marijuana slowly, a number of Indian Nations in the state have gotten a head start on the business by opening marijuana dispensaries, sometimes in gas stations, on tribal land . The nation involved include the St. Regis Mohawks, the Seneca Nation, the Cayuga Tribe and the Shinnecock Nation (Jay Root and Jesse McKinley, "Free Gas with Gas: Tribes Get a Jump on Cannabis Sales," The New York Times, October 5, 2022).
     Elyse Wild, "Indian Energy Secures $31m To Build Landmark Microgrid For Socal's Viejas Tribe," Tribal Business News, November 14, 2022., reported, " A Native-owned energy company will leverage $31 million in state funding to create a long-duration energy storage system for a southern California tribe.      The California Energy Commission issued the grant to Anaheim Hills, Calif.-based Indian Energy LLC, which plans to deploy a state-of-the-art microgrid that will provide renewable backup power for the Viejas Tribe of Kumeyaay Indians."

    Andrew Hazzard, "Native-run solar firm aims to lower heating emissions and costs: Indigenous people in Minnesota feel the heating and energy bill pinch disproportionately," Minneapolis Star Tribune, December 3, 2022,, reported, " An Anishinaabe-run nonprofit based on the White Earth Reservation, 8th Fire Solar, produces and installs solar thermal panels &emdash;; a lesser-known sun-powered technology used to help heat homes and buildings
     The firm is part of a growing effort to expand solar power on tribal lands in Minnesota, which advocates say taps into belief systems that call for working in concert with nature, while saving people money and pursuing tribal energy independence."
  "New Global Ocean Health initiative establishes tribal working group to address climate crisis through carbon removal," Tribal Business News, December 11, 2022,, reported, "Building Tribal Leadership in Carbon Removal has launched an intertribal working group to assess the emergence of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas removal strategies in the face of climate change.
     Building Tribal Leadership in Carbon Removal is a new initiative of Global Ocean Health
, a National Fisheries Conservation Center program that works to protect seafood supplies, coastal communities and marine ecosystems from ocean acidification, warming and unraveling food webs."
      Chez Oxendine , "Yurok Tribe leverages $5M Commerce Dept. grant to establish new aerial surveying enterprise," Tribal Business News, June 20, 2022,, reported, " The Yurok Tribe received the last outstanding $5 million in funding that will enable it to buy an imaging and mapping aircraft for its new Condor Aviation enterprise.     The business, a partnership between the tribe's Fisheries Department and the Yurok Tribe Construction Corp., aims to use a new, fixed-wing aircraft for high-resolution aerial imaging and elevation maps. Condor Aviation will build the 'custom made' aircraft after receiving a $5 million American Rescue Plan Act-funded grant from the Commerce Department's Economic Development Administration."

     Chez Oxendine , "Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska ventures into shipping business, plans new free trade zone," Tribal Business News, December 12, 2022,, reported, "The Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska plans to build a shipping nexus at a site near the Missouri River and will leverage a free trade zone to open new doors for its economic development strategy.     Creating a free trade zone in Holt County, Missouri allows the owners to import and then export foreign goods without paying an excise tax, duty or tariff under certain conditions, such as assembling or manufacturing finished goods in the U.S. before sending them out."
     Chez Oxendine, "First Nations Trade Mission to Australia Leads to New Partnership for Native-Owned Akana Group," Tribal Business News, June 20, 2022,, reported, " Native-owned agricultural equipment supplier Akana Group found kindred spirits in an Aboriginal construction and civil development contractor that executives met in Northern Territory, Australia during the recent First Nations Trade Mission.  
    Executives at Houston-based Akana Group met with their counterparts at Rusca Group over the two-week trade mission, which focused on connecting U.S.-based Native-owned businesses with Indigenous-owned potential business partners in Australia."      The result of the meeting was an agreement to explore forming a joint venture between the companies, particularly conceding training and education work.

    James MacPherson "Governor rejects tribes' plea for online gambling rights: North Dakota Gov. Doug Burgum did endorse the tribes' appeal to lower the legal gambling age from 21 to 19 at the state's five Native casinos," ICT, November 2, 2022,, reported, " North Dakota Gov. Doug Burgum rejected a plea Wednesday by tribes to give them exclusive rights to host internet gambling and sports betting because it isn't allowed under state law." 
    " But Burgum did endorse the tribes' appeal to lower the legal gambling age from 21 to 19 at the state's five Native casinos, and let people use credit or debit cards to bet, spokesman Mike Nowatzki said."
      "Poarch Band of Creek Indians' Wind Creek Hospitality inks sponsor agreement with Chicago Bulls," Tribal Business News, November 28, 2022,, reported, " Wind Creek Hospitality, the tribal and commercial gaming enterprise Poarch Band of Creek Indians, has signed a multi-year sponsorship agreement to serve as the official casino of the NBA's Chicago Bulls."

      Chez Oxendine, "Yurok Tribe Acquires Golf Course And Country Club For Diversification, Housing Effort," Tribal Business News, September 19, 2022, Https://Tribalbusinessnews.Com/Sections/Economic-Development/14029-Yurok-Tribe-Acquires-Golf-Course-And-Country-Club-For-Diversification-Housing-Effort, reported, "The Yurok Tribe has expanded its holdings via a transaction this month for the 90-acre Bigfoot Golf Course and Country Club in Willow Creek, Calif.     "The tribally owned Yurok Tribe Construction Corp. aims to rename the facility as the Yurok Golf Course and Country Club, which includes a nine-hole golf course, restaurant, mobile home spaces, a seven-unit RV park, and two houses."
     Principal Chief Chuck Hoskin Jr., Cherokee Nation, " Food production brings freedom, security and economic boost to Cherokee Nation," Indian Z, October 31, 2022,, reported that Cherokee Nation's efforts to have control of their food supply brought about the opening on October 28, 2022 of its "Cherokee Meat Co. This newly opened 12,000 square foot meat processing facility in Tahlequahstyle='background: white' is a huge stride towards food sovereignty for the Cherokee Nation. The facility, which is operated by the tribe's business arm, is already providing meat processing for local producers and providing our communities with safe, high-quality meat. They offer a variety of meats, including beef and pork, with buffalo and wild game processing of deer and elk available in the future.
    The facility will continue growing and will eventually establish a farm-to-table operation with Cherokee Nation's bison herd to supplement our traditional food distribution program for elders and families in need."
    A long friendly, cooperative relationship between a Japanese American farming family and tribal members on the Yakama reservation in Washington has led to the family selling their 1600 acre farm, selling produce to top grocery chains, to the tribe at less than market price. The tribe made the purchase to expand its farming business and increase access to healthy foods, sometimes unaffordable for many low income tribal citizens ( Amy Qin, "A Japanese American Family, a Native American Tribe and a Bountiful Friendship: In the face of discrimination and hate, the Inabas and the Yakama Nation forged a bond through a farm in eastern Washington that has lasted for more than 100 years," The New York Times, November 10, 2022,
      Jim Mimiaga, "Ute Mountain Ute Tribe awarded $2.9 million for first phase of new grocery store: Federal funding is part of the American Rescue Plan; new grocery will remedy Towaoc food desert," Albuquerque Journal, September 13, 2022,, reported, " The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe has been awarded a $2.9 million grant from the Economic Development Administration to build the first phase of a new grocery store in Towaoc," to also house the Tribe's economic development center.   The grant award supports the Tribe's Food Entrepreneurs Economic Development project and is funded by the American Rescue Plan's Indigenous Communities Program ("

      Chez Oxendine, "3 Michigan tribes form JV to pursue construction projects across Midwest," Tribal Business News, November 21, 2022,, sharethis sharing buttonreported, "Three tribal holding companies have partnered to create a new, jointly-owned real estate, construction, and property management company.       The formation of Aki Construction LLC brings together Odawa Economic Affairs Holding Corporation, which manages non-gaming investments for the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians; Mno-Bmadsen, the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians' non-gaming company; and Gun Lake Investments, the non-gaming investment arm of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians, or Gun Lake Tribe."
Education and Culture
    Dina Horwedel, J.D., Director of Public Education, American Indian College Fund, 303-426-8900,; Johnny Poolaw, Ph.D.; Director of Student Success, American Indian Science and Engineering Society, 720-758-9725,; David Weber, Director of Marketing and Communications, Native Forward Scholars Fund, 505-205-1762, ; John L. Garland, Ph.D., CRC, Director, Research and Student Success, The Cobell Scholarship Program, Indigenous Education, Inc., , " Four National Native Scholarship Providers Release National Study on College Affordability for Indigenous Students: First-of-its kind collaborative research will increase Indigenous student visibility in higher education while informing effective practices of student support to increase student achievement," August 17, 2022, reported, " The National Native Scholarships Providers (NNSP) has released its first-ever National Study on College Affordability for Indigenous Students. The research and report, which were funded by a grant from Lumina Foundation, are the result of a collaboration of collection, data-sharing, analysis, and reporting between the nation's four Native scholarship providers: the American Indian College Fund, the Cobell Scholarship, the American Indian Science and Engineering Society, and Native Forward Scholars Fund (formerly American Indian Graduate Center). Researchers have found the primary obstacle to college completion is affordability, causing overall college student attrition. Yet until NNSP's research, the national data on the effect of college affordability on Indigenous students' college completion had not been fully explored.      Only 36.2% of Indigenous students entering four-year colleges and universities in 2014 completed their academic degrees in six years, as compared to 60.1% of all other students. The NNSP's goal in the research was to understand the integrated college-going experiences of Native scholars, their families, communities, Tribes, and how they viewed the promise of a post-secondary education&emdash;;and how these factors played a role in their navigating college affordability.     Principal research staff from the NNSP organizations served as co-principal investigators for the project, with the support from Indigenous research faculty nationwide. Because of limited research available on the topic of college affordability for Indigenous students, the team used a mixed-method approach to provide a deeper understanding of student insights and experiences, including quantitative data (gained through surveys of former and current NNSP scholarship recipients) and qualitative data (gained through survey participants' participation in individual interviews or sharing circles). The researchers applied for and received approval for the research with an Internal Review Board (IRB) application t hrough the Northwest Indian College (NWIC) Institutional Review Board (IRB), the IRB of Record for the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC).   
    The report is divided into subject-matter sections that include demographic and background data, Tribal affiliations, navigating personal finances to pay for education, financial aid and FAFSA completion, and debt accrual. Researchers also conducted an analysis of variables on affordability, such as food security, caretaking responsibilities, cultural experience, availability of off-campus housing, being the sole source of a family's income, and more.   
    In addition to this ground-breaking research, the NNSP provided valuable practice and policy recommendations for higher education institutions, financial aid offices, secondary and pre-college education institutions, land grant colleges and universities, Native-American serving non-tribal colleges and universities, and national Non-Native scholarship providers. This research is the first step in the NNSP's work to provide data to challenge the U.S. higher education system's erasure of Indigenous people through its lack of collection of and attention to data inclusion at the campus and national levels. The NNSP identified the next steps for research on college affordability for Native students, including the impact of COVID-19, student loans, the impact of external scholarship on collegiate outcomes, and more.      Cheryl Crazy Bull, President and CEO of the American Indian College Fund, said, 'We want the American public and policymakers to understand the unique barriers faced by Native students as they pursue their education dreams. These barriers can be removed through continued investment via scholarships, tuition support, and supportive partnerships. This study provides a foundation from which to explore those investments.'      Sarah EchoHawk, Chief Executive Officer of the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES), said, 'The incredible data produced by this national study will shed a more direct light on our Indigenous students and the financial barriers that they face along their educational journeys. This information not only allows AISES to better support our students' financial needs, but it also provides deeper context to our overall mission goals as an organization.  The collaborative efforts with the other National Native Scholarship Providers are truly remarkable in terms of the impact this work will have on our Indigenous students in Indian Country.'   
    Melvin E. Monette, CEO of the Cobell Scholarship Program administered by Indigenous Education, Inc., said, 'Data on college affordability for Native students now has new national visibility due to our scholarship organizations' powerful data and research collaboration. This ongoing Indigenous-centric research endeavor not only enables the Cobell Scholarship program to better understand and meet our scholars' financial needs, it aligns with Elouise Cobell's vision of making higher education more accessible to Native students throughout the U.S.'     Angelique Albert, CEO of Native Forward Scholars Fund, said, 'This national study brings Native students' voices to the forefront so we can begin to build the foundation for awareness, inclusion, and better understanding of the complexities of Native students' journey through college. Collaborating with other nonprofits to form National Native Scholarship Providers is an important step in this process to explore college affordability, access to higher education, and the challenges Native students face, on and off campus.'   
      To download or read a copy of the report online, please visit:     About the American Indian College Fund&emdash;;The American Indian College Fund has been the nation's largest charity supporting Native higher education for 33 years. The College Fund believes "Education is the answer" and provided $15.5 million in scholarships and other direct student support to American Indian students in 2020-21. Since its founding in 1989 the College Fund has provided more than $259 million in scholarships, programmatic and community support. The College Fund also supports a variety of academic and support programs at the nation's 35 accredited tribal colleges and universities, which are located on or near Indian reservations, ensuring students have the tools to graduate and succeed in their careers. The College Fund consistently receives top ratings from independent charity evaluators and is one of the nation's top 100 charities named to the Better Business Bureau's Wise Giving Alliance. For more information about the American Indian College Fund, please visit  Journalists&emdash;;The American Indian College Fund does not use the acronym AICF. On second reference, please use the College Fund.  About AISES &emdash;; Advancing Indigenous People in STEM&emdash;;For 45 years, AISES has focused on substantially increasing the representation of Indigenous peoples of North America and the Pacific Islands in critically needed STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) disciplines. This robust nonprofit currently supports individual student and professional members across the U.S. and Canada through chartered college and university chapters, professional chapters, tribal chapters, and affiliated PK-12 schools. Members benefit from diverse STEM-focused programming that supports careers and promotes student success and workforce development in multiple crucial areas. To learn more visit
    About The Cobell Scholarship Program, Indigenous Education, Inc.&emdash;;Created in 2016 for the express purpose to administer the Cobell Scholarship Program, Indigenous Education, Inc. provides highly competitive scholarship and fellowship opportunities for Native vocational, undergraduate, and graduate students through empowering them with an impactful scholarship experience designed to support their success in higher education. The overarching mission and vision of Indigenous Education, Inc. is to support American Indian and Alaska Native student success. Since the program's beginning, it has supported over 4000 students with more than $35,000,000 in scholarships to attend more than 400 colleges and universities worldwide.  To learn more about, Ms. Cobell, IEI and the Cobell Scholarship, visit  About Native Forward Scholars Fund&emdash;;As the nation's longest-running scholarship provider for Native students, we have awarded over $350 million in direct scholarships since 1969 and have empowered over 20,000 students from over 500 Tribes in all 50 states. Native Forward is committed to creating an impact in Native communities by providing access to quality education for Native students. We believe higher education deepens our transformative impact on every part of society. Native Forward invests 95% of our resources directly into Native students' higher education experience at 1,700+ institutions across the U.S. in undergraduate, graduate, and professional degree programs.   
     Our goal is to create opportunities for success for all Native people. Knowledge and experience are powerful tools that can advance and preserve our way of life. By honoring our history, we are creating our own brilliant future. We are Native Forward Scholars Fund. For more information, visit    Journalists &emdash;; Native Forward Scholars Fund does not use the acronym NFSF. On second reference, please use the Native Forward.     Photo&emdash;; The first-ever National Study on College Affordability for Indigenous Students released by the National Native Scholarships Providers (NNSP). The NNSP is comprised of the American Indian College Fund (College Fund), the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES), the Cobell Scholarship Program administered by Indigenous Education, Inc., and Native Forward."
      Contact: Dina Horwedel, Director of Public Education, American Indian College Fund, 303-426-8900, , Colleen Billiot, Public Relations Coordinator, American Indian College Fund, 720-214-2569,, "American Indian College Fund's Ihduwiyayapi Advancing Indigenous Early Childhood Education (IECE) Builds Community of Practice for Indigenous Educators: Program supports early childhood education success through Indigenous-based approaches, " American Indian College Fund, August 23, 2022, via E-mail,  announced, "Children are sacred and early childhood education is critical to the next generation of Indigenous leaders. Early childhood education is shown to promote education access, persistence, completion, and career readiness. Four grants totaling $6.25 million to the American Indian College Fund helped launch the Ihduwiyayapi Advancing Indigenous Early Childhood Education (IECE) program to support IECE programs at tribal colleges and universities (TCUs). The program provides opportunities for 11 TCUs to build their capacity building through professional development with access to a Community of Practice and mentorship, as well as program development through Indigenous pedagogy, parent and family empowerment, and program alignment and articulation. TCU partners will enhance their services to students, training the next generation of Indigenous early childhood educators and strengthening Native communities and families.         Funders include the Bezos Family Foundation ($5.3 million), the W.K. Kellogg Foundation ($600,000), the Heising-Simons Foundation ($350,000), and American Family Insurance ($30,000). The program builds upon past College Fund early childhood education programs which served more than 5,000 children, 3,900 families, and 2,700 teachers at TCUs across Indian Country.     Ihduwiyayapi is the Dakota translation for 'they are getting ready.' Its meaning conveys that the program participants are preparing themselves and their TCU programs for what will come next as they work to create a foundation for the advancement of Early Childhood Education. The 11 TCUs that have joined the Ihduwiyayapi program will :       strengthen the early childhood education pathway through degree program creation and enhancement, support internship practicums, and increase TCUs' ability to support student recruitment, transfers, retention, and college completion.  
     empower parents and families to advocate for their children and themselves as they interact with and navigate education institutions, and to develop or enhance parent and family involvement in the design of IECE programs.
     participate in storytelling to engage diverse audiences and connect participants to a movement to strengthen the Native teacher pathway, focus the narrative about Native communities on place-based expertise, and inspire the next generation of Native educators. establish an early educator community of practice rooted in community knowledge to create and strengthen TCUs' early childhood education pathways. TCU partners' projects include: Blackfeet Community College (BCC), Browning, Montana&emdash;; The Pommotsiiysinni -Transfer of Knowledge Program will develop quality early educators who will embrace niitsiittupyo'maitukssin "Pikanii ways of knowing," providing access to diverse and dynamic learning opportunities for early education careers. The project embeds Piikani values and standards into the BCC's early childhood education program and courses. College of Menominee Nation (CMN), Green Bay, Wisconsin&emdash;;CMN's Indigenous Education House: Building Our Foundation to Meet the Needs of the Community program is community-centered, multi-faceted, and builds on CMN's capacity. The program strengthens existing relationships within the community to identify the professional development, teacher training, credentialing, and licensing needs of its local educational institutions. It will also enhance institutional capacity and program/credential offerings at CMN and provide training and professional development to faculty, current students, alumni, and teachers who work with Menominee Nation's young children. Diné College, Tsaile, Arizona&emdash;; Diné College will establish relationships to build its community of practice with the College Fund and other TCUs. Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College (FDLTCC), Cloquet, Minnesota&emdash;; The Braiding the Pathway: Intentionally Designed Alignment program will provide space and guidance to align Child Development program content and resources with the Anishinaabe cultural standards that are the foundation of FDLTCC's accreditation. The TCU will provide support and credit for prior learning opportunities for its students. The second year of the program will advance the capacity for restorative cultural teaching for FDLTCC and the community. The TCU is seeking to seamlessly intertwine its foundational culture into developmental and teaching knowledge. Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe College (LCOOC), Hayward, Wisconsin&emdash;; The Nenda-gikenimaajig (The Ones Who Seek Knowledge) Project will increase the capacity of early childhood educators and expand teacher licensure and employment pathways. The program will be steeped in Anishinaabe language, teachings, worldviews, and trauma-informed care to preserve Ojibwe families' cultural identities.

     Little Priest Tribal College (LPTC), Winnebago, Nebraska&emdash;; The Building the Capacity of Early Childhood Education through Innovative Indigenous Approaches program will provide Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska members the pathways to become teachers and caregivers with an associate degree. The knowledge and skill acquired at LPTC will assure professionalism as they work with children on the Winnebago Reservation in their education careers. Year two of the program, titled Building and Sustaining an Education Program from the HoChunk Cultural Perspective and Worldview program, will build capacity with Indigenous input and provide paths to train quality and skilled teachers to serve the Winnebago Reservation's education system. Navajo Technical University (NTU), Crownpoint, New Mexico&emdash;;Diné-A: shiwi Planting Ancestral Seeds of Knowledge program will use Indigenous ancestral knowledge and teachings to train faculty and staff to promote the social and emotional development of Diné, A:shiwi, other Indigenous children, children residing across the Southwest region, and their families. Northwest Indian College (NWIC), Bellingham, Washington&emdash;;The Supporting the Oksale: Providing Professional Development to Teachers that Increases their Understanding of Indigenous Early Childhood Education Pedagogy and Practice program will support prospective and current associate of applied science transfer students in early childhood education (AAS-T ECE). NWIC provided virtual information sessions about its degree program and graduation coaching to students who were slated to graduate in the spring of 2022. The program will also support AAS-T ECE faculty with professional development and learning opportunities. Sitting Bull College (SBC), Ft. Yates, North Dakota&emdash;;The (Lessons/Learning/Knowledge we are talking/discussing) program will survey parents and families in the Standing Rock Reservation community to define engagement and empowerment with education to determine community engagement for SBC's program. SBC will also collect data on the best communication format with community members for ongoing meetings to establish community involvement to define their cultural understandings and relationship to education to help the TCU further develop its programs and program structure. Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI), Albuquerque, New Mexico&emdash;; The Collective Voices: Re-envisioning Indigenous Early Childhood Teacher Preparation program will consult community and Indigenous thought leaders to improve SIPI's Early Childhood Education (ECE) program. The result will be a more responsive program of study (POS) for Indigenous ECE teachers and communities. SIPI will survey stakeholders and revise ECE course curriculum to include Critical Culturally Sustaining and Revitalizing Pedagogy (CCSRP). The TCU will also examine capacity-building needs for SIPI's ECE program to create lasting change and community responsiveness. Stone Child College (SCC), Box Elder, Montana&emdash;;The Tahkaki Kiskinwahamakew (Great Teacher) Project will increase the capacity for SCC's Early Childhood Education program to embed elements of Indigenous learning, place-based curriculum, and the cultures, histories, and languages relevant to the Chippewa Cree. These efforts will enhance the curricula using community and family outreach, professional development, and the multiple perspectives shared by TCU partners and Community of Practice; and will increase the ability for TCU associate level ECE graduates to transfer seamlessly and graduate with a Bachelor of Science in Early Childhood Education from The University of Montana Western through formal articulation agreements and collaborative professional development. Year two of the program, The Nototahkok Ketahahyahk (Listen to Your Elders) Project will increase SCC's capacity to offer and deliver culturally grounded early childhood education associate and bachelor's degrees, and to support other TCUs to enhance their early childhood programs. Year two of the program, The Nototahkok Ketahahyahk (Listen to Your Elders) Project, will increase the college's capacity to offer and deliver culturally grounded early childhood education associate and bachelor's degrees, and to support other TCUs to enhance their early childhood programs.
    As part of the program's goal to build a community of practice, the College Fund hosted the Ihduwiyayapi Omniciye: Raising Voices and Communities through Indigenous Early Childhood Education convening June 15-16, 2022, in Denver, Colorado. This was the first in-person IECE convening since the pandemic, with participants from eight TCUs in attendance. Participants learned about other institutions' proposals and programs; shared knowledge about Indigenous pedagogy and experiences; discussed ways to collaborate and expand their teaching practices to create Indigenous teachers; and built professional relationships. The goal of the convening was for participants to explore strength-based approaches that support cultural foundations in TCU's IECE programs to serve Indigenous students, families, and communities. As a result, TCU partners are establishing an IECE system that promotes positive self-esteem for students leading to increased well-being and academic success. During the program faculty will continue to meet in the Ihduwiyayapi community of practice to share program outcomes, best practices, Indigenous pedagogy, and community-based learning. TCU program participants will also regularly share their programs' impacts through storytelling on the College Fund's blog and other media channels.   About the American Indian College Fund &emdash;;The American Indian College Fund has been the nation's largest charity supporting Native higher education for 32 years. The College Fund believes "Education is the answer" and provided $15.5 million in scholarships and other direct student support to American Indian students in 2020-21. Since its founding in 1989 the College Fund has provided more than $259 million in scholarships, programmatic and community support. The College Fund also supports a variety of academic and support programs at the nation's 35 accredited tribal colleges and universities, which are located on or near Indian reservations, ensuring students have the tools to graduate and succeed in their careers. The College Fund consistently receives top ratings from independent charity evaluators and is one of the nation's top 100 charities named to the Better Business Bureau's Wise Giving Alliance. For more information about the American Indian College Fund, please visit
     Journalists The American Indian College Fund does not use the acronym AICF. On second reference, please use the College Fund " Salish Kootenai College Offering New Master of Science Degree Program in Natural Resources Management," Contact: Sierra Mahseelah, Salish Kootenai College Graduate Student Success Coordinator,, April 26, 2022, Pablo, Montana, announced, "Devastating mega forest fires and watershed contamination and other effects in the west resulting from global climate change make the work of natural resources professionals more important than ever. Salish Kootenai College (SKC), a four-year tribal college located on the Flathead Indian Reservation, began offering a Master of Science degree in Natural Resources Management in the fall of 2021 to meet this urgent need. The college is now accepting applications from qualified applicants for the degree program for the fall quarter of 2022."
     Alexander Wilson, "CSU celebrates Indigenous Peoples' Day on The Plaza," Rocky Mountain Collegian, October 12, 2022,, reported that on Colorado State University's third year of celebrating Indigenous Peoples' Day, October 10, 2022,   Interim President Rick Miranda sent ou a system wide E-mail that, "acknowledged the 'enormous debt our nation's land-grant university system owes,' honoring the trials and tribulations Indigenous people have been dealing with as their land was stripped away from them with a lack of compensation.  
     Miranda has founded a new leadership position, the Assistant Vice President for Indigenous and Native American Affairs, to correct this. This position oversees educational involvement and recruitment for projects of Indigenous and Native people. Miranda finished the email with, 'by the time we honor this day next year, we expect we will have real progress to report as the result of efforts now underway.'"
       Ray Levy Uyeda, " Despite state initiatives, Indigenous education in public schools remains inconsistent: Learning about Indigenous history can shift how students think about Native peoples, but factors like funding and standardization affect the success of these initiatives," Prism, October 17th, 2022,, reported, "For most young people growing up in California, learning the state's history in school involves studying the gold rush, the mission system, and the industries that make the state unique, namely agriculture, entertainment, and technology. But young people aren't taught the full history, or even the true history, of how the land of California was taken and who it was taken from. Legislation signed by Gov. Gavin Newsom in late September ( seeks to correct the education gap by encouraging school districts to collaborate with local Native tribes to build curricula that teach accurate and culturally sensitive Native history to students."
    "The end goal of legislation like this isn't just to speak truth to the systems of power that have attempted to erase Native peoples and tribes from historical record, but to highlight Native survival and continued cultural existence as well. According to the National Congress of American Indians, as of 2018, K-12 curriculum in 27 states don't mention an individual Native person at all, with 87% of state history standards failing to teach Native history after 1900. Without such lessons, non-Native students are led to believe Native peoples exist only as memory, and Native students are left to struggle with the personal and political consequences of that erasure."
    The states that do include Native history and or culture do so differently, and tightness of the guidelines and extent of the requirement to do so varies.
  Christine M'Lot, an Anishinaabe Canadian high school teacher has developed and publish Resurgence, an annotated anthology of contemporary Indigenous writers and artists providing materials to use in appropriately introduce students into Indigenous ways of learning, with materials applicable for teaching many subjects (Sara Miller Llana, "Christine M'Lot breaths new life into Indigenous education," Christian Science Monitor Weekly, August 8, 2022).
       Opening an expanded operation in August 2022, "Oceti Sakowin School in Rapid City, SD: Indigenous-Centered, Indigenous-Led: A Lakota-centered educational setting, provides Indigenous learners with a strong sense of identity, confidence, and ability to navigate any system they encounterÉbecause they know who they are,", states on its website, "OSELC affirms Indigenous history and culture by creating learning experiences grounded in Indigenous ways of knowing and being and giving students opportunities to engage in hands-on learning in the community grounded in storytelling. Our approach to learning is grounded in "relative-ships" that centralizes Indigenous culture. OSELC also promotes Indigenous-affirming education beyond its school walls. We offer professional and curriculum development to schools and districts to help educators embed culturally responsive practices and experiences into their contexts. We developed and utilize a framework that supports educators in four areas: Indigenous Cultural Knowledge, Practices, And Resources; Cultural Equity And Capacity; Indigenous Cultural Centralization In Curriculum, Instruction, And Assessment; And Educator Leadership.  
     In many contexts, the term "relationships" has become an educational buzzword; overused, under-prioritized, and at times, inauthentic. "Relative-ship" is a call-back to traditional Indigenous kinship systems and invites school communities to embody being good relatives as an action, rather than a performative concept.
    The Keres Language Learning Center on the Cochiti Pueblo in New Mexico has expanded its Keres language and culture education to infants and toddlers in a new kindergarten
, initiated fall 2022 (KCLC Expands to Serve Infants and Toddlers," Keres Language Is Power, sent December 2022.
     The Saint Michaels Association for Special Education Board on the Navajo Reservation in Saint Michaels, NM had to suspend operation for 2022-2023 as it was unable "to hire a certified director and certified teachers ("St. Michaels special ed temporarily closes," Navajo Times, July 11, 2022).
Elyse Wild, "Mississippi Band Of Choctaw Indians To Expand Workforce Training Center To Address Skills Gaps," Tribal Business News, September 19, 2022, Https://Tribalbusinessnews.Com/Sections/Economic-Development/14033-Mississippi-Band-Of-Choctaw-Indians-To-Expand-Workforce-Training-Center-To-Address-Skills-Gaps, Reported, " Backed by a new $5.8 million federal grant, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians is planning to renovate and expand its Advanced Workforce Training Center to better meet the needs of tribal members.      The expansion will build the capacity of current training services for the chronically unemployed and upskilling existing workers to bolster various sectors of the tribe's workforce. --==+==--
      Increasingly, Native American topics and people are being featured on mainstream U.S. television. Joaqlin Estus, "New network series tackles MMIW cold cases: Hillary Swank plays journalist investigating MMIW cases in Alaska," ICT, October 5, 2022,, reported, " ABC is launching a TV series starring Academy Award winner Hillary Swank as a New York investigative reporter who moves to Alaska and winds up focusing on Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women.    "Alaska Daily' producers hired three Alaska Natives to help bring Native perspectives to the story: writer and filmmaker Andrew Okpeaha MacLean, Inupiaq; writer Vera Starbard, Tlingit; and consultant Peter Blanchett, Yup'ik."  
     Similarly, Native films and Native actors are more regularly being featured in mainstream American movies (Henry Gass, "Native people expand their portrayal on screen," Christian Science Monitor, September 12 and 19, 2022).

      Dine director Albert Haskie has produced his first film in Navajo for Navajo Youth, Yiskaagoo, about a Navajo boy who just graduated from a reservation high school (Hannah John, "Dine director's firs debut film aimed at youth," Navajo Times, September 22, 2022).
    Andrew Keh, "How Indigenous Athletes Are Reclaiming Lacrosse: The Haudenosaunee Nationals lacrosse teams have a big ambition: competing in the 2028 Olympic Games in Los Angeles," The New York Times, July 30, 2022,, reported, " The Haudenosaunee Nationals men's lacrosse team, a squad that represents the six nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy &emdash;; the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora &emdash;; was preparing to play a competitively meaningless game earlier this month at the World Games, an Olympic-style event, after being knocked out of medal contention."  
     " They are fighting, first of all, for official recognition in global sports &emdash;; an effort symbolic of Indigenous nations' broader efforts to assert their nationhood and sovereignty in the geopolitical arena. Their goal, in this realm, is acceptance from the International Olympic Committee, with the aim of appearing at the 2028 Games in Los Angeles, where the sport could make a return to the medal program after more than a century away."

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International Developments

International Organization Developments

     "The United Nations Committee on The Elimination of Racial Discrimination Reviews The United States and Questions Its Record of Racial Discrimination Against Indigenous Peoples," International Treaty Council, August 22, 2022,, reported, "From August 9 through 13, 2022 four delegates representing the International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) participated in the long-awaited review of racial discrimination in the United States (U.S.) by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) during its 107th Session in Geneva Switzerland. CERD is the Treaty monitoring body for the International Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), to which the U.S. is a State Party.     The CERD's review will assess U.S. compliance with its legally binding obligations under the ICERD to eliminate racial discrimination. This was the first review of the U.S. since 2014 since the previous U.S. administration chose to ignore the due date for submission of its report in November 2019. The current US report was submitted in June 2021, and representatives from 10 U.S. government agencies participated in the review.  
    On August 9, the CERD provided the opportunity for Indigenous Peoples and Civil Society delegations to make statements about the U.S. lack of compliance with the ICERD and to provide examples of unaddressed and unreported racial discrimination. Summer Blaze Aubrey, IITC Staff Attorney, summarized IITC's written "Shadow Report" which addressed historic and ongoing violations of the Treaties concluded by the U.S. with Indigenous Nations and the many forms of racial discrimination and human rights violations taking place as a result. There were also two informal breakfast meetings on August 10 and 11 in which Indigenous Peoples and Civil Society again had a chance to speak with Committee members regarding the U.S.'s lack of compliance with the Convention.   The IITC also credentialed Chief Gary Harrison, Chickaloon Native Village Alaska, and IITC Consulting Attorney June Lorenzo, Laguna Pueblo and Diné. IITC Board member Tai Pelli also participated, credentialed under her organization, IITC affiliate the United Confederation of Taino People (UCTP). The Western Shoshone Defense Project and the Changing Woman Initiative were among the other Indigenous delegations represented at the session.
     The Committee carried out its formal review and questioning of the U.S. on August 11 and 12. Mr. Mehrdad Payandeh, CERD member from Germany, focused on Indigenous issues for the review. He questioned the U.S. about key issues that had been raised by the Indigenous Peoples delegations, including: ¥ The negative impacts of colonialism on the enjoyment of human rights, highlighting that 'human rights violations of Indigenous Peoples are a persistent legacy of colonialism.'   
    ¥ The concrete implementation of the January 2021 Presidential memorandum on 'Tribal Consultation and Strengthening Nation-to-Nation Relationships,' including efforts to give effect to Tribal Treaties.  
     ¥ The U.S. implementation of dialogues with Indigenous Peoples and traditional and Tribal leaders including Indigenous Peoples of insular territories, such as for example, the Ta’no, as well as other unrecognized Indigenous Peoples.
     ¥ The failure of the U.S. to implement CERD General Comment 23 regarding the full and non-restrictive implementation of Free, Prior and Informed Consent and the significant and direct impacts on Indigenous Peoples rights and way of life.       ¥ The question of free, prior and informed consent and rights of Indigenous Peoples in regard to their land, territories, sacred sites, and way of life, including the adverse effects of the activities of the extractive industries including extraction of transition minerals, infrastructure projects, and the construction of border fences and walls.      ¥ US response to early warning and urgent action procedures submitted by the Lipan Apache, Native Hawaiian, Gwich'in, Anishinaabe, and Western Shoshone Peoples.  
     ¥ Concerns over jurisdictional complexities impacting cases of violence against Indigenous persons, especially in cases of sexual violence.  
    ¥ Concerns over transnational corporations and private security companies and violations of human rights of Indigenous Peoples
     Based on his questions, it was clear to the IITC delegation that the Committee and Mr. Payandeh in particular had heard the concerns presented by Indigenous Peoples. IITC looks forward to the CERD's concluding observations regarding the US which are expected to be released before the end of the current session on August 30th.   
    Tai Pelli reflected on the power of the Indigenous Peoples delegations' contributions in Geneva: 'The strong and united collaboration of all the Indigenous delegations made a victory out of our participation. The Committee members took into account all of the issues presented by Indigenous Peoples in their questions to the USA.'       The IITC's alternative report submitted to the CERD can be found here: The United States' periodic report can be found here:"
     "Report to UN Human Rights Council Highlights Indigenous Peoples' Rights Violations in Guatemala," Cultural Survival, July 20, 2022,, reported, "In July 2022, Cultural Survival and the Association Sobreviencia Cultural submitted a report ( for the 42nd Session of the Universal Periodic Review of the United Nations Human Rights Council. The report, entitled " Observations on the State of Indigenous Rights in Guatemala" evaluates the progress of the State of Guatemala in its international commitments to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples, in addition to providing recommendations to the State.
    Guatemala is a multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual country. According to the 2018 Guatemalan government population census, 43.8% of the population is Indigenous-41.7% being Mayan, 0.1% being Garifuna, and 1.8% being Xinka-recognizing the National Languages law 25 languages in the country. According to data from the 2018 official census of the State of Guatemala, more than 6 million people speak Indigenous languages, 41.7% of the total population; however, the assimilation policies implemented by the State (Spanish language) have caused the detriment of Indigenous languages, so it is urgent that public services and information be offered in Indigenous languages. International conventions, treaties and declarations ratified by the State guarantee Indigenous Peoples freedom of thought and expression and the right to access their own means of communication.         According to the report, despite the fact that the State of Guatemala has ratified several international treaties and conventions and accepted several recommendations of the Universal Periodic Review, Indigenous Peoples in Guatemala continue to be vulnerable in their basic rights such as Freedom of Expression, by not approving a regulation that legally recognizes community radio stations and penalizes this exercise. The recommendations of the UPR to implement sentence 4238-2011 for Indigenous Peoples to access radio frequencies are reaffirmed in the sentence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued on October 6, 2021 pointing out the State of Guatemala guilty of violating the rights to freedom of thought and expression, cultural life and equality before the law, recognizing the right of Indigenous Peoples to found and use their own media and the fundamental relationship that this right has with other rights. The State of Guatemala also continues to grant licenses for development projects, particularly mining and hydroelectric projects, and Indigenous rights and environmental defenders in Guatemala and Indigenous ancestral and spiritual authorities are suffering a plague of violence that continues to go unpunished, violating their rights to freedom of expression and religion, Free, Prior and Informed Consent, and self-determination.
     The report reports violations of the following rights of Indigenous Peoples: violations of freedom of expression, including: 1) Guatemala's domestic regulations exclude Indigenous Peoples from access to the radio spectrum and criminalize the operation of their community radio stations, 2) legislative initiatives that seek to further consolidate the criminalization of Indigenous community radio stations by criminalizing the theft of the radio spectrum, and 3) legislative initiatives on community radio stations, without the consent of Indigenous Peoples; violation of freedom of religion, and; violation of the rights of Indigenous rights and environmental defenders, which have resulted in many murders.
      Cultural Survival and Asociaci—n Sobrevivencia Cultural urge member States to make the following recommendations to the State of Guatemala:  
    Recognize the constant violation of the freedom of expression of Indigenous Peoples by denying them access to their own media and to the radio spectrum.      Comply with the sentence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, adapting the country's internal regulations, in consultation with Indigenous Peoples, recognizing the operation of Indigenous community radio stations, reserving part of the radio spectrum for them and establishing a simple and free procedure for obtaining licenses for the use of the spectrum.
     Comply with the sentence Indigenous Maya Kaqchikel Peoples of Sumpango vs. Guatemala of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, ceasing the criminalization of Indigenous community radio stations and eliminating existing convictions of Indigenous community radio communicators.      As ordered by the IACHR, publish the official summary of the Court's sentence in the official newspaper and in another newspaper of wide national circulation, translated into Mayan languages, and the complete sentence on an official State website and on the web page of the Superintendence of Telecommunications.     Order the Superintendence of Telecommunications to facilitate an audit of the radio electric spectrum that includes exact data of the owners, coverage, and usufruct.Stop promoting initiatives that seek to violate Freedom of Expression.Implement the Free, Prior and Informed Consent of Indigenous Peoples when promoting any law initiative that affects Indigenous Peoples.      Guarantee the full participation of Indigenous Peoples in decision-making processes that concern them and ensure that they are consulted in the context of the planning and implementation of both draft legislation and large-scale economic projects.  
     Reject bills that violate the Peace Accords and the ruling of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, such as bills 5531 and 5494, as well as any bill that limits and violates the freedom of expression of Indigenous Peoples.  
     Reject the initiative of law 5923 "Rescue of the Pre-Hispanic Heritage" because it attacks the collective ancestral property of Indigenous Peoples, especially that of the Mayan people, attacking Indigenous spirituality.  Implement all development plans in accordance with international human rights standards, including the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights; Free, Prior and Informed Consent; and effective remedy and justice for communities affected by development and business operations.   
     Create a national action plan on the implementation and protection of Indigenous Peoples' rights based on the document "Building an Inclusive, Sustainable and Resilient Future with Indigenous Peoples: A Call to Action" published by the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB).      Compensate Indigenous Peoples for losses and arbitrary imprisonment for claiming violation of their collective rights by the State's authorization of alleged development projects, without considering the Free, Prior and Informed Consent of affected Indigenous Peoples.Adopt public policies to protect the rights and freedom of Indigenous rights and environmental defenders and put an end to criminalization and attacks against defenders.  Develop a plan to ensure the implementation of the rights to freedom of religion, protected in the Political Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala and in the international agreements that Guatemala has ratified to protect the free practice of religion by Indigenous Peoples in general and the protection of ancestral and spiritual authorities in particular from attacks that threaten their lives.     Initiate the process of transferring management and ownership of sacred sites and sacred cities to ancestral authorities and Mayan spiritual guide collectives."
       The UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, in its final report released in June 2022, urged member states to adopt the 2021 Escazu Agreement, the first environmental treaty of Latin America and the Caribbean, with a provision on the protection of human rights defenders ("International: New Climate Agreement on IndigenousPerspectives Gains International Support Cultural Survival Quarterly, September, 2022).
      " The International Indian Treaty Council Communicates Urgent Violations Against Indigenous Peoples in Guatemala to United Nations Human Rights Bodies," International Indian Treaty Council, October 10, 2022,, reported, "On October 6th, 2022, the International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) filed urgent communications to five United Nations Human Rights mechanisms addressing severe violations of the rights carried out against the Q'eqchi' Mayan Indigenous community of Xeinup, municipality of El Chal, Department of Peten.      IITC's submissions address an incident that took place on the night of September 30, 2022, when approximately 150 men with covered faces carrying high-caliber assault rifles violently entered Xeinup, shooting indiscriminately, and attacking families physically and verbally. They ordered the Mayan families not to move or call the National Civil Police under threat of death. They then burned their homes, farms and belongings and killed their livestock. Community members were held at gunpoint and were not able to save their belongings, clothes, animals or household items.     The submission notes that the land in this area has been under dispute between the traditional land holders, the Q'eqchi' Mayan Indigenous Peoples of Xeinup, and private interests.
      IITC's communications were sent to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) Early Warning and Urgent Action Procedures as well as United Nations Special Rapporteurs on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, on violence against women and girls, on the human rights of internally displaced persons, and on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living.
     The Q'eqchi' Mayan leaders and members of the Xeinup community are calling for the government of Guatemala to be held accountable for this act of paramilitary violence and to ensure that no further acts of violence are carried out against the families of this community or any other Indigenous Peoples of Guatemala. They also call upon Guatemala to immediately investigate this act of violence and punish those responsible.             IITC's submission contains testimonies from Xeinup community leaders and members detailing widespread panic and chaos caused by the destruction, gunshots, and death threats. They stated that families dropped to the ground, and others ran for their lives to hide in the hills. Since it was nighttime, sleeping children were taken out of their homes naked. Many families spent the night in the streets of the community. 51 houses were burned, affecting 53 Mayan families including 76 girls, 64 boys, 57 men, and 60 women, totaling 257 people. These families lost all of their possessions, grains, animals and other means of livelihood. At the time of reporting, the community had not yet received any assistance from the government.
    For follow-up communication or more information regarding this case, please contact IITC's office in Guatemala via or call +502 42102584."
  CERD issued its recommendations to the United States, in December 2022, requiring the government to supply sufficient funding to combat the ongoing crisis of missing and murdered women and girls and two spirit people in addition to guaranteeing the right of free, prior and informed consent ("CERD Issues Recommendations to U.S. on Indigenous Peoples' Rights Cultural Survival Quarterly, December, 2022).
    " Report to UN Human Rights Council Highlights Indigenous Peoples' Rights Violations in Japan," Cultural Survival, July 18, 2022,, reported, " Cultural Survival, along with our colleague organizations Association of Comprehensive Studies for Independence of the Lew Chewan Peoples , All Okinawa Council for Human Rights, and Nirai Kanai black'nu Kai (Indigenous Peoples' Organization for the Repatriation and Aerial Reburial of Ryukyuan Human Remains into original Ryukyuan Graves), recently submitted a report ( to the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) on the violation of Indigenous Peoples' rights in Japan . The UN General Assembly established the Universal Periodic Review along with the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006. Its purpose is to review the human rights records of the 193 UN member states, addressing the states' obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights, and to provide technical assistance to the states being reviewed. The 193 member states are divided into groups that alternate review cycles. The report was submitted for the 4th Cycle of Universal Periodic Review of Japan as part of the 42nd Session of the Human Rights Council. Our stakeholder report will assist the UPR Working Group in reviewing the Japanese State in accordance with its obligations to the international human rights treaties and mechanisms it has ratified and endorsed such as the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP).
     The report, titled Observations on the State of Indigenous Rights in Japan , focuses on the two primary Indigenous Peoples in Japan. The Ainu are from the northern region of the Japanese archipelago, particularly Hokkaido, which is considered to be their ancestral territory, while the Ryukyuans, known as Okinawan who identify themselves also as Lewchewans or Uchinanchu, mostly live in the southernmost regions of Ryukyu/Okinawa and Kagoshima Islands of Japan. The report highlights ongoing human rights violations, including violation of rights to self-determination; violation of rights to ancestral lands and territories; violations of fishing and subsistence rights; violations of Indigenous Peoples' rights in Japanese law and policy; violations of Indigenous Peoples' rights to ancestral remains; and violations of Indigenous women's rights.       The report notes that while the government of Japan has made some strides in addressing historical injustices including marginalization and discrimination against Ainu Indigenous Peoples, it has yet to take any efforts to address such injustices faced by Ryukyuan/Okinawan Indigenous Peoples nor does it consider them as Indigenous Peoples of Japan. Moreover, the Japanese government and the United States military have been using the traditional lands and territories of Ryukyuans without their Free, Prior, and Informed Consent. The Ainu, Ryukyuan/Okinawan, and other ethnic minorities have undergone similar experiences of historical injustices such as suppression of their socio-cultural practices and dispossession of their ancestral lands and territories. Indigenous Peoples in Japan continue to suffer greater rates of discrimination and poverty and lower rates of academic success compared to non-Indigenous Peoples. There is no meaningful consultation for promotion and protection of their right to self-determination including their language, history, and culture.   
     The report urges UN member states to make the following recommendations to Japan:    ILO Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, 1989 or ILO Convention No. 169. Recognize and protect Indigenous Peoples' right to self-determination including their right to own, develop, control and use their communal lands, territories and resources and where they have been otherwise inhabited or used, with their Free, Prior and Informed Consent, and take necessary steps to return their lands and territories with reparation.      Recognize Ryukyu/Okinawa People as Indigenous Peoples and take appropriate measures to ensure their right to traditional land and natural resources and to meaningfully participate in decision-making matters which would affect their rights to  language, history and culture.      Strengthen measures to respect and fulfill the rights of the Ainu and Ryukyu Indigenous Peoples in regards to their traditional land and territories and their right to Free, Prior and Informed Consent, also ensuring the right of other groups such as Burakumins &emdash;; to fully enjoy their economic, social and cultural rights.      Apologize publicly in good faith, acknowledging the centuries of discrimination and assimilation policies towards Ainu and Ryukyu Indigenous Peoples. 
    Conduct meaningful dialogue with Ryukyu Peoples regarding the US military bases in Okinawa.      Take appropriate measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination against Ainu and Ryukyu Indigenous Peoples and conduct up-to-date surveys, including disaggregated data, with the meaningful participation of Ainu and Ryukyu Indigenous Peoples about their educational and socio-economic status as a step towards ending the socioeconomic and educational gaps and other inequities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples of Japan.       Ensure access to and repatriation of ceremonial objects and human remains to the Ainu and Ryukyu Indigenous Peoples through development of fair, transparent and effective mechanisms with meaningful consultation and participation of the respective Indigenous Peoples.      Invite the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to visit Japan. Create a national action plan on implementing Indigenous Peoples' rights based on the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples' Outcome Document."

    "CEDAW adopts General Recommendation No. 39 on the Rights of Indigenous Women and Girls," Cultural Survival, November 2, 2022,, reported, "On October 26, 2022, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women(CEDAW : adopted the long-awaited General Recommendation No. 39  ( ), on the Rights of Indigenous Women and Girls. General Recommendation No. 39 includes the first language in a binding international treaty focused on the rights of Indigenous Women and Girls and answers to an enduring call by Indigenous women for a specific instrument to further and protect their rights .   
    CEDAW is a group of independent international experts on women's rights that monitors the application of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women ( The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is the only binding international treaty that explicitly protects the rights of all women. The CEDAW Committee reviews reports from State parties, individuals, or groups who submit reports or claims about systematic infringements upon the rights of women. It has the power to open investigations and makes recommendations that must be considered by State parties in their laws and protections with respect to the rights of women and girls. However , the Convention fails to explicitly mention Indigenous women and girls, and there are no specific obligations for governments to address issues affecting them. It is thus unable to offer sufficient protection against the specific discriminations Indigenous women and girls face because of historical and continuing structural inequalities, sexism, and racism. Additionally, though the United Nations recognizes Indigenous Peoples' right to self-determination, States regularly violate it. Thus, Indigenous women leaders and organizations from across the globe started dialogues in 2017 about the need for the CEDAW to recognize urgent issues and specific in-depth demands particular to Indigenous women and girls' experiences and needs. These leaders have been developing the General Recommendation on the Rights of Indigenous Women and Girls, which responds to the growing struggle for greater inclusion, protection, and strengthening of the rights of Indigenous women and girls.  When government parties to the Convention submit reports enumerating progress on addressing discrimination against women, they are obligated to include information required by CEDAW. The Convention includes General Recommendations to give guidance and establish legally binding obligations to a government party. Despite that, before now, there was no general recommendation on the individual and collective rights of Indigenous women and girls nor one that determined that States have the specific responsibility to tackle issues that impact them.  
    In May 2022, over 50 Indigenous women from 21 countries belonging to 33 different Indigenous Peoples convened in Tlaxcala, Mexico for a Regional Consultation on General Recommendation No. 39 ( organized by the National Institute of Women of Mexico (INMUJERES), UN Women, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), the CEDAW, the International Indigenous Women's Forum (FIMI), and UNICEF. The contributors to the CEDAW General Recommendation hope its adoption will initiate a process wherein States will implement public policies and programs that ensure Indigenous women's and girls' individual and collective rights.  
     'Indigenous women and girls are disproportionately affected by gender-based violence, as well as inequality and discrimination, and remain beset by limited access to justice, education, decent employment and healthcare, simply because of who they are,' said Gladys Acosta-Vargas, the Chairperson of CEDAW. 'Discrimination against Indigenous women and girls is unacceptable and must be meaningfully addressed by all States by removing all the structural barriers they are faced with and ensuring that their individual and collective rights are fully respected.'
     Galina Angarova (Buryat), Cultural Survival Executive Director, shared 'Cultural Survival congratulates our partner organizations, Indigenous women, activists, and Indigenous community representatives who have achieved this important victory and milestone for recognizing Indigenous women's rights. This decision does not only benefit Indigenous women and Indigenous Peoples, it will benefit everyone in the larger society and the planet, since Indigenous women play crucial roles in climate change adaptation and mitigation, biodiversity protection, transfer of traditional knowledge and Indigenous languages, and are the backbones of our communities.'   The General Recommendation will now direct State parties to the Convention to apply concrete measures to rectify and eliminate historical discrimination and violations of the rights of Indigenous women and will emphasize the crucial role Indigenous women play in maintaining their cultures, languages, and traditions. Further, the General Recommendation acknowledges Indigenous women's leadership and drive for taking action to safeguard the environment and biodiversity and fight against climate change .      Read the General Recommendation No. 39 on the Rights of Indigenous Women and Girls:
     Avexnim Cojti (Maya Ki'che', CS Staff), "UNESCO Officially Launches International Decade of Indigenous Languages," Cultural Survival, December 12, 2022,, reported, "Tomorrow December 13, 2022, is the official launch of the International Decade of Indigenous Languages 2022-2023 in Paris, organized by UNESCO. Today, December 12, 2022, UNESCO hosted the Global Taskforce Meeting for the International Decade of Indigenous Languages. Participants in this event include members of the UN agencies such as UNDESA, UNESCO, OACHNUD, as well as representatives of governments working in the field of language and Indigenous leaders, both in government positions and activistsThe official launching of the decade comes with the mandate of having a global call for action and raising awareness about the critical loss of Indigenous languages and the urgent need to preserve, revitalize, and promote Indigenous languages and adopt urgent measures at national and international levels.
    The meeting commenced with a beautiful Inuit fire ceremony by Lina Ivik (Iqaluit) from Nunavut, Canada.  Then, several interventions from language initiatives and policy change were presented from Indigenous perspectives, and from States. The government of Paraguay officially recognized Guarani, an Indigenous language, as the second language in the country. The Guarani Peoples are one of 19 Indigenous Peoples in the country who represent 2 percent of the general population.  H.E. Nancy Ovelar de Gorostiaga, Ambassador, and Permanent Delegate of Paraguay to UNESCO mentioned that 'we need to have commitments from Indigenous Peoples to speak their language and the State has a duty to support them.'
     Rawinia Higgins, Professor, Mori Language Commissioner, Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Mori, Mori Language Commission of New Zealand shared how fifty years ago, Mor Peoples petitioned the change of legislation to be able to speak their language in school. Twenty-five years later, in 1987, they succeeded in having their language officially recognized. This change in legislation does not come naturally from the State governments but is a result of Indigenous activism. To finalize, Higgins reminded world leaders that 'it takes one generation to lose a language, and three generations to recover a language.' Belkacem Lounes, Representative of the African Indigenous Peoples Network (AIPN) mentioned that Indigenous languages in Africa are very vulnerable, especially because there is no legislation to support Indigenous languages. As a network, AIPN met in Morroco last month to draft an action plan which includes legal protection, generalization of Indigenous languages, and financial resources for language preservation. Fredy Condo, an expert member of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Languages (UNFPII) said that it is a nice plan but it is not worthwhile if this plan does not trickle down to communities.  He also emphasized that it is important to establish an Indigenous observatory of the results of this plan led by Indigenous Peoples. 
     Antonina Agreda, Indigenous Languages Advisor, Department of Populations, Ministry of Culture in Colombia mentioned that they already created a self-determined plan related to Indigenous languages and have had 16 dialogues to think together about how to implement the plan locally. The Colombian experience shows community engagement at the local level which is recommended to learn about this plan and how to ensure communities are engaged.      In general, most participants congratulated UNESCO for their efforts in the International Decade of Indigenous languages but also pushed for more Indigenous representation; the establishment an independent monitoring body to track the outcomes and activities of the Decade plan; for the need to secure financial resources from governments; and for the coordination of international cooperation to support language initiatives. 
     Cultural Survival is a nonprofit organization that supports community-led language initiatives through the Keepers of the Earth Fund, the Indigenous Community Media Fund, Youth Fellowships, and community-to-community exchanges on language teaching methodologies.  
     Read: Cultural Survival's Statement for UNESCO's High-Level Launch Event for the International Decade of Indigenous Languages 2022-2032:"
Regional and Country Developments

    "Pope Francis issues an historic apology for 'devastating' school abuses in Canada," NPR, July 25, 2022,, reported, " Pope Francis issued a historic apology Monday for the Catholic Church's cooperation with Canada's 'catastrophic" policy of Indigenous residential schools, saying the forced assimilation of Native peoples into Christian society destroyed their cultures, severed families and marginalized generations in ways still being felt today.  'I am sorry," Francis said, to applause from school survivors and Indigenous community members gathered at a former residential school south of Edmonton, Alberta, the first event of Francis' weeklong 'penitential pilgrimage' to Canada."     Pope Francis statements included the following
    "I humbly beg forgiveness for the evil committed by so many Christians against the Indigenous peoples."
     "Although Christian charity was not absent, and there were many outstanding instances of devotion and care for children, the overall effects of the policies linked to the residential schools were catastrophic," Francis said. " What our Christian faith tells us is that this was a disastrous error, incompatible with the Gospel of Jesus Christ."     "I ask forgiveness, in particular, for the ways in which many members of the Church and of religious communities cooperated [with the Canadian government boarding school policy], not least through their indifference, in projects of cultural destruction and forced assimilation promoted by the governments of that time, which culminated in the system of residential schools,"     Admitting that the policy caused terrible physical, psychological spiritual, social and cultural harm that also "indelibly affected relationships between parents and children, grandparents and grandchildren," Pope Francis called for further investigation, possibly referring to Indigenous demands for further access to church records and personnel files of the priests and nuns to identify those responsible for the abuses. Acknowledging that memories of the abuses could be traumatic, he said, "It is necessary to remember how the policies of assimilation and enfranchisement, which also included the residential school system, were devastating for the people of these lands." 
    The pope later met privately with boarding school survivors, and made several other visits with First Nation people around Canada in his 'penitential pilgrimage,' which he hoped would be an important step in reconciliation.      The full transcript of the apology of Pope Francis is at:
Jason Horowitz, "Francis Calls Abuse of Indigenous People in Canada a "Genocide': The pope reinforced his denunciation of the abuse committed by Roman Catholic-run schools in the country. He also acknowledged that his advancing age might force him to travel less in future," The New York Times, July 30, 2022,, reported that on his way home from Canada, "aboard the plane, Pope Francis has called the devastation visited on generations of Indigenous people in Canada by European colonizers &emdash;; carried out with the blessing of the Roman Catholic Church &emdash;; a 'genocide' as he returned to Rome after a six-day trip to the North American country."
       Mark Blackburn and Fraser Needham, "Canada's prison system has changed little for Indigenous Peoples: Report," APTN News, November 1, 2022 ,, reported, "OCI's report is the third one in 2022 to take aim at Correctional Service of Canada.  
      Little has changed for Indigenous peoples in prison over the past decade, says the Office of the Correctional Investigator of Canada (OCI).Ivan Zinger says they continue to be caught in "the proverbial revolving door' of the justice system without being able to get out.     "It appears that, at the highest levels, CSC [Correctional Service of Canada] does not seem to accept that it has any role or influence on reversing the perpetual crisis of Indigenous overrepresentation in Canadian jails and prisons,' Zinger says of his 2022 annual report ("
      "Trudeau appoints Michelle O'Bonsawin, first Indigenous justice on Supreme CourtThe Canadian Press," APTN News, August 19, 2022, Ontario judge first Indigenous person to sit on the country's highest bench, reported, " Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has appointed Ontario judge Michelle O'Bonsawin to the Supreme Court of Canada, making her the first Indigenous person to sit on the country's highest bench.O'Bonsawin comes to the court after spending five years as a judge at the Ontario Superior Court of Justice in Ottawa."  "O'Bonsawin identifies as a bilingual Franco-Ontarian and an Abenaki member of the Odanak First Nation."
     Norimitsu Onishi, "In Vancouver, Indigenous Communities Get Prime Land, and PowerAfter acquiring some of the biggest and most coveted parcels of land in Vancouver, the city's three First Nations are becoming players in the biggest game in town &emdash;; real estate," The
New York Times
, August 23, 2022,, reported, " The newest players in Vancouver's never-ending real estate drama don't come from across the Pacific or from south of the border. They are the area's oldest inhabitants, ensconced in this corner of Canada since long before what they call "contact' with European colonizers &emdash;; and they had long been bystanders as a hyperactive market created fortunes and turned the city into the country's priciest.    Vancouver's three local Indigenous communities, called First Nations in Canada, now find themselves in an unusual position. As owners of vast tracts of prime land in a major metropolis, they are courted by developers and poised to continue shaping a city that has been transformed in recent decades by money from Hong Kong and mainland China."
    A number of factors and developments led the First nations to control the prime real estate, stemming largely from more Native favorable public policies."
       Brett Forester, Olivia Stefanovich , "Minister signs deal to return land to Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory: Signing marks resolution of part of the Culbertson Tract land claim, two-thirds remains in dispute," CBC News, October 4, 2022,, reported, " Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory is now, officially, getting some land back.
     At a ceremonial signing on Monday morning, Crown-Indigenous Relations Minister Marc Miller agreed to hand over a 120-hectare plot of land to the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte (MBQ) band council, along with roughly $31 million in compensation."
Two men knifed 10 people two death and wounded 15 others on the James Smith Cree Nation and a neighboring community in Saskatchewan, Canada on September 4, 2022. The mass violence, unusual for Canada, appear to have been drug related ( David Stobbe and Ismail Shakil, "Canada hunts suspects in stabbing spree that killed 10, wounded 15," Reuters, September 5, 2022, NPR, "All Things Considered," September 5, 2022, reported one of the suspects - both known - was found dead and the other still being sought.
     " The police have been criticized for their handling of crimes against Indigenous people ," The New York Times , September 5, 2022,, reported, " The brutal knife assaults in Saskatchewan are likely to revive concerns in Indigenous communities about the seriousness with which the Canadian authorities treat crimes against them.  
    While much remains unknown about the crime on Sunday, it appears that the killers were able to injure and kill people at more than a dozen locations over several hours, and then elude the police as they slipped away."
      Kathleen Martens, " First woman elected to lead Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs," APTN News, October 26, 2022,, reported, " The Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs has elected Cathy Merrick as its new grand chief." She is the first woman to hold the position."
  "N.W.T. Supreme Court gets 1st Indigenous chief justice: Supreme Court Justice Shannon Smallwood was named N.W.T. Supreme Court chief justice Thursday," CBC News ,  September 23, 2022, reported, N.W.T. Supreme Court Justice Shannon Smallwood has been named the court's chief justice. She replaces former chief justice Louise A. Charbonneau who retired on July 11."" Smallwood was the first Dene (K'ash—got'/ne) person to be named to the N.W.T. Supreme Court when she was appointed in 2011, and is now the first Indigenous person to serve as the court's chief justice."
     "Assembly of First Nations approves new regional chief position for Newfoundland," CBC News, á Posted: December 12, 2022,, reported that with  growing Mi'kmaq population, " First Nations in Newfoundland are getting a national representative on the Assembly of First Nations executive committee.       The motion passed last week at the assembly's special chiefs assembly in Ottawa. The island's Mi'kmaq First Nations previously shared a regional chief with Nova Scotia."
In the heavily First Nation people populated North End of Winnipeg, volunteers of the Bear Clan Patrol have been keeping the streets, and Indigenous women in particular, safer, as the patrol works to enhance a feeling of safety and wellbeing in the community (Sara Miller Llana, "In Winnipeg, Bear Clan Patrol is keeping Indigenous women safer," Christian Science Monitor Weekly, July11 and 18, 2022).     In downtown Winnipeg, the former Flagship Store of the Huson's Bay Co. &emdash;; historically a major player in and symbol of European colonialism &emdash;; was being turned over to the Southern Chisfs Organization (SCO) to become its new set of government and multi-purpose center for Firs Nation People, including supplying low income housing. Exhibiting a striking mural by First Nation Artist Aski Pimachi Iwew, the building has become a symbol of reconciliation and healing (Sara Miller llana, "Turned into a Bridge: How the transfer of an historic store in Canada to Indigenous groups heels colonial divides, Christian Science Monitor Weekly, July 11 and 18, 2022).
     Vanessa Romo Espinoza and Gloria Alvitres, Translated by Maria Angeles Salazar,  "Crime and no punishment: Impunity shrouds killings of Indigenous Amazonian defenders," Mongabay, August 17, 2022,, reported, "According to information collected by 11 environmental and human rights organizations, 58 Indigenous people were killed in the Brazilian, Colombian, Ecuadoran and Peruvian Amazon between 2016 and 2021.  
     Most of the investigations are ongoing and lawyers report delays and irregularities in the processes.
    The likely perpetrators in most of the killings are linked to illegal activities such as drug trafficking, mining, land grabbing and illegal logging.      In the case of Brazil, experts also point to the state as being potentially involved in these murders.   'We receive reports of murders, crimes and threats every day,' says Esneda Saavedra, counselor for the rights of Indigenous peoples, human rights and peace with the National Indigenous Organization of Colombia ( ONIC). She says the victims are now young people and that there's no guarantee of the cases being solved. 'The reports arrive and are archived. We live in a continuous violation of our rights,' she says. 
     International organizations, including Global Witness and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, consistently identify Latin America as one of the regions where Indigenous environmental defenders are most threatened. The most recent Global Witness report shows that most of the killings of land and environmental defenders in 2020 occurred in Latin America, with every three out of four attacks that year in Peru and Brazil taking place in the Amazonian regions of those countries ."

    Bia'ni Madsa' Juárez L—pez (Ayuuk ja'ay and Binnizá, CS Staff), "Mayagna Communities Work to Achieve Food Sovereignty after Hurricanes Iota and Eta," Cultural Survival, August 29, 2022,, reported, " The Kalwahai Center is an organization dedicated to the cultural, environmental, and economic development of Indigenous communities in the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve in Nicaragua. The Bosawas Reserve is located in the well known region of the Mosquitia, the largest tropical forest reserve in Latin America, and represents a territory with recognized ancestral rights of the Mayagna and Miskito Peoples. This region is also highly impacted by deforestation and territorial conflicts, resulting in at least 11 Indigenous people being killed at the hands of settlers since 2011.
       At the end of 2020 and after a year had passed since the COVID-19 pandemic, hurricanes Iota and Eta hit Central America and left behind a trail of destruction. During Hurricane Iota alone, 21 Mayangna people lost their lives in Nicaragua. Damage to homes was widespread, and some of the most severe impacts were the loss of food systems, such as perennial and annual crops and livestock.      Affected Indigenous community members, in Sakalwas, Kilangwas, Wilu, and Ala communities in the municipality of Bonanza, North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, supported by the Kalwahai Center, developed an emergency response project with funding from the Keepers of the Earth Fund to address losses, focusing on food sovereignty and housing. During the first months of 2021, the roofs of 15 affected homes were repaired collectively, and 50 plots of basic grains were planted along with beans, corn, cassava, quique, and bananas. One project participant stated, '[This project] had a positive impact on families and households, good results are being obtained mainly through the harvest of basic grains.' Taymond Robins (Mayangna), President of the Kalwahai Center, shared, 'For us, this help has been of great value, a gesture of solidarity when we needed it most.'
       With this project, Mayagna Peoples are showing that long-term solutions led by Indigenous communities, for their collective benefit, in accordance with caring for the land and in reciprocity with nature, are the solutions that sustain communities and prepare them to better respond to emergencies.     The Keepers of the Earth Fund (KOEF) is an Indigenous Led Fund within Cultural Survival designed to support Indigenous Peoples' community development and advocacy projects. Since 2017, through small grants and technical assistance, KOEF has supported 219 projects in 37 countries totaling $967,102 (USD). KOEF provides, on average, $5,000 grants to grassroots Indigenous-led communities, organizations, and traditional governments to support their self-determined development projects based on their Indigenous values. Predicated on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Cultural Survival uses a rights-based approach in our grantmaking strategies to support grassroots Indigenous solutions through the equitable distribution of resources to Indigenous communities."
  John McPhaul, "Costa Rican Supreme Court Upholds Indigenous Rights to Land," Cultural Survival, October 30, 2022,, reported, "On October 19, 2022, the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court rejected a request of unconstitutionality brought against Article 3 of the country's Indigenous Law that prohibits non-Indigenous people from acquiring or selling land inside any of the country's 24 Indigenous Territories. The Constitutional Chamber, better known as the Sala IV, found in a majority ruling that the government did not have to compensate landholders who acquired property inside Indigenous territories after the passage of the country's Indigenous Law in 1977, which created the Indigenous territories for the country's eight separate Indigenous Peoples. Of the eight Peoples, only the Chorotega of the northern Guanacaste Province are related to other civilizations of Central America. The rest&emdash;;the Boruca or Bršran, the Bribri, the Cabécar, the Ngabe or Guaym’, Huertar, Maleku, and Terraba or Teribe&emdash;;all descend from the Chibcha people of northern South America.   Article 3 of the Indigenous Law states: 'Indigenous reserves are inalienable and imprescriptible, non-transferable and exclusive for the Indigenous communities that inhabit them. Non-Indigenous persons may not rent, lease, buy or otherwise acquire land or farms within these reserves. Indigenous people may only negotiate their lands with other Indigenous people. Any transfer or negotiation of lands or improvements thereto in Indigenous reserves, between
    Indigenous and non-Indigenous, is absolutely null, with the legal consequences of the case.'
    In an audio statement addressed to the press, Fernando Castillo, the Presiding Magistrate of the Constitutional Chamber, said that according to jurisprudence, non-Indigenous people who have purchased land within Indigenous reserves after the Indigenous Law went into effect have not acted in good faith. 'The Sala IV by majority decided to declare the action of unconstitutionality without foundation and upheld the decision of the First Chamber to the Supreme Court of Justice and, consequently, make these sales null and void. Considering the lack of good faith, the State is not obliged to compensate the non-Indigenous buyers, much less exercise the expropriation power,' said Castillo.
     Indigenous Peoples trying to reclaim their land have clashed with illegal landholders who acquired their property after the Indigenous Law went into effect. Two Indigenous leaders have been killed as a result of the tensions between the Indigenous people and the settlers: Bribri leader and land rights activist Sergio Rojas Ort’z, who was murdered in March 2019, and Bršran leader Jehry Rivera, who was killed in February 2020. Despite solid leads as to the identities of the perpetrators, no arrests have been made.      In late September 2022, the Sala IV also threw out a challenge to the entire Indigenous Law by the Multiethnic and Pluricultural Association of Buenos Aires, the Traditional Authority of Ethnic Elders of Buenos Aires, and the Ancestral Authorities of Mesoamerica&emdash;;landholder groups that claim to represent Indigenous people, but actually have a more complex agenda. According to the Costa Rican press, the three plaintiff organizations wanted the Indigenous Law 6172 to be declared unconstitutional, alleging that the right to self-determination of Indigenous Peoples and the right to consultation with the Indigenous population are not regulated under that law. They also allege that the Indigenous Law suffered defects of procedure and substance from its inception in 1977 and that it violates the fundamental right to consultation as laid out in Article 6 of ILO Convention 169, due to the absence of a regulatory framework in the law to the detriment of Indigenous Peoples.            The Sala IV ruled that the organizations had no mention in their founding charters of defense of Indigenous rights, and therefore had no claim to defend the Indigenous people in court as they claimed to do in their suit. '[The Multiethnic and Pluricultural Association of Bueno Aires] is a civil association whose objectives are totally academic, social, and cultural. It is not recorded, as one of its purposes, the national defense of the Indigenous community or of any particular Indigenous group,' per the Court."
      "Belize Failing to Implement Binding Court Orders to Respect Maya Land Rights," Cultural Survival, December 7, 2022,, reported, "On November 29, 2022, the Caribbean Court of Justice heard arguments in the case Maya Leaders Alliance v The Attorney General of Belize regarding the compliance of the State of Belize with the court's 2015 decision in favor of Maya land rights .
     That landmark decision, issued in April 2015, affirmed that the Maya Peoples of Belize hold customary land rights over the land that they occupy, which is equal to any other form of land ownership in Belize and is constitutionally protected. The court affirmed, 'Maya customary land tenure exists in the Maya villages in the Toledo District and gives rise to collective and individual property rights .'  
     The parties in this case entered into a Consent Order in which, among other things, the Government of Belize agreed to develop a legal mechanism through which to recognize the land rights of the Maya Peoples. However, in last week's hearing, Leslie Mendez, counsel for the appellants, shared,  'We are very concerned about the nonresponsiveness of the government and the inordinate delay in actually meeting and engaging in any meaningful dialogue.' 
     The appellants in this case include the Toledo Alcaldes Association (TAA) and the Maya Leaders Alliance (MLA). The TAA is a collection of traditionally elected leaders from each Maya village, and the Maya Leaders Alliance which provides the alcaldes (traditional leaders) with technical support and has spearheaded a campaign for the full recognition of the Maya as Indigenous Peoples in Belize. Their efforts have brought them to the Supreme Court of Belize several times, once in 2007 and again in 2010 after the government of Belize appealed a ruling that granted the Maya legal rights to their lands, and finally in 2015 to the highest court, the Caribbean Court of Justice. At all levels, the courts ruled in favor of Maya communities. (Read more: The Struggle to Implement Maya Land Rights in Belize, by Cristina Coc:     Today, over seven years later,  implementation efforts continue to be delayed as the State fails to properly engage in good faith with the traditional authorities to establish even a basic roadmap for the implementation of the case. In February 2022, the Ministry of Indigenous Affairs embarked on a three-day consultation with some Maya villages and some NGOs that support its agenda to share the new protocol. However, it refused to engage with the traditional authorities. The State has also tried to back away from the concept of 'consent,' replacing it with 'consultation,' while establishing norms around protocols for engaging with the Maya Peoples, in violation of the established Indigenous rights standard of Free, Prior and Informed Consent .  
    Establishing mechanisms for upholding the Maya Peoples' legal right to their lands and protocols for achieving their Free, Prior and Informed Consent is particularly urgent today, at a time of renewed interest by an American-owned oil company, US Capital Energy, which has long pursued drilling rights within the Maya Peoples' territory. 
    Below we share a press release issued by the Maya Leaders Alliance regarding the November 29 hearing.  'Wednesday, November 30th, 2022. Punta Gorda Town, Toledo, Belize The Caribbean Court of Justice expressed its disappointment to hear that an important instrument, the FPIC Protocol, in implementing the Consent Order could be finalized by one Party (Government of Belize), be implemented (by the Government of Belize) and the other Party (Maya Leaders Alliance and Toledo Alcaldes Association) has not seen the final version. The Court reminded the Government of Belize that the international community is keeping its gaze on Belize as it implements the novel Consent Order agreed to by the Parties.   
    The Maya Leaders Alliance and Toledo Alcaldes Association has continuously reported to the CCJ that the Government of Belize has consistently failed to follow process and choose to march on with the implementation without consideration to the Maya Party.  This approach cannot continue because it will not produce the vision of the Honourable Abdulai Conteh who in his 2010 Judgment on the Maya Land Rights stated, 'I respectfully say that it is in the interest of all Belizeans that the process of reconciliation be engaged as soon as possible, so that an honourable settlement with the Maya can be achieved.'      We remind our Maya brothers and sisters to never forget that the only reason we still have access to our lands and resources was because we stood together in struggle for over thirty (30) years. We must listen keenly to the wisdom of the CCJ when it reminded us at today's compliance hearing that all of the work on implementation does not arise from the government's desire to do what is best for Belize and its people, it arises from litigation. The Government then must implement the Order in good faith, and in a spirit that respects the fact that implementation arises out of a Consent Order where there are litigants on the other side. In our meetings, our conversations, and formal communications to the Government of Belize, we have consistently expressed to the Government of Belize our agreement with the Courts wisdom that Belize can 'be a shining star, being a beacon for others' in how to truly embrace and protect Maya People, the Indigenous Peoples of Belize and all Belizeans. We remain committed to doing our part, as we again pledged before the Court. We owe it to each and every Maya person and our children's children that Maya Land Rights is settled in compliance with the Consent Order, international law and the obligations that Belize has acceded to as a member of the global community to uphold human rights and the rights of Indigenous Peoples.'"  
    You can watch the compliance hearing in the Maya Leaders Alliance v The Attorney General of Belize &emdash;; Maya Land Rights at the article web address above.

    Gabriela Sarmet, Eye on the Amazon, "The Voices of Amazonian Peoples Led This Year's Pan-Amazon Social Forum," Amazon Watch, September 7, 2022,, reported, " The 10th edition of the Pan-Amazon Social Forum (X FOSPA) took place from July 28 to 31, in Belém, Pará, in Brazil. The meeting brought together traditional peoples and communities from the countryside, the cities, and the Amazon rainforest. People from all nine countries of the region were in attendance: Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Suriname, Guyana, and French Guiana. Amazon Watch was present at this historic meeting, represented by Brazil's Legal Advisor Ana Carolina Alfinito and myself, Gabriela Sarmet, Brazil Campaign Advisor.
    The X FOSPA was marked by a strong denunciation of the advances of the so-called development paradigm, in which governments and large corporations align themselves in complicity in destruction by approving projects that privatize profits and socialize losses over Amazonian peoples and territories , as Amazon Watch has denounced for some time.
      Violence against community leaders, the stagnant demarcation of Indigenous territories, support for illegal extractivism, and other violations of rights are reproduced &emdash; in different rhythms and dimensions &emdash;; throughout the Amazon rainforest. FOSPA, therefore, functioned as a geopolitical space where the priorities in the discussions were set by the very peoples affected by these policies of destruction , marking a strong protagonism of the historical resistances of traditional peoples and communities .
    In the discussions, the urgency of a commitment to a radical transformation of the political, economic, and social structures surrounding the Amazon became evident, particularly with regard to decision-making.
    As a space to share knowledge, the exchange promoted during the four days of FOSPA reiterated the infeasibility of the current predatory development model, which reinforces colonial practices and thoughts such as the inseparable relationship between nature and human exploitation &emdash;; in particular of racialized subjects such as Indigenous peoples, riverbank communities, and quilombolas.  
    Amazon Watch representatives participated in tables and activities about mining and its socio-environmental impacts. In addition, we supported FEPIPA's (Federation of Indigenous Peoples of Pará) campaign, which successfully collected 420 signatures from 255 organizations.Amazon Watch's Legal Advisor Ana Carolina Alfinito also accompanied the International Tribunal for the Rights of Nature during its in situ visit to the Carajás Territory. At FOSPA, international judges who are part of this tribunal released a partial report on human rights violations and violations against nature in the Amazon. The data in the report were collected by the delegation of judges from Brazil, South Africa, Ecuador, Peru, and the United States during visits that took place in the cities of Altamira, Anapu, Marabá, Parauapebas, and Canaã dos Carajás, all of which have a history of physical and symbolic violence caused by hydroelectric dams, agrarian conflicts, mining, and agribusiness. Alfinito gave a strong speech summarizing the Court's remarks on the subject on July 29.      According to the community leaders present who shared their experiences, Carajás opened the way for other megaprojects to be constructed in the Amazon. For all these reasons, one of the verdicts of the Tribunal was the demand for a specific session on Belo Sun to alert not only the investors of the mining company about the systematic violation of rights that has occurred in the region, but also as a way to make the entire Canadian population aware of their country's plans in Amazonian territory . Alfinito made it clear that they act as facilitators and translators, but that the real judges are, in fact, the peoples and communities that keep the forest standing. She also pointed out that the term "affected" is insufficient to describe what these populations have been going through with the advance of mining companies and other megaprojects: it is destruction, a declaration of war, it is ecocide . "The extractive logic of mining leads to multiple forms of violence, and it doesn't want anything to exist outside of it. It's as if everything there is possessed by mining," she said about the Carajás territory.
     Another event that included Amazon Watch's participation was 'Mining Against Territories in the Amazon: violations, reparations, and resistance,' organized by the National Committee in Defense of Territories in the Face of Mining (CMD). One of the highlights of this panel was the constant comparison of the current situation in the Amazon with the history of the state of Minas Gerais &emdash;; a state strongly marked by mining disasters (Brumadinho and Mariana). One of the fronts today is the initiative ' Territories Free of Mining,' where the necessity of this activity, forged during the pandemic, is now being harshly questioned. Mining for what? For whom? And how? These were the central points discussed. We cannot silently watch an ecocide take place, as has been happening in the Amazon and other Brazilian biomes. It is necessary to completely restructure our justice systems to promote restorative and regenerative justice, and no longer a punitive one. It is possible to restructure our way of thinking and doing politics to change the cycle of predatory extractivism that for centuries has been advancing over the Amazon .The judicialization of cases related to the Rights of Nature in Brazil, as is already happening in neighboring countries, can be decisive for the reconstruction of the country that has suffered from the dismantling of environmental policies and systematic violations of the rights of traditional peoples and communities who act as guardians of the forests, rivers, and mountains.  
     Scientists have been warning us that we must protect the Amazon rainforest, its people, and the communities that keep it standing. As we face the climate emergency, this task is more important than ever to ultimately ensure human survival on the planet. For this, we need to go beyond solidarity and start thinking in terms of reciprocity. This means that we need to collectively act to protect nature and all its beings to  ensure our own survival as a species.It is by overcoming the colonial separation between human beings and nature that we will build an alternate world, where human rights are respected and nature is protected."
     Jake Johnson, "'Incredible News': Global Applause as Leftist Gustavo Petro Wins Colombian Presidency, Brazilian presidential frontrunner Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva said Petro's victory "strengthens democracy and progressive forces in Latin America," Common Dreams, June 20, 2022,, reported, Former guerrilla fighter and longtime lawmaker Gustavo Petro defeated a millionaire businessman viewed as Colombia's Donald Trump on Sunday to become the South American nation's first leftist president-elect, riding a wave of mass anger over inequality, poverty, and the corruption of the right-wing political establishment.        Petro's running mate, environmental activist Francia Márquez, will become the first Black woman to serve as Colombia's vice president, spurring expectations that the new government will move to tackle surging deforestation in the Colombian Amazon and curb the nation's reliance on planet-warming fossil fuels. Petro, who will take office in August, campaigned on banning all new oil projects."      The prospects are for bettering conditions including lowering violence in Columbia, including for Indigenous people. Among the policies Petro wants to undertake, and discuss with the U.S., is ending the drug war and taking a different approach to the drug problem.
     International Crisis Group (ICG), Elizabeth Dickinson, Senior Analyst, Colombia, "Colombia's Last Guerrillas Make First Step toward 'Total Peace.' " Q&A / Latin America & Caribbean 23 November 2022,, commented, " As part of his commitment to bringing "total peace" to Colombia, President Gustavo Petro has inaugurated new talks with the country's last leftist insurgency. In this Q&A, Crisis Group expert Elizabeth Dickinson explains why this round of negotiations could differ from failed past attempts.      What is the ELN, and how strong are they in Colombia today? Why does the government want to negotiate with them? The ELN, or National Liberation Army, is Colombia's last remaining leftist insurgency. Talks with the rebels are crucial to President Gustavo Petro's ambition of achieving " total peace" with all armed and criminal groups in the country. Founded in 1964 by a group of students enamoured of the Cuban revolution and steeped in Catholic liberation theology, today the ELN has a presence in 183 &emdash;; or about 16 per cent &emdash;; of Colombia's municipalities. The group also has a sizeable footprint in Venezuela, where it controls stretches of territory along the border as well as deeper in the interior. With roughly 2,500 men under arms, divided into small, well-trained cells, the ELN is able to engage in offensive operations throughout Colombia, including bombings of infrastructure, military and civilian targets. The number of civilian victims of the group's attacks has fallen over the last year, while the number of military targets has risen.  The ELN's primary objective is not to take power in Bogotá but rather to transform Colombia's unequal society and economic structures. The organisation's propaganda frequently rails against the economic elite and the "destabilising action in which big capital and a large part of the Colombian oligarchy are engaged". To this end, the organisation has relied heavily throughout its history on a network of civilian militias who support its activities. Compared with the larger and more hierarchical Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the guerrillas who signed a peace deal with the state in 2016, the ELN is nimble and decentralised. Its Central Command retains control of the group's ideological and political orientation, and its dictates in these areas are largely adhered to. Beyond that, the ELN operates five regional fronts, as well as an urban front of guerrilla fighters, each of which has considerable leeway to take decisions about military goals and, crucially, profit-making criminal activity. Although drug trafficking is officially prohibited by the organisation, a number of fronts are now prominent players in the narcotics supply chain, moving cocaine along trafficking routes and taxing each step of production.       The ELN portrays itself as benevolent toward civilians, particularly toward allied or co-opted parts of civil society, but it has exacted a devastating human toll in the course of prosecuting its conflicts. Forced recruitment, including of children, is widespread, as is enlistment of hard-up adolescent Colombians and Venezuelan migrants. The group has also engaged in assassinations, extortion and kidnappings, restricted freedom of movement, and conducted "social cleansing" &emdash;; the killing of petty criminals and others it considers undesirable. Today, the public demand for negotiations with the rebels is high in some of the regions suffering most from violence, particularly Arauca and Norte de Santander on the Venezuelan border, as well as Bajo Cauca, Magdalena Medio and the Pacific Coast. What do we know about how the negotiations will take place?   Talks began on 21 November in Caracas, the Venezuelan capital, and the first session is set to last roughly twenty days. The two sides say they will start with the framework they agreed upon on 30 March 2016, during their last foray into negotiations. That agenda laid out six points for discussion: participation, democratic engagement, socio-economic transformation, victims, the end of conflict and implementation. While all these topics are thorny, perhaps the most difficult to address will be the ELN's insistence on popular participation in the negotiations. The group has rejected the public consultation mechanisms that the Petro government has already embarked upon, notably its Binding Regional Dialogues, forums in which the most conflict-affected communities can offer input into the administration's national development policies. It is not clear what sort of popular participation the ELN envisages instead or how much the participation would shape eventual agreements with the Colombian state.   
    The government's lead negotiator with the ELN is Otty Pati–o, who was once a guerrilla in the M-19 urban movement (to which Petro also belonged) and helped negotiate its demobilisation. Pati–o was part of the Constituent Assembly that produced Colombia's new constitution in 1991, an experience that the ELN has previously suggested it may wish to repeat despite Petro's past expressions of aversion to drafting a new charter. Another crucial member of the government's team will be José Félix Lafaurie, a prominent political adversary of Petro and right-wing former politician who today is head of the country's cattle association. Lafaurie's involvement follows an audacious and entirely unexpected invitation from Petro, who is seeking to ensure broad political buy-in for the talks, particularly with respect to the contentious issues of land and rural reform. Former President çlvaro Uribe, widely regarded as the leader of Colombian conservatism, has lauded the decision to include Lafaurie. Still, this strategy has risks &emdash;; namely, that the government could find itself negotiating simultaneously with the ELN and the landed elite, to the satisfaction of neither. Finally, two retired senior military officers and an active general will participate directly in the talks, while a team of other officers will act as technical advisers. The military's backing will be critical to ensuring that any accord that parties reach is fulfilled.      Central Command member Pablo Beltrán leads the ELN negotiating team, as he did during a previous round of talks. He is joined by Aureliano Carbonell, a movement intellectual, and Nicolás Rodr’guez Bautista, another former senior commander and veteran of talks. The full ELN delegation could have up to twentymembers, including seventeen individuals for whom Colombia suspended arrest warrants in order to enable the talks to take place. The ELN said in a statement on 21 November that the negotiating team "has the backing of the entire organisation, of all the national and regional leadership". As was the case in 2012, when the FARC began talks with former President Juan Manuel Santos' government, both sides' negotiating teams are overwhelmingly male. The Catholic Church, seen by both sides as a credible interlocutor, will have no formal role but is invited, along with the UN, to sit in as an observer. After the first round of talks, the dialogue will shift to another host country.Different Colombian governments have tried to negotiate with the ELN before. What failed then, and what is different this time around?  
     At least seven different governments dating back to 1985 have attempted talks with the ELN. The most recent effort began under President Juan Manuel Santos in 2016, before it was definitively terminated under President Iván Duque after an ELN suicide bomber attacked a police academy in Bogotá on 17 January 2019, killing 21. Specific incidents interrupted certain other previous attempts as well, while others fell by the wayside, in part because the government was focused on its battle with the larger FARC insurgency. The ELN has proven a particular challenge for past negotiators because of its decentralised structure and ideological commitment, as well as the group's mindset: while the group understands it will not assume control of Colombia, it nevertheless considers that every day it remains in battle is a victory, and resistance to the state is a political success. In these circumstances, a successful negotiation for the ELN may simply end up being a protracted conversation that falls short of their full demands, such as overhauling the prevailing economic order.    
     An important difference this time around is that the government is not just talking to the ELN but has opened preliminary informal conversations with a handful of other armed and criminal outfits. Legislation governing the administration's 'total peace' plan, passed by Congress in late October, authorises the government to negotiate not only with insurgencies like the ELN but also with what it calls 'high-impact criminal groups'. These groups, which are among the ELN's toughest opponents today, are defined as organisations with a clear hierarchical leadership and persistent capacity to carry out attacks threatening civilians. Addressing all these groups at the same time is essential, the government argues, because otherwise the demobilisation of one group would simply leave spaces for other outfits to fill. Still, the ELN sees itself as a political movement and, therefore, different from criminal groups. It bristles at the idea that the latter deserve any sort of dialogue with the authorities.      Another crucial difference in the format of talks this time is the government's openness and even preference for partial agreements, abandoning the 2016 peace accord maxim that nothing is agreed upon until everything is. This time, the Petro government is seeking initial mini-deals, with particular stress on improving humanitarian conditions in conflict-affected communities and curbing fighting among various armed groups. The latter issue is likely to prove difficult, as the ELN is engaged in active combat with rivals including the Gulf Clan (in Choc—, Valle de Cauca and Bol’var states) and so-called FARC dissidents (in Arauca, Norte de Santander, Nari–o and Cauca). ELN commander Antonio Garc’a has stated that the group does not buy into the idea of a "multilateral ceasefire", a government proposal aimed at mitigating conflict not just between the state and armed organisations but also between rival groups. For the same reasons mentioned above, the ELN opposes this proposal, insisting that it is not to be treated on the same terms as criminal bands with no political goals.       Yet another novelty of these talks is that neither side is seeking disarmament, at least not at first. Citing what it perceives as the Colombian state's non-compliance with the 2016 FARC peace accord, the ELN is unlikely to agree to any comprehensive handover of arms, preferring a gradual process that would move along in step with the government's progress in honouring its promises.       The government has announced Norway, Cuba and Venezuela as guarantor states. What role will these countries have?       Officially so far, Norway, Cuba and Venezuela will act as guarantor states for the ELN peace talks. Yet this group is expected to widen, possibly to include Chile, Spain, France and/or Brazil. Norway and Cuba are also guarantor states of the 2016 FARC agreement. Reopening talks with the ELN represented a major thaw between Colombia and Cuba, where the ELN negotiating team has been based since the 2019 breakdown of talks. The Duque government adopted a hostile stance toward Havana after the bomb attack that year in Bogotá and demanded to no avail that the island nation extradite the ELN leadership. Cuba was host to the first meeting between the Petro government and the ELN delegation; its involvement in fresh talks has already moved Petro to ask the U.S. to consider rescinding Havana's designation as a "state sponsor of terrorism", a status that Washington imposed in the late days of former President Donald Trump's administration at Duque's request. Among the outside participants, Caracas' role in the talks, as initial host and guarantor, is both the most critical for their success, and also the most complicated. While the ELN has long maintained a presence in Venezuela, across the border from Colombia, the number of fighters there has grown sharply since 2016. Rebel commanders have consolidated relations with local authorities and security forces, including by operating illegal mines and enforcing political and social control in border communities, while the ELN leadership professes sympathy with the government of Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro. As a result, Venezuela's participation is both vital to generating a workable agreement and potentially dangerous, should Caracas' support for the talks flag. The Maduro government's backing might weaken for any number of reasons, including dissatisfaction with Bogotá over a matter that arises in their warming bilateral relationship, or a general unwillingness to sacrifice its privileged ties to the guerrillas. Among the issues to be resolved are whether and how the fate of ELN fighters in Venezuela will figure into talks on eventual demobilisation.        What has happened on the ground since the announcement of the negotiations? Petro's election, with his commitment to negotiating with armed and criminal groups, has reconfigured the Colombian conflict landscape. With an eye toward starting talks in the strongest position possible, armed and criminal groups across the board rushed to expand the territory in their grip. Security sources report that the ELN sent a number of fighters over the border from Venezuela to battle rivals in Arauca, Choc— and Valle de Cauca departments in Colombia, among other places. According to the military, July saw more combat between armed groups than any other month in 2022.      This violent push continued throughout Colombia until roughly early September, when the warring groups shifted tack. In his initial outreach to these outfits, Colombia's High Commissioner for Peace Danilo Rueda asked them to show gestures of good-will by lowering violence against civilians. Homicides fell in September and October, yet other types of duress aimed at social control have ratcheted up, community representatives say. For example , the ELN has stepped up its pressure on local communities, forcing elected authorities in the neighbourhood-elected Communal Action Councils to fall into line with their orders. The group has also reactivated forced recruitment in Arauca and Choc—, according to local leaders there.   
     Dynamics in the border department of Arauca also demonstrate the fragility of the good-will gestures. Violence in that department has recently picked up again, amid an internecine conflict between the ELN and FARC dissident Fronts 10 and 28. Residents report a rise in killings, as well as curfews, forced confinement and more frequent kidnappings, including of soldiers who can be used as bargaining chips in talks. In the words of one social leader from a rural area in Arauquita: 'These groups are talking peace abroad but killing people here'."
       Sarah Hurtes and Julie Turkewitz, " In the Amazon, a U.N. Agency Has a Green Mission, but Dirty Partners: One of the world's largest sustainable development agencies has worked with energy companies to quash opposition and keep oil flowing, even in sensitive areas," The New York Times, August 11, 2022, reported on a dilemma facing a village in Colombia of the Siona people surrounded by oil drilling at the edge of the Amazon Rain Forest. "The United Nations Development Program, or U.N.D.P., had just announced a $1.9 million regional aid package. In a village with no running water, intermittent electricity and persistent poverty, Ethiopany money would mean food and opportunity.  
    But the aid program was part of a partnership between the United Nations agency and GeoPark, the multinational petroleum company. The company holds contracts to drill near the Siona reservation, including one with the government that would expand operations onto what the Siona consider their ancestral land. To the Siona people on the Buenavista reservation, oil drilling is an assault, akin to draining blood from the earth
     "Anglo-French oil company threatens uncontacted tribes in Peruvian Amazon," Survival International, August 18, 2022,, reported, " Anglo-French oil company Perenco is lobbying Peru's government to scrap a proposed reserve for uncontacted tribes &emdash;; because it wants to continue drilling for oil there.     If the campaign is successful, it would place the uncontacted Indigenous peoples living in the proposed Napo-Tigre reserve in the northern Peruvian Amazon in extreme danger.  
    Perenco, headed by amateur racing driver Franois Perrodo, one of France's richest men, has for years faced serious allegations of environmental and human rights abuses in Africa and Latin America, and its operations are notoriously secretive.
     In Peru, Perenco has a long-standing history of opposition to the creation of the Napo-Tigre reserve for uncontacted tribes. Its recent action &emdash;; filing a legal injunction objecting to the creation of the new reserve &emdash;; is not an isolated action: The company, along with the authorities in the Loreto region, and powerful oil and gas interests, is also involved in a public campaign against the creation and protection of Indigenous reserves.  
    In April, they asked the government to repeal the National Law for the Protection of Indigenous Peoples in Isolation (known in Peru as the PIACI Law); they consistently deny the existence of uncontacted peoples; and in early August, the regional governor of Loreto wrote to the government requesting the "scrapping of the entire PIACI process."    Peruvian Indigenous organizations ORPIO and AIDESEP, together with Survival International, have voiced dismay at these attacks:
     'Perenco is violating the human rights of our uncontacted brothers and sisters,' said Apu Jorge Pérez, President of AIDESEP, the Indigenous organization of the Peruvian Amazon. On July 25, the official Commission in charge of creating the Reserve finally recognized the existence of uncontacted Indigenous peoples in the Napo-Tigre area, after a long campaign by Indigenous organizations. This vital step towards their protection had taken almost 20 years.         But Perenco's lawsuit, and the regional government's campaign, are aimed at undermining the process before it's complete, and would once again endanger the survival of the uncontacted tribes, the most vulnerable peoples on the planet.   Survival International researcher Teresa Mayo said today: 'Peru's government has finally recognized the existence of the uncontacted tribes of the Napo-Tigre territory &emdash;; it mustn't turn its back on them now. The Peruvian state now has an obligation to act swiftly to create and protect the reserve. We won't allow it to give in to pressure from big corporations, no matter how powerful they may be.'"
Jack Nicas, "Brazil Ejects Bolsonaro and Brings Back Leftist Former Leader Lula: Brazilians voted out their far-right leader, Jair Bolsonaro, after a single term and replaced him with former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva," The New York Times, October 31, 2022, , reported, " Voters in Brazil on Sunday ousted President Jair Bolsonaro after just one term and elected the leftist former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to replace him, election officials said, a rebuke to Mr. Bolsonaro's far-right movement and his divisive four years in office.  The victory completes a stunning political revival for Mr. da Silva &emdash;; from the presidency to prison and back &emdash;; that had once seemed unthinkable. It also ends Mr. Bolsonaro's turbulent time as the region's most powerful leader. It was the first time an incumbent president failed to win re-election in the 34 years of Brazil's modern democracy,"  The election switches the government of Brazil from being anti-Indigenous peoples and for mining, logging, ranching and farming causing massive deforestation to being pro-Indigenous and strongly environmental protection over development. But with a large number of "conservatives" in Congress, Lulu will not have an easy time persuing his policies

     With Indigenous rights under attack in Brazil's Congress, in the Fall 2022 Election an increasing number of Indigenous people ran for office. Beatriz Miranda , "With rights at risk, Indigenous Brazilians get on the ballot to fight back," Mongabay, September 27, 2022,, reported,        " A record 186 Indigenous candidates are running in Brazil's general elections in October, up 40% from the 2018 elections.      Candidates and activists say the surge is pushback against the increased attacks on Indigenous rights, lands and cultures under the administration of President Jair Bolsonaro. There's currently only one Indigenous member in the 594-seat National Congress, a body whose lower House has overwhelmingly supported legislation considered detrimental to Indigenous rights and environmental protection.   Only two Indigenous individuals have ever been elected to Congress, but Brazil's main Indigenous coalition hopes to improve this representation with a coordinated campaign to support Indigenous candidates.  
    "This government has decided not to demarcate Indigenous lands, and to reconsider lands that have already been demarcated,' prominent Indigenous activist S™nia Guajajara told Mongabay in a video call. "When Bolsonaro did it, we had no choice but to fight. And we have decided to fight directly, through the electoral dispute.'    A record 186 candidates who self-declare as Indigenous are running for public office in the upcoming elections, an increase of 40% from the 2018 elections. Of this total, 63 have their sights set on one of the two Houses of Congress &emdash;; either the Chamber or the Senate &emdash;; where they say they will fight to protect their hard-won Constitutional rights."
     "Success: Uncontacted Tribes Week, an Update," Survival International, via E-mail, July 7, 2022, reported, "Following on from Uncontacted Tribes Week, we've had some fantastic news from Brazil that we wanted to share &emdash;; it's the actions of people like you that have made this possible.       An Indigenous territory whose name, Ituna Itatá, means "Smell of Fire," has just been officially protected for three years, after the authorities bowed to pressure to renew its Land Protection Order.      These Orders shield uncontacted tribes' territories that have not yet completed the long process of formal recognition.  However, President Bolsonaro's government is doing all it can either to stop these Orders being renewed, or to renew them for just 6 months at a time. 
     Why? Because they're in the crosshairs of his agribusiness allies, who are encouraging the invasion of the rainforest for beef production, mining, logging and land-grabbing.
     And Ituna Itatá is one of the most threatened and vulnerable of these territories. In fact, a plot was uncovered earlier this year to open up the territory and suppress evidence of the very existence of the uncontacted tribe living there.      So the news that the Ituna Itatá Land Protection Order has just been renewed for three years, in spite of the powerful forces hell bent on opening it up, is hugely encouraging.  
    It wouldn't have happened without the constant lobbying of our Indigenous and non-Indigenous friends and allies in Brazil, and of people like you."

    Flávia Milhorance and André Spigariol, "One Man Dies, and an Entire Uncontacted Tribe Vanishes in Brazil: Known as the "Man of the Hole," the last member of an Indigenous group was found dead this month, marking the first recorded disappearance of an isolated tribe in the country," The New York Times, August 29, 2022,, "When officials from Brazil's Indigenous protection agency approached the hut in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, their fears were confirmed: They were witnessing the first recorded disappearance of an uncontacted tribe in the country's history.      The man lying in the hammock, the last member of his tribe, had died, and with him an entire culture and answers to a thousand questions."

      Victor Raison; Jean-Mathieu Albertini"Indigenous youths lured by the illegal mines destroying their Amazon homeland," Momgabay, November 30, 2022 ,, reported, " An increasing number of young Indigenous people in Brazil's Yanomami Indigenous Territory are leaving their communities behind and turning to illegal gold mining, lured by the promise of small fortunes and a new lifestyle.   Work in the mining camps ranges from digging and removing tree roots to operating as boat pilots ferrying gold, supplies and miners to and from the camps; recruits receive nearly $1,000 per boat trip.  
      The structures, traditions and health of Indigenous societies are torn apart by the proximity of the gold miners, and the outflow of the young generation further fuels this vicious cycle, say Indigenous leaders.  
      Amid the COVID-19 pandemic and a lack of authorities monitoring the area, illegal mining in the region has increased drastically, with 20,000 miners now operating illegally in the territory."

    " BMW and Jaguar Land Rover linked to illegal deforestation in uncontacted tribe's territory as official OECD complaint launched," Survival International, December 13, 2022,, reported, " BMW and Jaguar Land Rover leather suppliers are linked to illegal deforestation in the territory of one of the world's most threatened uncontacted tribes, according to an official complaint launched today by Survival International ( .
     Two Italian companies, Pasubio and Gruppo Mastrotto, source leather from tanneries that are supplied by cattle ranches guilty of occupying and illegally deforesting the land of uncontacted members of Paraguay's Ayoreo tribe
. These Ayoreo are the last uncontacted Indigenous people in South America outside the Amazon, and the ranches threaten their very existence.  
    BMW and Jaguar Land Rover and many others buy the two companies' leather to make interiors, seats and steering wheels.      This link is at the heart of a formal complaint filed today by Survival International, in agreement with and authorized by contacted Ayoreo people, against Pasubio at Italy's "National Contact Point' (NCP) for the OECD.  
    A few weeks ago, Survival sent cease-and-desist letters to both companies urging them to halt these imports. Gruppo Mastrotto has responded by initiating a dialogue with Survival, which is still ongoing, but Pasubio has sent only a brief disclaimer. Survival has therefore, in agreement with and authorized by contacted Ayoreo people, submitted a formal complaint against Pasubio under the OECD's Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. 
     The link between the leather used in the car industry and the illegal destruction of the Ayoreo's forest was first revealed in an investigation by Earthsight. In two reports, Grand Theft Chaco I ( and Grand Theft Chaco II (, Earthsight revealed that almost two-thirds of the hides exported from Paraguay go to Italian companies, principally Pasubio, which depends for more than 90% of its Û313m annual revenue on the automotive industry. 
      Today's complaint states that Pasubio appears to have violated several principles in the OECD Guidelines, including those on Disclosure of Information (III), Human Rights (IV), Environment (VI) and Consumer Interests (VIII) and demands that the company stops importing hides from tanneries in Paraguay that are responsible for and/or involved in the deforestation of the Ayoreo's forest.   The head of Survival's Ayoreo campaign, Teresa Mayo said today: 'The Paraguayan government has handed over most of the Ayoreo's ancestral territory to agribusiness companies who are relentlessly clearing the forest: first they cut down the valuable hardwoods, then they set fire to the forest, and finally they introduce livestock onto the cleared land. The Ayoreo are witnessing the destruction of their livelihoods, their physical and mental health, and even their lives. But they remain determined to fight for their continued existence, alongside their uncontacted relatives, who are forced to live on the run from bulldozers in oases of forest that are getting smaller and smaller every day.'      Francesca Casella, director of Survival Italy, said today: 'Demand for car leather is predicted to increase by more than 5% per year until 2027. Clients and end-consumers need to be aware of this, and since Italy is the world's biggest buyer of Paraguayan leather, it has the power and responsibility to intervene by stopping doing business with cattle ranches that operate illegally on Indigenous land with the connivance of corrupt politicians and officials.'      TagŸide Picanerai, an Ayoreo Totobiegosode man, said today: 'The harmful impact that beef and leather production has is deforestation, and that affects the people living in the area (É). Leather is like a hidden aspect of cattle ranching, it isn't taken into account as we only talk about beef, but it really does affect the local people a lot. It's those who produce the cattle and export them and then sell them over there in Europe who benefit, but here it means deforestation and the Ayoreo people suffer.'    Note to editors - The Ayoreo number more than 5,000 and live in Paraguay and Bolivia. One sub-group, known as the Ayoreo-Totobiegosode, are the subject of this complaint. Most Ayoreo-Totobiegosode are contacted and live in settled communities in Paraguay, but some are still uncontacted. 
     - The Ayoreo Totobiegosode have been fighting for the return of their ancestral lands since 1993, when they presented a formal land claim to the government.
     - In 2001, the government of Paraguay formally recognised a 550,000 hectare territory in Alto Paraguay province as the 'Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ayoreo Totobiegosode ( PNCAT). However, to date the authorities have only transferred some tens of thousands of  hectares of land titles to the Ayoreo, and they continue to violate both the injunction issued by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) over the territory (which requires the State of Paraguay to protect and safeguard the PNCAT and the uncontacted groups living there by preventing the entry of third parties and unwanted contact); and resolutions issued in 2018 by the National Forestry Institute (INFONA), which prohibit all deforestation inside the area.     - Paraguay's meat and hides are responsible, per unit weight, for more deforestation than any other raw material on Earth ( Grand Theft Chaco I, p. 36).    - Paraguay's Chaco forest is being destroyed at one of the fastest rates on Earth.       - Some of the car companies' responses to Earthsight's original investigation are listed here:;

    "Cultural Survival Demands Justice for Indigenous Leaders Assassinated in Paraguay," Cultural Survival, October 28, 2022,, reported, "On Sunday, October 23, 2022, Pa) Tavyterã Guaran’ Indigenous leaders Alcides Romero Morilla and Rodrigo G—mez González were assassinated during a confrontation between security forces from the Paraguayan state and the EPP (Paraguayan People's Army), a non-state armed group. Other people from the community were also injured, including Leonardo G—mez Riquelme, who is still being hospitalized.  
    The Guaran’ Pa” Tavyter‰ Peoples are made up of around 70 communities including 15,097 people. Seventy-seven percent of the population is located in the department of Amambay and the rest in Concepci—n, San Pedro, and Canindeyœ. This region, including the sacred Jasuka Venda territory of the Guarani Pa” Tavyter‰ Peoples, has been negatively impacted by militarization by the Paraguayan state, a process which started in 2013 with the creation of the Internal Defense Operations Command (Comando de Operaciones de Defensa Interna, CODI) within the Joint Task Force (Fuerza de Tarea Conjunta, FTC), a state armed unit formed by members of the police, the armed forces and the National Anti-drug Secretariat (SENAD), and which has the objective of confronting the EPP in the region, where also drug traffickers operate. In the context of this militarization, the right of the Pa” Tavyter‰ Peoples to self-determination is systematically being violated by diverse methods such as hindering free movement within their territories, intimidation, and even the use of violence, leading to the tragic recent murders of the two Indigenous leaders. So far the state's armed forces have not developed any protocol on how to duly protect the rights of the Pa) Tavyterã Peoples .      Every day the lives and territories of the Indigenous Peoples in Abya Yala are in danger. Cultural Survival fundamentally believes in the self-determination and sovereignty of Indigenous Peoples and supports Indigenous communities in their processes of decolonization and self-determining their futures. We condemn the recent murders of these two Indigenous leaders and the attack on other community members. Paraguay ratified the ILO 169 Convention in 1993 and in 2018 a regulation on Prior Consultation was passed. Paraguay also voted in favor of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007. However, in practice, it is not implementing these mechanisms in a responsible way. From Cultural Survival, we denounce the violation of these international laws and Indigenous Peoples' rights by the state of Paraguay.  
     Cultural Survival demands that the Paraguayan government:
     Respect the self-determination of the Guaran’ Pa) Tavyterã Peoples and comply with international standards on the rights of Indigenous Peoples.       Respect the territories of the Guaran’ Pa” Tavyter‰ Indigenous Peoples and prevent third parties from trying to take ownership of these territories, including drug traffickers, taking any necessary measures to avoid risking the lives of the people who live there.   
     Respect the sacred ancestral territory of Jasuka Venda and prevent drug trafficking groups and the EPP from trying to get hold of the territories by not carrying out military operations that can put the lives of Indigenous Peoples who safeguard the land at risk.Avoid carrying out any armed military operation in the lands that are inhabited by the Pa) Tavyterã Peoples.  Take immediate measures to investigate the murders of Alcides Romero Morilla and Rodrigo G—mez González and offer justice and damage restitution to both the families and the Pa) Tavyterã Peoples.   
     Cultural Survival Demands Justice for Indigenous Leaders Assassinated in Paraguay."
    Jack Nicas, "Chile Says "No' to Left-Leaning Constitution After 3 Years of Debate: The rejected constitution would have legalized abortion, adopted universal health care and enshrined more than 100 constitutional rights, a global record," The New York Times, September 5, 2022,, reported, " For the past three years, Chileans have fought over a path forward for their country in the form of a new constitution, written entirely from scratch, that would transform their society and grant more rights than any national charter before it (, including giving official recognition and rights to Indigenous peoples.     On Sunday, voters overwhelmingly rejected that text."           
      The $1.2 trillion Norwegian government investment fund, Norway Fund, set 2050 as a deadline for all companies it invests in to achieve net zero (Peter Evis, "Norway Fund Sets Deadline for Companies on Net Zero," The New York Times, September 21, 2022).
       Constant Méheut, "A Paris Museum Has 18,000 Skulls. It's Reluctant to Say Whose: Critics say the Museum of Mankind withholds information about its vast collection of human remains that could help former colonies and descendants of conquered peoples get them back," The New York Times ,  November 29, 2022,, reported, "With its monumental Art Deco facade overlooking the Eiffel Tower, the Musée de l'Homme, or Museum of Mankind, is a Paris landmark. Every year, hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to this anthropology museum to experience its prehistoric skeletons and ancient statuettes.But beneath the galleries , hidden in the basement, lies a more contentious collection: 18,000 skulls that include the remains of African tribal chiefs, Cambodian rebels and Indigenous people from Oceania. Many were gathered in France's former colonies, and the collection also includes the skulls of more than 200 Native Americans, including from the Sioux and Navajo tribes." By remaining secretive about the skull collection, the Museum prevents repatriation of the remains.
       John Last, "The Ukraine War Is Dividing Europe's Arctic Indigenous People: It has driven a wedge between Sámi in Russia and those in Nordic countries," foreign Policy (FP), June 27, 2022,, reported, "The Sámi are no strangers to division. The Indigenous people of Arctic Europe, they once freely moved across the northernmost lands of the continent, fishing its coasts, hunting in its forests, and herding reindeer over its tundra. Only in recent centuries was Sápmi, the Sámi's traditional territory, first divided among the colonial borders of Russia, Finland, Sweden, and Norway; filled with settlers; and sold off in pieces to logging and mining corporations.  
     Now, Russia's invasion of Ukraine has split the Sámi again. Some leaders from the small Russian Sámi community have openly aligned with the government of Russian President Vladimir Putin, driving a schism with Sámi in Sweden, Finland, and Norway."
    In late September 2022 the Russian government initiated a military draft in rural and minority areas of Russia to bolster its sagging army. The draft included many Indigenous men whose communities are most unhappy to have them taken away as they are essential to the communities' functioning (Anton Tianovski, "Draft Provokes Rising Anguish in Rural Russia," The New York Times, September 24, 2022).
    "Violations of Indigenous Peoples' Rights in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) During Partial Military Mobilization," Cultural Survival, September 30,2022, reported, "On September 21, 2022, the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, announced the partial mobilization of the 18-49-year-old male population in Russia to participate in the war with Ukraine. On the same day, an order of the military commissar No. 182, 'On the Announcement of Mobilization,' was issued in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Unfortunately, partial mobilization activities in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) involve numerous human and Indigenous rights violations and violations of the provisions of federal Russian legislation on deferral and exemption from military service.
    For example, as the Russian Ministry of Defense argues, there are no set quotas for mobilization. Instead, each region and ethnic republic have a separate mobilization task, which depends on the number of citizens registered in the military. However, in reality, mobilization is carried out indiscriminately in both large and small rural villages, without regard to the size of the ethnic and male population, and without considering the rights of Indigenous Peoples. Thus, in addition to the people eligible for military service, many people who are not eligible for military service were mobilized in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) &emdash;; those, who did not serve before, students, elders, people with disabilities, and heads of families with many children (Source: Open letter to Putin from the chairman of the Sakha Shamaev Congress: Summonses were handed out late at night (1:00 - 2:00 am) with a minimum time for gathering of their belongings (2-3 hours) and with the threat of imprisonment for five years in case of refusal to mobilize. In the early morning (5:00 - 6:00 am), the mobilized men were taken by bus or planes to the assembly point in the city of Yakutsk, where there were sometimes not enough places for accommodation. There were not enough blankets, linen, or basic shelter. At temperatures below 0¡C (less than 32¡F), mobilized people from uluses (districts) were forced to spend the night in tents without heating, covered with mattresses.
     There are cases when subpoenas were served during calls to the enlistment office for reasons not related to mobilization. Some men were taken from their working places even without returning to their homes first.   
     While the official Russian authorities conceal the real statistics, an analysis of the first days of mobilization in the Russian Federation from September 22 to September 25, 2022, conducted by anti-war activists in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the Republic of Buryatia, the Republic of Tyva, and the Republic of Kalmykia, as well as independent Russian media shows ethnic selectivity and a blatantly disproportionate number mobilized from ethnic regions compared to the central regions and cities of the Russian Federation. Thus, from the small settlements of the Far North, almost the entire able-bodied young male population has been mobilized. In the Olenek Evenki national region, where the total number of people is 4,324 people, and the number of young men aged 18-35 is only 128 people, 50 people are subject to mobilization. This is 39.07% of all young Evenk men in the region. In the Kobyaysky ulus (district), where Evenk Peoples (a small numbered Indigenous Peoples with a population around 22,000 people) live, men have been taken from their reindeer herds by helicopters.       At the same time, according to eyewitnesses, there was practically no mobilization among the Moscow and St. Petersburg residents. This mobilization is taking place just ahead of the cold Arctic winter, which requires serious preparation and efforts. Despite this, men working as stokers, electricians, drivers, as well as men engaged in traditional economic activities - horse breeders and reindeer herders - are taken away from communities that need them. Who will complete tasks that require physical strength - heat and repair houses, take care of horses and reindeer during long and cold Arctic winter? (Source: A post from Vinokurova, U.A., a member of the Supreme Council of Elders of the Republic of Sakha: Hunters and fishermen have also been mobilized. Who will provide food for people in the Far North?        The Arctic regions, comprising two-thirds of the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are already suffering from the harsh effects of climate change. Devastating tundra and forest fires over the last few years and extensive floods, the consequences of which people are still coping with, have shaken the foundations of the traditional economy of the Indigenous Peoples. The current situation, in which the most vital men are drafted into hostilities, undermines the very possibility of normal life in these regions.       In Yakutsk, the capital of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), several hundred women protested against the mobilization on September 25, 2022. Despite the peaceful nature of the protest, which took the form of a ritual dance and prayer of the Sakha people, the police arrested 24 women.      Under pressure from the public, Il Darkhan of the Republic of Sakha, Aisen Nikolaev finally admitted violations in the process of mobilization and said that work was underway to return back to the republic some men mobilized by mistake. However, identification of violations requires a personal approach and a great deal of time. This may not be possible due to the hasty dispatch of those mobilized to the West. According to eyewitnesses, the training of the newly recruited in Khabarovsk lasts only a few days, after which they are sent to the Ukrainian border. Even if all the men who were mistakenly mobilized return home, there are thousands of Indigenous men who will be sent to war with Ukraine. How many of them will die and never return?
      Also, in order to avoid mobilization, some men are fleeing the country hastily. Mobilization and this situation are real tragedies that will entail irreparable losses for the Peoples of Sakha, whose total number does not exceed 500,000. It is also true for other Indigenous Peoples of Siberia whose populations are even smaller.
     The long history of discriminatory policies in Russia, starting from the time of early colonization, has already led to the loss, partial and sometimes complete, of the traditions and languages of the Siberian Indigenous Peoples. The loss of such a huge number of men in the current conflict with Ukraine will lead to even greater negative and irreversible consequences for the ethnic minorities of Russia. The Peoples of Siberia are under a real threat of losing their genetic heritage, numbers, integrity, languages, culture and traditions.
      Military mobilization grossly violates not only human rights, but also the rights of Indigenous Peoples - Articles 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 11, 21, 22, 24 and other articles of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. However, the problems of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia - large and small numbered, still remain invisible to the world community. We strongly urge the attention of the world community to the gross violations of the international rights of Indigenous Peoples in the Russian North."

      Moira Donovan,  "Greenland's Indigenous population favors extracting sand from melting ice sheet," Mongabay, September 27, 2022 ,, reported,      " In 2022, the Greenland ice sheet experienced net ice loss for the 26th year in a row. But that loss is producing a potentially valuable resource: sand, which the melting ice sheet is depositing on the coast.
     Together, sand and gravel are one of the most traded commodities in the world, and a study by researchers at McGill University found that the majority of Greenlanders, including Indigenous people, supported extracting sand for export
    But Greenlanders&emdash;;who have staunchly opposed some mining projects in the past&emdash;;say this activity needs to be done with adequate environmental protection and consultation of Greenland's predominantly Indigenous population
     The environmental consequences are uncertain but could include impacts from sucking sand off the substrate and increasing shipping traffic.       Discussions about the Greenland ice sheet often focus on what it's losing. But from around the edges of the rapidly melting Greenland ice sheet, a global commodity is being created.     As the Greenland ice sheet melts&emdash;;2022 is the 26th year in a row that Greenland lost more ice than it gained &emdash;; it's sloughing off enormous volumes of sediment. That sediment could in turn be extracted to meet the voracious global appetite for sand.     A recent study by researchers at McGill University and the University of Greenland, published in the journal Nature Sustainability, found that the vast majority of Greenlandic adults&emdash;;eight out of ten surveyed&emdash;;were in favor of extracting and exporting sand, if the projects doing so were under Greenlandic control."
     Anton Troianovski, "Putin's Draft Draws Resistance in Russia's Far-Flung Regions: Villagers, activists and some elected officials asked why the conscription drive seemed to be hitting poor, remote areas hardest, while pro-war hawks criticized it as chaotic," The New York Times, September 23, 2022,, reported that in late September 2022 President Putin ordered a military draft for men to fight in the Ukraine. To try to minimize increasing resistance to his war efforts, Putin ordered the draft to take place in rural areas and among minority groups, including Indigenous peoples. In the impacted villages there has was considerable unhappiness with their men being drafted. "Some of the greatest anguish played out hundreds or thousands of miles away from the front line, in the Caucasus Mountains and the northeastern region of Yakutia, a sparsely populated expanse that straddles the Arctic Circle. Community leaders described remote villages where much of the working-age male population received conscription notices in recent days, leaving families that subsist off the land without men around to work ahead of the long winter.
    'We have reindeer herders, hunters, fishermen &emdash;; we have so few of them anyway,' Vyacheslav Shadrin, the chairman of the council of elders for a small Indigenous group known as the Yukaghirs, said in a phone interview. 'But they are the ones being drafted most of all.'"
      International Crisis Group (ICG), William Davison , Senior Analyst, Ethiopia " At Long Last, Ethiopia Prepares for Peace Talks, Q&A / Africa  4 July 2022,, commented, "Ethiopia's federal and Tigray regional governments are finally gearing up for direct negotiations. In this Q&A, Crisis Group expert William Davison discusses why the feuding parties are edging toward peace and what the main obstacles are to achieving it. 
      What do we know about the prospects for peace talks?
     The twenty-month civil war in Ethiopia has reached another turning point, but this time in the right direction. After six months without large- scale confrontations between their respective forces, federal and Tigray regional leaders have both confirmed their intention to participate in efforts to bring the war to a close. On 14 June, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced plans for a peace process, while Tigray's leadership published an open letter the same day saying it was willing to engage in talks. Two weeks later, Abiy's government named a seven-person negotiating team headed by his deputy, Demeke Mekonnen, who is from Amhara region and also serves as Ethiopia's foreign minister. The Amhara region's deputy leader, Getachew Jember, is another member of the team, as is Abiy's intelligence chief, Temesgen Tiruneh, a former Amhara president. These three appointments indicate that the Amhara region, whose forces have been fighting those of Tigray alongside the federal military, will have its interests represented in the negotiations. These steps toward talks are momentous, even if numerous obstacles remain in the way of a durable settlement. 
     The prospect of peace talks is welcome news in a conflict that has caused probably tens of thousands of deaths and inflicted untold suffering on Tigray's population as well as civilians in neighbouring regions. War broke out in November 2020, when a political-constitutional dispute between Tigrayan and federal leaders boiled over. The warring parties' fortunes fluctuated. At first, backed by Amhara and Eritrean forces, the federal government launched a major incursion into Tigray, taking its capital, Mekelle, and seeking to erase its ruling party, the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), from the political map. A Tigray guerrilla campaign thwarted the federal military push. Then, in July 2021, Tigray's troops went on the attack, moving toward Addis Ababa in an attempt to dislodge Abiy and his government from power. The offensive failed, however, due in part to the federal government's ability to purchase and use new drones , a lack of international and domestic support for Tigrayan forces or the notion of overthrowing Abiy, and strong popular mobilisation by the federal authorities and in Amhara. Tigrayan forces retreated to their home region in December. Federal troops eventually positioned themselves mostly outside Tigray's borders, while their Amhara allies held Western Tigray &emdash;; an area that Amhara leaders have long claimed &emdash;; and Eritrean soldiers occupied parts of the north of Western Tigray and north-eastern Tigray.            The move toward negotiations began subsequent to the Tigrayan withdrawal and followed a series of conciliatory gestures signalling the two sides' willingness to shift from a military to a political footing. In December, Abiy's government ordered the federal military to refrain from fully re-entering Tigray before releasing key opposition prisoners, including a number of TPLF veterans. It also advanced a plan for a national dialogue to address the country's chronic political problems. The next major step was a federal humanitarian truce on 24 March, which Tigray's leaders said they would reciprocate four days later. The next month, Tigray's forces withdrew from most of the positions in neighbouring Afar region that they had taken up earlier in 2022 in response to a perceived threat from local armed groups backed by Eritrea. Finally, in June, the federal government eased a blockade on Tigray to allow significantly more humanitarian relief to get through &emdash;; though the region is still dangerously short of fuel, cash, food and medicine.Why are the two sides ready to move toward negotiations? Both the federal government and Tigray's leadership seem to have decided that &emdash;; at least for now &emdash;; they are better off engaging in what is almost certain to be a tortuous peace process rather than trying to achieve outright military victory.     Other than belated recognition that neither side can win outright on the battlefield, a major factor convincing the two parties to pursue talks was the dire conditions they face as a consequence of the conflict. The federal government and its Eritrean and Amhara allies have put Tigray under what the UN has described as a de facto blockade since at least June 2021, cutting off vital services such as telecommunications, electricity and, critically, banking. The siege, as well as the fighting, has disrupted farming, closed trade routes and severely restricted the delivery of overland humanitarian aid. Consequently, almost five million in Tigray are in urgent need of food and medicine, including an estimated 116,000 severely malnourished children. Instead of launching a costly, risky offensive to recapture Western Tigray or push back Eritrean forces, Tigray's leaders seem to have for now opted to try ending the blockade, and thereby save countless lives, at the negotiating table.  
     For its part, the federal government is grappling with a sharp decline in economic growth, mounting debt repayments, persistently high prices (annual inflation reached 37 per cent in April) and meagre foreign reserves. An Ethiopian research group believes that growth will slow to 1 per cent in the fiscal year that is about to end, down considerably from 6 per cent in 2020-2021. Abiy's government appears to realise that it needs to pursue a deal with the TPLF if it wants to escape its economic predicament, not least as credible peace efforts will make donors and international partners more amenable to releasing grants, loans and investments. The economic crisis has helped create a humanitarian disaster, with needs increasing since the UN estimated in early 2022 that as many as 30 million Ethiopians, three quarters of them women and children, need urgent aid. "The cumulative impact of ongoing conflict and violence, climatic shocks such as the prolonged drought, and more recently floods, constitute the main triggers of such a rise", the UN humanitarian agency said on 27 June.      What are the remaining hurdles to holding direct talks?
     Although the two sides appear ready to negotiate, there has been some jostling over who will mediate the talks and where they should take place. In his open letter, Tigray's leader, Debretsion Gebremichael, said the parties should meet in Kenya's capital, Nairobi, in keeping with the prominent mediating role for the Kenyan government that Tigray favours. He also alleged that the African Union's envoy for the Horn of Africa, former Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo, is too close to Addis Ababa. For its part, the federal government has generally been supportive of Obasanjo, who has thus far served as one of the principal go-betweens in the conflict along with the U.S. envoy. Obasanjo reportedly had favoured talks in Arusha, Tanzania rather than Nairobi. The lack of clarity over mediator and location could delay talks. A Kenyan lead poses some challenges &emdash;; the country is set to hold general elections on 9 August that look set to be competitive and potentially destabilising if either of the main presidential candidates mobilises supporters to dispute the official result &emdash;; though these perhaps are not insurmountable.       Another complication is that Eritrea, whose army has, alongside federal troops and Amhara forces, also waged war upon Tigray's forces, would not be represented in the envisioned talks. Any further federal steps toward peace with the TPLF risk triggering a spoiler response from Asmara. Hardline Amhara factions could also use violent means to try derailing the peace process, especially if they see it as undermining their region's claim on Western Tigray
      What obstacles would negotiations face, should they get going?  
     Despite the incentives to stop fighting, the two sides remain far apart on seismic issues
. In a press conference on 15 June, Debretsion laid out Tigray's key demands, the most significant of which is the return of Western Tigray to his regional administration. Amhara forces annexed the area in November 2020, proclaiming Western Tigray to be their historical land and brutally displacing hundreds of thousands of Tigrayans. Eritrean soldiers have deployed in the area, too, in part to train their Amhara allies. Another important Tigray demand is that the region keeps the military force it has built up in the course of the conflict. Additionally, Debretsion reiterated Tigray's desire to hold a referendum on seceding from Ethiopia, a right it would have under the constitution if the federal government were to recognise his administration as the lawful regional authority. At present, the federal and Tigray governments regard each other as illegitimate, having declared as much during their pre-war constitutional dispute.     Addis Ababa is cool to Mekelle's demands. It is unlikely to embrace the idea of a referendum. On 2 June, a federal spokesman said Ethiopia's territorial integrity was non-negotiable. As for Tigray's fighting force, Addis Ababa will probably insist that Mekelle downsize it, because it presents a continuing threat to the federal government and neighbouring Amhara and Afar regions. Abiy's government has yet to show its hand with regard to the Amhara occupation of Western Tigray, but any federal move to assert security or administrative control of the area or any open manoeuvre to tighten Amhara's grip may well face fierce opposition from Tigray. Conversely, the Amhara regional and Eritrean governments are likely to baulk at measures aiming to restore Tigray's administration over Western Tigray.      Could armed confrontations flare back up?       While renewed fighting between Addis Ababa and Mekelle cannot be ruled out, especially if the momentum toward peace stalls or reverses, a return to armed conflict is unlikely at present. But big risks remain, especially between Tigray and Amhara forces, as well as between Tigray and Eritrea. The recent flare-up of the Ethiopia-Sudan border quarrel also presents a challenge. Shortly after Ethiopia's civil war began, Sudanese forces took over most of the territory both countries claim, a rich agricultural area called al-Fashaga that lies adjacent to Western Tigray. The two countries' armies have watched each other warily at the frontier ever since. On 27 June, Sudan accused Ethiopian forces of killing seven of its soldiers they had captured. Ethiopia's foreign ministry said an Ethiopian militia was responsible for the deaths, which it alleged occurred when a TPLF-supported Sudanese unit crossed into Ethiopia. On 28 June, Sudan's military occupied the border town of Barakat. The planned peace talks could be in jeopardy if Tigray's leaders decide that the Sudanese gains present an improved opportunity to try reclaiming Western Tigray and thereby establish a supply line via Sudan.  Still , probably the single biggest obstacle to the fledgling efforts by the federal and Tigray authorities to bury the hatchet is Eritrea's government and its long-time leader, Isaias Afwerki. The TPLF and Isaias have been at loggerheads since at least the 1990s and the Eritrean president saw the Tigray war as an unmissable opportunity to deliver his archenemy a fatal blow. But while his military inflicted severe damage in Tigray &emdash;; including, according to Ethiopia's attorney-general, atrocities against civilians &emdash;; the TPLF has yielded little of its power, having amassed a formidable fighting force that poses an existential threat to Isaias.             Abiy's pivot toward peace is thus a major headache for Eritrea's leader, but it is unclear how the latter might respond. Aside from skirmishes on the Tigray-Eritrea border in May, there has been no clear indication that Isaias will try to ruin talks, or even that he has the capacity to do so. He may train his sights on the seemingly intractable Western Tigray dispute, as it is hard to imagine that negotiations can resolve this issue anytime soon. At present, Amhara lacks a substantive, cohesive opposition movement that Isaias could support. Yet a recent federal crackdown on Amhara militia, politicians and journalists signalled that Abiy recognises that his push for peace with the TPLF risks creating a violent backlash in Amhara. Given the risks, Abiy may delay addressing the Western Tigray issue in hopes that temperatures will lower with time, making an eventual compromise more feasible.  
     That sort of piecemeal approach appears to be the most practical path forward, with the federal and Tigray leaderships first striving to consolidate their improving relations while easing the dire humanitarian situation. The thorniest political issues &emdash;; including the possibility of a Tigrayan secession bid &emdash;; are probably best tackled later, hopefully when the negotiations have broadened to include Eritrea and other Ethiopian regional actors, perhaps including opposition parties.
     What is the role of foreign partners in the negotiations
?      The U.S., the African Union (AU), the European Union and, on aid access issues, the UN's top humanitarian officials have thus far led most diplomatic efforts in the Tigray conflict. It looks likely that Kenya's government will assume a major role in the forthcoming peace process; Tigray wants a Kenyan lead, Abiy has not strongly opposed and Nairobi is, by regional standards, a relatively impartial power. Still, the AU probably also needs to be prominent despite Tigray's reservations, primarily because that is Addis Ababa's preference. Ideally, Nairobi and the AU would flesh out a unified position on a structure for talks, and then take that to the parties. 
     Donors must also figure out how to best ameliorate Ethiopia's economic crisis without hindering peace efforts. Major benefactors have largely paused assistance to Ethiopia beyond humanitarian aid due to the brutal conflict, the aforementioned restrictions on humanitarian access to Tigray and large-scale atrocities. But given Ethiopia's economic predicament, donors are understandably keen to resume broader support to prevent further instability in Africa's second-largest country. Leading the charge is the World Bank, which has already committed to sending $300 million for reconstruction efforts in conflict-hit areasand $405 million for groundwater and COVID-19 mitigation projects. Later in 2022, the lender could approve an additional $2.3 billion. Italy's foreign minister flew to Addis Ababa to sign a Û22 million concessional loan for industrial development, while the EU may announce development funding soon.       While such support for struggling Ethiopians is commendable, it also raises dilemmas. If Ethiopia's economic slump has indeed motivated Abiy to pursue talks, then a full resumption of development aid risks diminishing that incentive at a critical juncture, with the mediator, venue and agenda not yet decided and basic services to Tigray not yet restored by Addis Ababa. Donors should continue to insist on progress on the latter front, as well as on unrestricted delivery of humanitarian aid to Tigray and the opening by federal authorities of trade routes to the region, before adopting a business-as-usual approach. Overall, to use this limited leverage wisely, donors need to better coordinate planned financial assistance packages for Ethiopia among each other to ensure that they are commensurate with such progress. 
     Further, Tigray is hardly the only challenge to Ethiopia's internal stability. In the country's west, the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA), which demands more autonomy for the Oromo people and is loosely allied with the Tigray forces, has been battling the authorities since 2018. Incidents in June show that repeated federal and Oromia regional government offensives aiming to destroy the rebel group have failed. On 14 June, the OLA attacked two towns in western Oromia and partnered with other rebels in Gambella region to raid the regional capital there. Four days later, the OLA reportedly killed Amhara civilians en masse in the same area. (The group has rejected the allegation.) With the town attacks, the group sent a message that it is far from defeated. It could launch similar operations. Authorities and rebels should therefore consider a truce and inch toward political discussions, no matter how unsavoury they consider each other to be.      Ethiopia's partners can encourage wider reconciliation, even as they lend support to the Tigray peace process and gradually re-engage with Addis Ababa on development matters. To provide further incentives for peace, donors should signal that they are willing to offer a larger recovery package if the federal government manages to reach a comprehensive peace deal with Tigray, as well as take measures that show a commitment to the inclusive politics needed to break Ethiopia's cycle of violence."

     "Details in Ethiopia's Peace Deal Reveal Clear Winners and Losers: Fighters in the country's northern Tigray region, who fought a bitter two-year war against the Ethiopian Army, must disarm within 30 days and allow security forces to take control of Tigray's capital," The New York Times, November 3, 2022,, reported, " Ethiopia began taking shaky steps toward peace on Thursday, a day after the government and forces in the northern Tigray region agreed to a permanent cessation of hostilities, a surprising turn of events that could end a two-year civil war &emdash;; one of the world's bloodiest contemporary conflicts.    T he deal appears to be a decisive victory for Ethiopia's government and its prime minister, Abiy Ahmed, the Nobel Peace Prize winner who prosecuted the war &emdash;; and could be hard for leaders of the Tigray region to sell to their people, experts on the region said on Thursday."
Earlier:       "Ethiopian Airstrike Hits Kindergarten as Fighting Spreads in Tigray: Local medics said seven people died, including several children, as the region in northern Ethiopia plunged deeper into conflict just days after a truce collapsed," The New York Times, August 26, 2022,, "An Ethiopian government airstrike ripped through a kindergarten in the northern Tigray region on Friday, killing at least seven people including several children, medics said, as the hunger-stricken region plunged into a new round of fighting.      The attack came two days after fighting erupted on the southeastern border of Tigray, shattering a five-month truce between the government and rebels intended to allow supplies into a region that has been under a punishing government-imposed siege for most of the past year."
     ICG, "Avoiding the Abyss as War Resumes in Northern Ethiopia, Statement / Africa 07 September 2022,, commented, Renewed fighting between a federal-Amhara-Eritrea coalition and Tigray's forces has shattered a tenuous months-long truce. The reversal heralds a return to one of the world's deadliest conflicts. International envoys should keep pressing the Ethiopian parties to renew the truce and begin formal direct negotiations.      War rages &emdash;; again &emdash;; in northern Ethiopia. The resumption of conflict on 24 August between the federal military, forces from the Amhara region, which borders Tigray, and Eritrean troops, on one side, and Tigray forces, on the other, marks the breach of a roughly nine-month truce that had largely halted some of the world's deadliest fighting. The return to blows is a setback for a struggling peace process and strenuous efforts to get food to millions of besieged Tigrayans. Although it is unclear exactly why combat restarted or whether either side planned a sustained campaign, both immediately escalated, with a Tigrayan offensive to the south into Amhara and a joint Ethiopian-Eritrean incursion into Tigray from the north. Sustained full-blown hostilities would mean prolongation of a likely unwinnable war, creating more mass suffering. Instead, the Ethiopian parties must renew the truce and overcome the obstacles that have impeded the beginning of formal talks. Concerted high-level pressure by donors, many of whom have been distracted by the Ukraine crisis, will likely be vital to any breakthrough.     A Return to Arms  
     Fighting in Ethiopia's nearly two-year civil war &emdash;; a brutal  [interethnic] conflict that has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives, displaced millions and generated credible reports of atrocities on all sides &emdash;; resumed in northern Amhara on 24 August. Efforts to commence formal talks have failed to end the siege and humanitarian crisis in Tigray, and tensions have been rising over the course of the summer. As when the war broke out in November 2020, each side blamed the other for starting the hostilities, and it is not clear who shot first. As in 2020, federal troops had been massing near Tigray's southern border for weeks. In recent months, Tigray's leaders have also bolstered their own forces through rearming, recruitment and training.
     The late August clashes in northern Amhara &emdash;; just south of a part of Tigray that Amhara groups claim as their own &emdash;; were preceded by smaller incidents. Federal forces shelled Tigray positions at Dedebit in north-western Tigray on 15 August. That was the first serious violation of a truce dating back, in effect, to December 2021 but formalised in March. Then, on 24 August, the day fighting to the south began, the federal military said it had shot down a plane the previous evening coming from Sudanese airspace to deliver weapons to Tigray. No independent source has verified that the plane was indeed carrying arms, but Tigray has previously received other air deliveries of unspecified cargo that Addis Ababa believes to have been lethal aid. Whether or not either side fully intended it, the fighting quickly spread, taking the country back to full-blown confrontation.      Whether or not either side fully intended it, the fighting quickly spread, taking the country back to full-blown confrontation. Tigray's fighters seem to have had the better of the first exchanges in the south, taking the northern Amhara town of Kobo on 27 August; Tigrayan media showed footage of prisoners of war arriving in Alamata town in southern Tigray. For its part, the federal air force bombed Tigray's capital Mekelle on 26 August, and again overnight on 30-31 August, reportedlycausing deaths by hitting a kindergarten and civilian areas near the main hospital.   
    new fronts opened, each side painted the other as the aggressor. On 1 September, Tigray authorities said the Ethiopian and Eritrean armies had launched major offensives from Eritrea to the north. On Twitter, Eritrea's ambassador to Kenya and Tanzania implicitly confirmed Asmara's renewed involvement. Federal authorities, a day earlier, accused Tigray forces of staging an " invasion" of areas to the west of Kobo and also close to the disputed Sudanese border in Western Tigray. The latter clashes reportedly involved Tigrayan former UN peacekeepers who were stranded in Sudan during the war when they refused to return to Ethiopia. A top Tigray official told Crisis Group that these forces were defending their position near the Sudanese border, and that federal and Amhara units had tried to penetrate Tigray in the south. War, Truce and War Again Ethiopia's civil war began in November 2020, when a constitutional disputebetween Tigray and federal leaders escalated into conflict amid a prolonged power struggle. Momentum has repeatedly flipped sides. At first, the federal government (backed by Eritrea's military and Amhara forces) pushed into Tigray, took Mekelle and compelled the region's ruling Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) administration to flee to mountainous areas. Tigray forces subsequently regrouped to launch a guerrilla campaign that thwarted federal plans and, months later, recaptured Mekelle and reinstalled the TPLF government. In July 2021, partly in response to a renewed federal blockade, Tigray's troops mounted an offensive, pushing in several directions in Amhara (amid accusations of atrocities), as well as south toward Addis Ababa in an attempt to dislodge Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed's government. Then, in turn, the federal government, armed with new drones and backed by strong popular mobilisation, beat back Tigray's forces, which retreated to their home region in December.   
     The subsequent lull in fighting evolved into a fragile, informal truce, with both sides making conciliatory gestures. In December, Addis Ababa ordered the release of key opposition prisoners and put forward a plan for national dialogue to address Ethiopia's long-festering political challenges. In late March, the parties formalised a humanitarian truce, after which critical aid deliveries into Tigray began picking up. In the precarious new status quo, federal troops stayed largely outside Tigray, while Tigrayan forces left the Amhara holding onto Western Tigray (which the Amhara call Welkait) &emdash;; where rights group say Amhara groups have committed atrocities and displaced 700,000, mostly Tigrayan residents, since the war began. Eritrean soldiers continued to occupy parts of Western Tigray (in the north) and north-eastern Tigray.
     Even following the truce, the humanitarian situation in Tigray remained dire. Despite the increase in food aid, Addis Ababa and its allies continued to block commercial traffic into the region, while tightly restricting the fuel supply and failing to restore Tigray's electricity, telecommunications and banking services, all of which the federal government had severed in the conflict's early phase and cut again after leaving Mekelle in June 2021.       Efforts to get peace talks off the ground also foundered. Both sides took steps and offered commitments to engage in formal negotiations, but the latter never commenced amid squabbling between the two sides over mediators and preconditions. While the federal government and many outside actors backed an African Union-led process, the Tigray authorities expressed scepticism that this body, which is headquartered in Addis Ababa, could act as a fair arbiter, and rejected a lead role for its envoy, former Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo. Tigray authorities have said they prefer Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta as mediator, but he is leaving power, having served his final term. It is unclear if Kenyatta could still play such a role after his anointed successor, Raila Odinga, lost to Deputy President William Ruto, who has a bitter relationship with Kenyatta, in Kenya's 9 August election. Further complicating matters, the federal government demanded talks without preconditions, while Tigray authorities made negotiations contingent on both unfettered humanitarian operations and a full restoration of services, as well as the return of Western Tigray (a hotly contested area that the Amhara, who currently control it, claim the TPLF violently annexed in the early 1990s). Distracted by the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Western capitals reduced their high-level focus exactly as the truce in Ethiopia was beginning to take hold.  International efforts to steer the parties toward peace have been uneven. Distracted by the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Western capitals reduced their high-level focus exactly as the truce in Ethiopia was beginning to take hold. The diplomacy that persists is often disjointed. For instance, the U.S., which has now dispatched its third regional envoy since creating the post in April 2021, facilitated a secret meeting between senior officials from both sides in June in Djibouti (there was a similar one earlier in Seychelles), where the federal government pledged to restore services to Tigray. But there was little follow-up to that meeting, with Tigray accusing Addis Ababa of breaking its pledge and Washington of failing to act as guarantor. When the AU's Obasanjo subsequently tried to go to Mekelle days after a joint UN, U.S. and EU visit, and with still no progress made toward service restoration, Tigray's leaders took it as another sign Abiy was reneging on the Djibouti pledges and rejected his request to visit. Obasanjo's call for Eritrea to also attend prospective talks caught many other actors by surprise and cemented Mekelle's view that he should not lead mediation efforts.     For Tigrayans, the conflict's further escalation would bring major risks. Any form of renewed war is in fact likely to worsen the blockade of Tigray and the humanitarian crisis, with all aid operations to Tigray suspended since hostilities kicked off. In a 23 August letter to international partners, which reiterated demands for federal authorities to restore services and return Western Tigray to Mekelle's control, Tigray's president concluded by warning again that the region would fight to end the blockade if necessary. But the reality is that, while Tigray may well be able to demonstrate its military prowess, it looks unlikely to achieve its ends in the short term. Its forces would face a major challenge in seeking to break through the combined force of federal, Amhara and Eritrean troops to open and then maintain a corridor to neighbouring Sudan. Nor is there much reason to think that another push south, aimed at overthrowing Abiy, is likelier to succeed than last time. Rather, renewed fighting could well embolden hardliners in Addis Ababa and Asmara, as well as among Amhara's political leaders who want to double down on the siege strategy that has so devastated Tigray.
      Abiy, too, would likely lose out from an escalation. He still has no viable military and political strategy for bending Mekelle to his will. His administration has already proven unable to hold and govern Tigray in the face of a resolute and popular insurgency, which his own brutal tactics served to inflame. A rebooted full-blown war is likely to increase his government's international isolation at a time when the Ethiopian economy desperately needs foreign aid, while bogging Addis Ababa down in a costly, deadly and unwinnable conflict with a foe that has had time to regroup and is fighting for its survival. Clashes near the Ethiopia-Sudan border in an area contested by those two states as well as by Amhara and Tigray raise the stakes further. Should these skirmishes persist, Sudanese troops could become involved, possibly in a de facto alliance with Tigray forces. That development would increase the likelihood of a disastrous, wider confrontation, pitting Sudan against Ethiopia &emdash;; they are already at loggerheads over disputed border areas and Ethiopia's new megadam on the Blue Nile river &emdash;; and maybe Eritrea as well.   If any actor expects to gain from more violence, it is probably Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki, whose forces fought alongside federal and Amhara troops against Tigray during the war's first phases, re-entered the fray recently and, as noted above, continue to occupy parts of the region's west and north east. Isaias considers the TPLF a historical and existential foe. He thus opposes any rapprochement between the TPLF and Addis Ababa that would mean rehabilitating the Tigray party (he almost certainly welcomed Ethiopian federal authorities classifying the TPLF as a terrorist organisation in May 2021). He may well struggle to take on Tigray on his own, however, meaning that he is unlikely to be able to pursue war if Abiy wants to return to the truce.
      Renewing the Truce       It is essential that the African and international envoys who have been engaged diplomatically continue to demand that the main antagonists rein in their forces, prevent further escalation and agree on a new truce &emdash;; while beginning to set the stage for formal talks. The window for averting a return to a sustained full-blown war appears to be short . Until a 2 August visit to Mekelle by the EU, U.S. and UN special envoys &emdash;; which has now been followed by an early September visit to Addis Ababa, under way as this statement goes to press, by the U.S. and UN emissaries, plus Obasanjo &emdash;; outside actors working for a peaceful resolution had been watching too passively, as a volatile standoff drifted back toward conflict and the peace process stalled. A higher-level, more intense degree of engagement is required.      The main external actors, including the AU, U.S., EU and UN, as well as Kenya, should move immediately and in concert. The recent joint trips by envoys to Mekelle and Addis Ababa are a welcome start and should be paired with higher-level engagement from all, such as telephone calls from senior officials. They should make clear to Abiy's government that major non-humanitarian assistance, including World Bank projects and any new International Monetary Fund financing, may be in jeopardy should the federal government fail to stop its offensives and continue the de facto blockade of Tigray. The war puts donors seeking to ease Ethiopia's economic difficulty in a bind. Yet, while they should keep scaling up humanitarian relief, they should take direct budget support off the table for now lest they wind up bankrolling a revived federal war effort. Further, donors risk undermining a key incentive for Abiy to make peace should they continue to ramp up major development assistance even as war resumes.External players, including the AU, should also insist with as much unity as possible that Eritrea withdraw its troops from Tigray (and that Abiy press for this result) and that the federal government honour its representatives' private pledges at the U.S.-facilitated June meeting in Djibouti with Tigray officials to restore banking, telecommunications and electricity services to the beleaguered region.  
      Mekelle should agree to hold the necessary discussions with the federal authorities on the logistical and security aspects of restoring services to Tigray.Outside actors should lean on Tigray as well. They should keep demanding that its leaders desist from steps that would further escalate the fighting and agree to a truce. Mekelle should agree to hold the necessary discussions with the federal authorities on the logistical and security aspects of restoring services to Tigray, such as how to manage payments and provide security for installation and maintenance technicians. Diplomats also need to mediate a dispute between Tigray's government and the World Food Programme after the former grabbed twelve WFP tankers on 25 August, saying the UN agency refused to return in kind fuel it was owed. Tigray's seizure of the WFP fuel trucks creates a further constraint on already woefully insufficient humanitarian operations that have left at least half of Tigray's approximately seven million people in need of support.Unless the incident is remedied, federal authorities are likely to use it as a reason to restrict, or completely close off, the region's fuel supply, arguing that Tigray's authorities redirect humanitarian assistance to their military operation.       If the parties can be persuaded to de-escalate and restore the truce, the next step is clearing still substantial hurdles to formal talks. At the end of August, a senior Tigray commander insisted to Crisis Group that the federal government must at least publicly commit to completely lifting the blockade and restoring services before any form of discussions can occur. For its part, Addis Ababa's latest position on the issue was that those things would happen only alongside discussions over a permanent ceasefire. An Ethiopian diplomat told Crisis Group on 31 August that it was not practical to restore services with the TPLF still armed and prepared for war.  
     Much as African and international players should continue to insist that Ethiopia restore services, Tigray's leaders should also weigh whether their demands for the government to fulfil what they cast as its legal obligations in advance of talks are well advised, particularly if they help prolong an intolerable, immiserating status quo. There are alternatives that could allow Mekelle to maintain a position of principle while making practical progress toward peace. For example, Tigray's representatives could attend formal talks but limit their discussions to the logistical and security issues of reconnecting Tigray to trade, aid and services, leaving formal talks on other issues until the government has lifted the siege. In such a scenario, the formality of the process and extra international scrutiny could help increase external pressure on the federal government to honour its pledge to restore services and end its punishment of Tigray's civilian population, even if international actors' pleas to this effect have long gone unheeded.
    Another hugely difficult issue that will likely need to be finessed until talks get off the ground is the status of Western Tigray. The area has been administered by Tigray throughout the current federal era that began in the early 1990s, but is also claimed by the Amhara, which seized it when the present conflict began, citing their longstanding stance that the TPLF forcibly took it, displacing the native population when the Tigrayan party rose to power in the 1990s. The 2020 Amhara takeover involved the violent expulsion of hundreds of thousands of Tigrayans and widely reported atrocities by Amhara forces and militia against civilians. Tigray's leaders face substantial pressure from Tigrayans not to make concessions that legitimise these new facts on the ground and have refused to negotiate over the area's constitutional status. Reclaiming the area would also allow the besieged region a corridor to resupply itself through Sudan. Finding common ground with respect to Western Tigray will be no small task, as the sides remain far apart. Amhara outright rejects Tigray's demand that it withdraw and return the territory to its pre-war status, and Addis Ababa has thus far declined to force the issue. Abiy may well have assessed that favouring Tigray in this instance would be too costly for him in Amhara, which has been a core pillar of his political and wartime coalition. In recent months, in order to assert control, the federal and Amhara governments have arrested thousands of members of Amhara's nationalist militia, known as Fano, causing opposition to Abiy to grow in Ethiopia's second-largest region. Abiy can ill afford to lose more Amhara support given the host of other problems his government is facing, including the growing rebellion in Ethiopia's most populous region, Oromia, which is nominally Abiy's base. Furthermore, the prospect of Tigray gaining the capacity to resupply itself from Sudan via Western Tigray is unacceptable both to Abiy and Isaias. The federal government could publicly acknowledge that Amhara's violent take-over [of Western Tigray] was unconstitutional.
     Rather than let the intractable Western Tigray issue continue to be an obstacle to de-escalation and peace talks, the parties should get around the table and discuss disagreements there. To help matters along, the federal government could publicly acknowledge that Amhara's violent takeover was unconstitutional, and call for Amhara and Eritrean forces to leave the area so recently displaced residents can return. These steps could open the door to Tigray representatives attending the talks, although it would also require Mekelle to implicitly accept the need for a political process on Western Tigray and, during that process, federal control of the area if and when the other forces leave. Tigrayan and federal commitments to a future political process to assess the various claims might help ease Amhara concerns. Long-term solutions that might emerge from those discussions include Amhara and Tigray agreeing to jointly administer the area, ensuring minority rights protections or creating an autonomous district accountable directly to the federal government. Last is the question of mediation. To ease Tigrayan concerns about AU mediation, the AU could create a panel of senior African officials to lead the process, which in addition to Obasanjo could include representatives from the Kenyan, South African and/or Algerian governments. Should talks progress to permanent ceasefire arrangements, Western partners, particularly the U.S. and EU, would likely need to act as guarantors of any agreement. The UN would probably be best positioned to monitor it, though reaching agreement to such an arrangement in Addis Ababa and New York will not be easy. In any event, more coordinated efforts from all the major outside actors will be necessary to hold the parties to their commitments and to get talks under way. Such a boosted approach will also be required in the future to deal with sticky Western Tigray discussions, as well as all aspects of re-establishing relations between the federal and Tigray governments, including Mekelle's demand for a self-determination referendum and the future status of Tigray's forces. To alter the current trajectory, high-level visits to Addis and Mekelle by the U.S. and other international officials may be useful; ideally, these would be coordinated for maximum effect (as indeed happened with the joint visit to Mekelle by the U.S., EU and UN special envoys in early August, even though that proved insufficient to curb the renewed fighting). To further raise awareness of the gravity of the situation, African leaders might convene a meeting on Ethiopia's crisis at the forthcoming UN General Assembly. While focused international attention is vital to prevent more carnage, the onus for preventing more senseless death and suffering in Ethiopia rests on Ethiopian leaders on both sides of the conflict, as well as Eritrea's government. If the parties do not find a way to address their differences around the negotiating table, then the brutal war will continue, with Ethiopia's people paying the price of their failure."
       Abdi Latif Dahir, " Ethiopian Government and Tigray Rebels Set to Begin Peace Talks: Delegations from both sides have traveled to South Africa for the first formal negotiations since the civil war erupted nearly two years ago," The New York Times, October 24, 2022,, reported, " Representatives of the Ethiopian government and rebel forces in the country's Tigray region arrived in South Africa on Monday for their first formal peace talks, a much-anticipated effort to resolve the almost two-year civil war that has ravaged Africa's second-most-populous nation.  
     The mediation, led by the African Union, has new urgency because the conflict in Tigray has intensified, raising fears that the humanitarian crisis and widespread atrocities that have left thousands dead, millions displaced and hundreds of thousands hungry will only get worse."
    " Two days of inter-ethnic fighting in Sudan killed at least 220 people in the most intense tribal clashes in recent years. The Hausa Nation in Sudan and the Berta Nation became caught up in a land dispute ("At least 220 dead in two days of fighting," San Francisco Chronicle, October 25, 2022).
     The African Court of Human and People's Rights awarded $488,000 in reparations to be paid by the government of Kenya to the Ogiek People of Kenya, in Juy2022, as a follow up to a 2017 decision holding the Kenyan government had violated the Ogiek People's rights("Kenya: Historic Reparations Ruling for Ogiak Peoples," Cultural Survival Quarterly, September, 2022).
    "New Laws of the Land : Sierra Leone Reshapes Environmental Battleground: The West African nation will let communities veto mining, farming and industrial projects. Activists say the legislation is a progressive landmark. At least one investor calls it unworkable," The New York Times, August 9, 2022,, " Under new laws passed this week, companies operating in Sierra Leone will have to obtain the express consent of local communities before starting mining, industrial or farming activities. Residents owning land will be able to veto any project affecting it. And the government will have to help pay for any legal fees that the local communities incur in negotiations &emdash;; meaning it will most likely finance legal expertise used against the companies."
  Fiore Longo, "The Maasai Are Under Attack in the Name of Conservation: 'This Is Our Land, and We Won't Leave:' The government has been trying to seize 1500 km2 of their ancestral lands for years, wanting to use it for trophy hunting, elite tourism, and conservation," Common Dreams, August 3, 2022,,  reported, " 'Loliondo is bleeding': an SMS message woke me up in the morning of 10th of June. Dozens of terrifying images of Maasai men and women, with wounds on their legs, on their backs, on their heads, started filling my phone. A lot of blood. And then videos of Maasai running away from the Tanzanian police who were shooting at them . They looked like war images. I, like so many other people in the Global North, was shocked. How could the peaceful images of zebras, giraffes and lions that the Serengeti ecosystem conjures up in Western minds be transformed into this theatre of brutal violence?      We can no longer turn a blind eye to human rights abuses committed in the name of conservation.  
     The Maasai, on the other hand, have always known it's war. They've explained to me: "Your conservation areas are a warzone for us." They've been expecting this moment for a long time. The government has been trying to seize 1500 km2 of their ancestral lands for years, wanting to use it for trophy hunting, elite tourism, and conservation. Behind these attempts there has always been the United Arab Emirates (UAE)-based Otterlo Business Company (OBC)&emdash;;which runs hunting excursions for the country's royal family and their guests&emdash;;and who will reportedly control commercial hunting in the area.      But UAE royalty are not the only ones interested in the area surrounding the famous Serengeti national park, which the Maasai were evicted from once before, by British colonialists in 1959. Conservationists working in Tanzania, like the German-based Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS), advocate a racist and colonial Fortress model of conservation. FZS refers to the local population and their cattle as one of the key threats to the survival of the ecosystem, thus promoting the myth of a "wilderness" without people, which has been the underlying philosophy behind the Maasai evictions from the start.     Just as dangerous to the Maasai are the tourists, who are fed a diet of images, pushed by the media, documentaries, and schoolbooks that sell the idea of '     nature without 'people,' and who expect to find only 'wild' animals on their safaris. Indeed, the Maasai have to confront not only the wilderness myth, but also deeply-entrenched racism. In April a famous US journalist, CBS News' Peter Greenberg, called the Maasai "primitive" while strolling with the President of Tanzania, in Tanzania: the Royal Tour, his long-running television series where sitting heads of state become his personal tour guides to their countries. As a Maasai man put it: 'The Tanzania government doesn't want the Maasai because people coming here don't want to see the Maasai. Before, we didn't think too much (or too badly) about tourism but now we understand that tourism is people coming with money, which makes the government think 'If we move the Maasai, more people will come here with money'.'          In the context of continuous attacks on the Maasai's way of life, at the start of June the Tanzanian government announced their plan to 'upgrade' Loliondo Game Controlled Area to a Game Reserve: which in practice means that Maasai houses and grazing will be banned. On June 8 dozens of police vehicles and an estimated 700 officers arrived in Loliondo to mark out this new area. On June 10 they fired at Maasai who were protesting at these efforts to evict them: at least 18 men and 13 women were shot, and many more were wounded with machetes. One person is confirmed dead. In the days that followed the police went house-to-house in Maasai villages, beating and arresting those they believe had distributed images of the violence, or took part in the protests. A 90 year old man was beaten by police because his son was accused of filming the shooting. Thousands of Maasai including children, are reported to have fled into the bush. A dozen people have been arrested. For many of you it will seem absurd that such a well-known Indigenous community is facing such brutal violence in the name of conservation. The Maasai are a pastoralist society, with a strong connection to the land. A Maasai elder told me: 'I love this place and I'm not ready to leave because it's my home. I have been here since they moved us from Serengeti. It's very good land with enough water. It's the only place that I'm proud to tell my kids: this is your heritage'.    But for those who know the story of conservation this is not really a surprise. The brutality in Loliondo reveals the true face of conservation: daily violations of the human rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities so that wealthy tourists can hunt or go on "safari' in so called "Protected Areas.' These abuses are systemic and are built into the dominant racist and colonial model of conservation &emdash;; a model that also exists in India. In the exact same way that the Tanzanian government is forcing the Maasai out of their homes, the Indian government is illegally evicting Adivasis ('tribal peoples') from the land where they have always lived and that they have always protected, to make way for Tiger Reserves where tourists are welcome. And this is despite the fact that Indian law specifically protects Adivasis' right to remain on their ancestral homelands. Indigenous people, like the Jenu Kuruba or the Baiga, are accused of harming wildlife. But, far from killing tigers, many tribes worship them as gods and take care of their environment better than anyone else. Where tribal people's right to stay in a tiger reserve was recognized, tiger numbers soared.  
    The events in Loliondo should be a lesson for us all. Indigenous Peoples have been living in the most biodiverse places in the world for generations: these territories are now deemed to be important nature conservation areas precisely because the original inhabitants took such good care of their land and wildlife. We can no longer turn a blind eye to human rights abuses committed in the name of conservation. This model of conservation is deeply inhumane and ineffective and must be changed now. Protected Areas are failing to save biodiversity and are alienating the local people &emdash;; those best placed to protect their lands. As a Maasai leader told me: 'Without us the animals will be killed. We are the real conservationists. This is our land, and we won't leave.'      Our work is licensed under Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)."

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) passed and put into effect a law on the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of the Pygmy Peoples, including land rights, in November 2022 ("DRC: Indigenous Peoples Formally Recognized Cultural Survival Quarterly, December, 2022).
Blow for Bushman burial case in Botswana's appeal court," Survival International, December 15, 2022,, reported, " Botswana's Appeal Court has denied a Bushman family the right to bury their elder, Pitseng Gaoberekwe, on his ancestral land in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve ( CKGR ).     The ruling has been condemned by his family who said: 'The government has denied us the right of access to our ancestral land. Who is it to deny us that right? Who are the courts here in Botswana to deny us this right? Our rights are inherent. They cannot be taken away neither by the courts, the government or anybody else. We were there before the creation of the game reserveÉ therefore this land cannot be left to vultures spreading around trying to scavenge on our land. Our land is precious, full of natural resources and animals, and we will not give it easily to this oppressive government.'       Survival believes this manifestly unjust and inhumane judgment appears to be politically influenced and to reflect a renewed round of persecution of and discrimination against Bushmen by the government.
     Pitseng become ill in 2014. He was persuaded to leave his community in the CKGR to access medical treatment, and be near his children who live in one of the sites to which many of the CKGR Bushmen were evicted in 2002. He died there on 21 December 2021.     Local authorities and the Director of the Department of Wildlife refused to allow his family to transport the body from the morgue to the reserve, leaving the family with no option but to go to court to resolve the issue.
    According to Bushman customary law, it is vital to bury the dead near their ancestors. Legal experts say the Director of Wildlife has no powers to override customary law and therefore no power to determine who is buried in the CKGR , or to refuse a permit for the purpose of a burial. It appears the Director exceeded his powers to further government policy aimed at restricting Bushmen access to the reserve. 
    Born in the CKGR in the 1940s, Pitseng spent virtually his whole life there until he became ill in 2014. He never forfeited his right to live on his ancestral land and refused to leave in the 1997 and 2002 evictions.  
    On his death bed he made clear to his family that he wished to be buried on the land of his ancestors in the CKGR, in accordance with custom.
     He was a hunter, and endured assault, detention and even a year's imprisonment in 1994 after being arrested by wildlife scouts for hunting. Despite this relentless persecution he refused to stop hunting.      Pitseng was an applicant in the landmark 2002-2006 High Court case, when judges ruled the Bushmen had been illegally and unconstitutionally evicted from their land in the CKGR .A report published by the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination this month raises considerable concerns at Botswana's treatment of the CKGR Bushmen. It stated that: 'the restrictive execution of the High Court's decision and particularly the removal of the children from the Park at the age of 18 would aim for there to be no more inhabitants after the death of the Elders'.  
    The Committee urged Botswana "to fully implement the High Court's decision by allowing all ethnic groups originating from this reserve to return and settle there unconditionally. É and 'to provide them with effective access to basic social services and enable them to resume their traditional activities without hindrance'".
       Nick Cumming-Bruce and Austin Ramzy, "U.N. Says China May Have Committed "Crimes Against Humanity' in Xinjiang: The organization's human rights office delivered its much-delayed report minutes before Michelle Bachelet, the U.N. high commissioner for human rights, was to leave office," The New York Times, August 31, 2022,, reported,  "In a long-awaited report released on Wednesday, the United Nations' human rights office accused China of serious human rights violations that 'may constitute international crimes, in particular crimes against humanity,' in its mass detention of Uyghurs and other predominantly Muslim groups in its far western region of Xinjiang."
  Shilpa Jamkhandikar  and Nigam Prusty, "India elects first president from tribal community," Reuters, July 21,, reported, " Lawmakers chose India's first president from the country's tribal communities on Thursday, which could boost the appeal of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's party among marginalised groups ahead of the 2024 general election.
     Droupadi Murmu, a 64-year-old teacher turned politician [from the Santhel Tribe], will be the second woman to hold the largely ceremonial role as head of the republic when she takes office on July 25 at the start of a five-year term."
  Dev Kumar Sunuwar (Ko)ts-Sunuwar, CS Staff),
"Multipurpose Development Projects Threaten to Submerge Majhi Indigenous Peoples in Nepal," Cultural Survival, October 19, 2022,, reported, " Despite ongoing protests by Majhi Indigenous Peoples living alongside the Sunkoshi and Tamakoshi Rivers in eastern Nepal, the government of Nepal launched the Sunkoshi-Marine Diversion Multipurpose Project, one of the most debated developments in the country. Majhi Indigenous Peoples are demanding a halt to the project as it will result in the displacement of a large number of Majhi Indigenous Peoples and other local communities. Their lands and territories will be submerged, impacting their identity and spiritual and cultural heritage.
      The banks of the Sunkoshi and Tamakoshi Rivers are the ancestral land and territories of Majhi Indigenous Peoples, who for generations have made a living by fishing, boating, and agriculture. According to Majhi Indigenous communities, the development project was initiated without consultation. No public hearings were conducted nor any information provided about compensation or the impact and benefits incurred by the project. The government has not yet made the Environment Impact Assessment publicly available in the language they speak and understand.
      On October 14, 2022, Pampha Bhusal, Minister for Energy, Water Resources, and Irrigation, greenlighted the tunneling work. With a deadline to complete the project within 24 months, the government has given a contract to a Chinese company, China Overseas Construction Company Limited, which plans to complete the 13.3 ki13.3-kilometer. The government also has a plan to build a 12-meter-high diversion intake dam in Sunkoshi River at Khurkot, the border of Ramechhap and Sindhuli districts, to collect water flowing from Tamakoshi and Sunkoshi Rivers.
     The dam will divert water through the tunnel from Sunkoshi River to Marinkhola, a tributary of Bagmati River, in Sindhuli district to irrigate 1,220 square kilometers of land in five districts in southern Nepal (Bara, Rautahat, Sarlahi, Mahottari, and Dhanusha), and also generate 28.62 megawatts of electricity at Kusumtar, Kamalamai municipality in Udayapur district. The government has allocated 37.2 billion rupees ($280 million USD) for irrigation and 46.19 billion rupees ($350 million USD) for hydroelectricity
     'The Sunkoshi-Marine Diversion Multipurpose Project will submerge about six villages along the  Tamakoshi and Sunkoshi river banks. Ninety percent of the households and fertile land, [along with] sacred sites, belong to Majhi Indigenous communities,' says Rita Majhi, Chairperson of Nepal Majhi Women's Association. 'Once we are displaced from our ancestral land and territories,' she warns, we lose our collective lifestyle, our rituals. We lose our traditional occupations of fishing and boating, which eventually affects the passing on of our knowledge and rituals relating to rivers. Moreover, we need fish, which are caught from nets and hooks from rivers. They will be detached from the fishing occupation. The dam also will submerge all the herbs that Majhi communities use for treating illness. It is only Majhi [that those] who are living along and around the river  banks of Tamakoshi and Sunkoshi speak; if they are settled in other places, they will eventually lose their language as well.'
      According to Majhi, even if the government provides compensation to the small percentage who hold titles to their land, the challenge for Majhi Indigenous communities is that the majority of affected Majhi do not have land in their names, despite farming it for generations. When land registration was introduced by the government, many did not know about the provision of registration. Only a few registered land in their name, so the majority of Majhi have received any compensation. One of their primary demands is to get compensation for the land that they have been using for centuries even without registration as per international law.
      Majhi are one of the 59 Indigenous Peoples categorized as one of the highly marginalized Indigenous nationalities residing alongside the banks of the rivers and streams, traditionally Majhi's livelihood and customary ways of life revolve around the local rivers. Subsistence farming, fishing, boat making and, helping people to cross rivers in their ferries constitute their traditional occupation while Majhi women earn income by making Marcha (yeast cakes used to make beer) and local liquor. Their social and cultural values are systematically managed by their customary institution called Majhesewa According to the 2011 Census, the population of Majhi is 83,727, spread across 58 districts, living mainly along the banks of the Indrawati, Sunkoshi, Tamakoshi, Likhu (Barun), Dudhkoshi, Arun, and Tamor rivers, as well as the Bagmati, Marinekhola, and Triyuga rivers in Udayapur district. Due to development projects such as hydropower and bridges, their boating occupation has almost gone extinct.      Rajgaou, a settlement on the Sunkoshi River in Khadadevi Rural Municipality 4, is the historical and ancestral territory of Majhi Indigenous nationalities. The village is so named because it was once ruled by a raja (king) named Madare, and bricks are found there that are said to be that of the palace. Their main festivals involve the worshiping of water, which is called Ladi Puja, or Koshi Puja, and the worshiping of Ghat (riverside graves), called Ghat Puja. Water resources and fish are necessary for each of their cultural rituals, from cradle to grave. However, Majhi community members say that the government has not considered whether the dam will affect their festivals and cultural practices of cremating the bodies of their dead. 
    In addition to the Marine Diversion project, the government has a plan to build three additional hydropower projects alongside the Sunkoshi River: Sunkoshi-1, Sunkoshi-2, and Sunkoshi-3, including the construction of a 168-meter-high dam. These Projects are likely to cause flooding up to at least 53 kilometers from the dam covering an area of 45 square kilometers, submerging the majority of settlements along the banks of Sunkoshi and Tamakoshi rivers and displacing around 6,000 households. In total, the project could impact 400,000 people.
      Free, Prior and Informed Consent is one of the international legal principles that guarantees the Majhis' right to participation. It is protected under ILO Convention 169, as well as the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People, which Nepal also voted in favor of at the UN General Assembly. In regards to the Sunkoshi Marine Diversion project, however, the government did not seek the Mahjis' Free, Prior and Informed Consent or carry out any consultation with affected communities. Rather, the government violated their right to own, use, and develop their ancestral lands, territories, and resources, and deprived them of being able to fully enjoy their economic, social, and cultural rights before launching any development project.
      'A machine would fly above our settlement; we then came to know that it was a drone. NGOs in Kathmandu, including the Nepal Majhi Uplift Association and  the Nepal Majhi Women's Association came to us and organized interactions. Only then did we come to know it was for the projects,' says Urba Majhi, a representative of the affected communities. He adds, 'When development comes, yes, villagers need to be happy, but the government should also know that villagers will be happy. Majhi, for generations, have been living alongside the river. We have been living innately with rivers, adapting with water in the rivers. If we are settled on a hill or a mountain, we can't maintain our lifestyles, our culture. We are not against development. But we don't want to live miserably, feeling sad and suffering.' 
    Majhi continued: 'We Majhi Indigenous Peoples will be losing our land and belongings. The government should not merely ensure our housing, food, and clothing, but also should also guarantee our rituals and culture. We need land and water in replacement of [what we will lose]. And we need employment skills. How else can our families survive?' Time and again, the government has deployed security forces, including the military, to carry out a number of hydro projects that have directly or indirectly targeted Indigenous Peoples in Nepal. Using the principle of eminent domain (the right of a government to seize private property for public use in exchange for payment of fair market value), the government has been preventing Indigenous Peoples from getting due justice. The government's latest violation of the rights of Majhi Indigenous Peoples via the  Sunkoshi Marine Diversion project is neither new nor surprising.  According to the 1977 Land Acquisition Act, the government can acquire privately held land for public works if compensation is offered for the losses incurred. Majhi Indigenous Peoples know that. They just want transparent dealings that are beneficial to both parties involved. 'As it is a national pride project owned by the government, it will happen at any cost. We are not against development or government projects. Our demand to the government is to not displace us. We are not informed about the effects or benefits of the project,' says Brihaspati Majhi, Coordinator of the Sunkoshi Marine Diversion Project Affected Committee. 'We are not against the project or development," Majhi emphasizes. "We are ready to give our land, but the government needs to compensate us with the same amount of land in replacement.'      The Affected Committee submitted a 13-point list of demands with signatures of more than 300 affected persons from 6 villages that lie within the flooding areas to the Ramechhap District administration office. They also traveled to Kathmandu and personally delivered it to the Ministry of Energy, Water Resources and Irrigation and the office of the Prime Minister. In their demands, they have asked the government to make the Environmental Impact Assessment report available in the Majhi Kura language, which is the mother tongue of the Majhi. They also demand to be meaningfully consulted and have their Free, Prior and Informed Consent obtained on the decision of the project impacting them.
    The Mahji further demand a redo of a field survey with the participation of affected community members; determination of fair compensation of the properties and land through meaningful representation in the compensation committee; community employment in the project based on skills and capacities developed via free training; free electricity generated from the project; the use of a significant percentage of the revenue generated from the project for the benefit of the affected Majhi and other local communities; and the ensuring of their rights throughout the course of the project's implementation in accordance with ILO Convention 169, the UN Declaration, and other pertinent international laws.  
     As a 2021 Keepers of Earth Fund grant partner, the Nepal Majhi Women's Association conducted advocacy and awareness-raising activities at the local level and with related stakeholders up to the national level to claim their land rights, which are threatened by Sunkoshi Marine Diversion. 'We conducted a series of protests and demonstrations against the government. We have struggled for a long time, but as yet have gotten nothing," says Nabaraj Majhi, a member of the Affected Committee. But, he adds, "We still have hope that government officials will respect our rights to live with dignity in our ancestral land and territories, and also respect our right to information, Free, Prior and Informed Consent, and consultation. We have hope that the government will not deprive us from our traditionally owned land, territories, and resources.'
      This article was produced from conversations with impacted Majhi Indigenous community members conducted by a team of Cultural Survival staff members, Shaldon Ferris, Bia'ni Madsa', and Dev Kumar Sunuwar, who jointly conducted a community visit in Nepal September 15-28, 2022."
     Gerald Flynn and Vutha Srey, "Fisheries crackdown pushes Cambodians to the brink on Tonle Sap lake, Mongabay, August 26, 2022,, reported, " A ban on illegal fishing in Tonle Sap, Cambodia's largest lake, is hitting local communities hard &emdash;; even those engaged in legal fishing. "By continuing to fish, we are forced into hiding, we are forced into crime,' one fisher told Mongabay, describing a climate of fear amid a heavy law enforcement presence. Another says the crackdown is being prosecuted with impunity: officers "will confiscate anything from anyone and then say "It's illegal'' in an alleged ploy to solicit a bribe. This story was supported by the Pulitzer Center's Rainforest Investigations Network where Gerald Flynn is a fellow."From her sun-bleached wooden houseboat in the floating village of Koh Tapov, on the southeastern side of the Tonle Sap lake in Kampong Thom province, Hai Sokha and her family looked out at the quiet waters one morning in late June. For more than three months, the family of fishers had not dared go out on the water.In April, they'd fallen foul of a renewed crackdown meant to stamp out illegal fishing on Cambodia's largest lake, and only by paying a fine [or bribe] the equivalent of $250 had one of Sokha's family members avoided prison [for fishing legally]."
"New Report Highlights Threats to Rohingya Language, Culture, and Identity in Myanmar and Bangladesh ," Cultural Survival, December 5, 2022,, reported, " The Rohingya Language Preservation Project is a Rohingya youth-led research initiative based in the refugee camps in Co's Bazar, Bangladesh. They seek to preserve the Rohingya language and culture in the refugee camps and beyond. They believe in creating grassroots change through community-led projects that strengthen the capacity and leadership of Rohingya youth in the community. They collaborate and engage with leaders, individuals and groups within the Rohingya society that rebuild and empower the community.     Their recent report provides findings on the critical and central role that the Rohingya language plays in Rohingya cultural identity and how the Rohingya identity is at risk due to the disappearance of the Rohingya language.  
     Some of the recommendations to the Rohingya Community in Bangladesh include: Speak Rohingya language when you talk to your friends, relatives and other members in the community.
    Practice Rohingya when you talk to your children and other family members at home. Discuss the importance of Rohingya language preservation with others in your community.
     Teach Rohingya to your children at mosques, madrassas and other learning centres.  
    Encourage your friends and colleagues to speak Rohingya in the refugee camps and beyond. Participate in projects that preserve the Rohingya language and culture as a means of protecting Rohingya identity. 
    To read the full report, go here:"
The government of the Malaysian Borneo state of Sarawak revoked the permit for a palm oil plantation that threatened Indigenous lands ("Malaysia: Oil Palm Concession Revoked Near Gunung Mulu National Park " Cultural Survival Quarterly, December, 2022).
     Yan Zhuang, "This Country's Top Judges Were All Foreigners. Now They're Gone: The president's suspension of five jurists in the Pacific nation of Kiribati highlights the outsize role noncitizen judges play in the region," The New York Times, November 26, 2022,, reported that numerous small Pacific Island Nations have had many of their judges come from other countries, particularly at the higher levels. The main reason has been a belief that the country lacked sufficient qualified people, and secondarily that outsiders might be more impartial. But the judges from abroad, mostly from Australia and New Zealand, with a few from Great Britain, do not have good understandings of local traditional law, which the nations  increasingly value. "In some of the larger Pacific island nations, like Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and Samoa, an ever-growing number of local judges are being appointed. But in smaller nations like Kiribati, Tuvalu and Nauru, courts &emdash;; particularly at the higher level &emdash;; are still primarily staffed by foreign judges."
    "In recent years, Samoa, for example, has enacted sometimes contentious constitutional changes ( to "put more Indigenous customary Samoan values into the Constitution to balance what they saw as a kind of Western influence,'É"       In Kiribati, which previously had had its chief justices from abroad, in November 2022 the President fired the Chief foreign justice, along with four other foreign judges, replaced her with a citizen, Tetiro Semilota, the attorney general, as acting chief justice. Many applauded the move as historic. But for others, the action was questionable as the chief justice had ruled against the government on several occasions, and there were suspicions that the removal was more about the President not liking being ruled against than moving to Indigenize the courts and the law.

     New Zealand: Kelvin McDonald, "Weeping with joy': Mori and Moriori ancestral remains welcomed home from Austria," Te Ao Maori News, October 2, 2022,, reported, " The ancestral remains of more than sixty Mori and Moriori tkpuna have been welcomed home at a repatriation pMwhiri at Te Papa on Sunday.The first repatriation to Aotearoa from the Natural History Museum, Vienna - and the biggest from Austria - includes a group of Mori and Moriori ancestors that represent the remains of approximately 64 individuals, Te Papa said in a statement.Records indicate that 49 of the tkpuna were taken by notorious Austrian grave-robber Andreas Reischek, who spent 12 years in Aotearoa from 1877 to 1889."
    "Budget funds first Indigenous birth centre: Labor's Linda Burney says the funding commitment shows the government backs Aboriginal governance," SBS News, October 27, 2022,, reported, " Australia's first dedicated Indigenous birth centre will be built on the NSW South Coast after $22.5 million was secured for the landmark project in the federal budget.      Maternal deaths of Indigenous women are 4.6 times higher, perinatal deaths 1.7 times higher and preterm births 1.6 times higher, compared with non-Indigenous women."
       Yan Zhuang, "Referendum Seeks to Mend the Open Wound at Australia's Heart: The new prime minister is seeking support for an Aboriginal Voice to Parliament, even enlisting the backing of Shaquille O'Neal. Here's what it would entail, and why it faces an uncertain path," The New York Times, August 28, 2022,, reported, "The brutal colonization that followed [Capt. James Cook sailing to Australia in 1768] has set the tone for how Aboriginal people have been treated throughout the nation's history. To this day, a treaty has never been signed with Aboriginal people, and they are not recognized in the Australian Constitution.      Now, a newly elected Labor government has started the process of repairing the open wound at the heart of the nation. Last month, Prime Minister Anthony Albanese kick-started the process of holding a referendum to enshrine in the Constitution a body to advise the government on Indigenous issues, to be known as the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Voice."
     Callan Morse, "Indigenous advocate Natalie Brown appointed chair of key oversight committee," National Indigenous Times, December 9, 2022,, reported, " Gamilaraay woman Natalie Brown has been appointed the new Chair of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) government's Our Booris, Our Way Implementation Oversight Committee."
     The Committee is continuing its work, begun in 2017, to address the overrepresentation of Aboriginal families in statutory out of home care.
Brown said she will continue seeking the reforms already recommended by the committee, as well as developing new ones as the committee's oversight activity unfolds.

     Emily Maguire, "The deaths of Aboriginal women must spark outrage &emdash;; and change," The Guardian, August 4, 2022,, stated that mainstream media coverage was minimal of the violent deaths three people, including an Aboriginal woman and her baby. "The lack of coverage and community outrage about violence against Aboriginal women in Australia speaks shameful volumes about our culture."       "Aboriginal women are not afforded the respect that many other victims of violence rightly receive."
        To meet the huge Aboriginal homelessness crisis in Western Australia, caused by forced displacement from traditional lands, Noongar Mia Mia, Perth's sole Aboriginal Housing Provider has been taking an Indigenous approach to tenancy. "The Noongar Housing First Principles are as follows:1. Noongar people and their families have a right to a home with cultural connections to boodjar, moort, and Kaartdijin.2. Support is flexible, culturally appropriate, and available whenever it is needed.3. Choice and self-determination with no cultural compromise.4. Culturally appropriate active engagement through kwop daa (honest talk).5. Support focuses on strengthening wirrin (spirit).6. Social, cultural, and community inclusion.While these Principles are grounded in the international Housing First model, they reflect what matters to our people and the values of our culture. They also highlight the need for the housing sector to take an approach of doyntj-doyntj koorliny (going together with us) and working from the koort (heart), instead of imposing mainstream constructs. They recognize the centrality of community and culture to our well being and the need to strengthen our wirrin towards healing. The mainstream housing sector has failed Aboriginal people in Perth, but by putting these principles into practice, we can work together to build a brighter future. As summarized best by respected Noongar community leader Carol Innes: "Housing is a human rights and social justice issue. How are we going to grow and nurture young people without having a home? We can't wait another 50 years. We need to see this shift and chaneg'" (Tina Pickett and Lara Silbert, "Noongar Housing First: A Cultural Approach to Housing and Homelessness." Cultural Survival Quarterly, September 2022, Noongar Housing First: A Cultural Approach to Housing and Homelessness | Cultural Survival)'

     Australia Aboriginal peoples held their first Master Apprentice Language Revival Conference, in August 2022 t o assist the participants in preserving the 35 endangered languages in the country (Vanessa Farrelly, "Until Our Hearts Are Filled with Our Languages Once More" Cultural Survival Quarterly, December, 2022).
  Emma Ruben, "The First Nations women working to establish a national database of Traditional Place Names, National Indigenous Times ( NIT), December 2, 2022, reported, "Rachel McPhail is championing a Traditional Place Names database. Photo: Sarah Jane.
    In 2020 Gomeroi woman and social worker Rachael McPhail petitioned Australia Post to include Traditional Place Names on mailing addresses and achieved success, with Aus Post marking NAIDOC Week that year by updating their guidelines to include Traditional names.     Now Ms McPhail, along with Gunai poet Kirli Saunders, Wuthathi and Meriam woman Tamina Pitt and activist Kaz McGrath, are working to establish a national database of First Nations Place Names.

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